Introduction to Aquaculture

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1 Southern Illinois University Carbondale Introduction to Aquaculture Jesse Trushenski, Ph.D. Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center

2 Brief history of aquaculture Egyptian tombs have engravings of fish being removed from ponds 2500 BC Carp were farmed in China as early as 2500 BC First book on fish farming 475 BC, cultured carp in ponds Oyster and eel culture popular in ancient Rome and Gaul Carp culture introduced to England in 1500 AD First U.S. fish hatchery built in Oregon in 1877

3 Types of culture Food fish Bait and feeder fish Ornamentals Model organisms for research, teaching Sport fish (stock enhancement) Restoration/conservation aquaculture

4 MMT Aquaculture production has continually outstripped projections, and there is little reason to believe that it will not continue to do so. World Bank Aquaculture Fisheries FAO SOFIA Reports

5 As seafood demand continues to grow, increasing demand is being satisfied from aquaculture sources in both developed and developing countries. FAO 2008 FAO SOFIA Report 2008

6 aquaculture currently accounts for 43% of global fish production used for human consumption and is expected to grow and compensate for the predicted global shortage of supply from capture fisheries and the demands of society FAO 2008 FAO SOFIA 2008 Report

7 Today s reality Studies have predicted global collapse of fisheries by 2050 Pauly et al. 2003, Worm et al Population growth will continue to drive seafood consumption and the growth of aquaculture

8 Growth of aquaculture With a growth rate of 11% per year Aquaculture is on a pace to surpass beef production by 2010 Whereas 80% of beef production is in industrialized nations Aquaculture is growing 6X faster in developing countries than in developed countries

9 MMT The aquaculture sector in developing and developed countries has witnessed spectacular production increases over the past two decades; and there is nothing to suggest that this will change. Org. for Economic Cooperation & Development FAO SOFIA Report 2006

10 Millions employed in fisheries and aquaculture Total # of culturists increasing across the board Total # decreasing in developed countries, increasing in developing countries Culturists Fishers Africa North and Central America South America Asia Europe FAO SOFIA Report 2006

11 MT For some species (trout and carp in Europe), growth has virtually stopped. For others (tilapia and catfish), growth appears high and steady, while some species either have not yet taken off (cod) or seem about to take off (cobia). 30,000,000 -FAO ,000,000 20,000,000 Crustaceans Diadromous Fishes 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 Freshwater Fishes Marine Fishes Molluscs FAO FIGIS Statistics Database

12 Where aquaculture is new, growth can be rapid, particularly in developed economies particularly for species that are expensive, up-market and well known. FAO 2008 Volume Distribution Value Distribution Freshwater Fishes Molluscs Crustaceans Diadromous Fishes Marine Fishes

13 What will limit the growth of aquaculture? Market Constraints Fish meal and fish oil Siting and water use constraints Seedstock Energy/labor costs Social constraints Pollution regulation Siting and licensing Knowledge constraints Husbandry data gaps Lack of domestication/breeding programs Lack of on-farm expertise, training programs FAO SOFIA Report 2008

14 Mature aquaculture industries Trout Worldwide Sea Bream Europe Sea Bass Europe Tilapias Latin America Catfish USA Carps Asia Milkfish Southeast Asia Salmon Worldwide Eel Japan

15 Rainbow Trout Yellow Perch Nile Tilapia Channel Catfish Hybrid Striped Bass Minnows Atlantic Salmon Cobia Largemouth Bass

16 Rainbow Trout Yellow Perch 304,000 MT of food fish were raised in the U.S. in 2007 Nile Tilapia $672 million in food fish sales Hybrid Striped Bass $18 million in sport fish sales $38 million in bait fish sales Channel Catfish Atlantic Salmon U.S. aquaculture is a Largemouth Bass $1 billion industry Minnows Cobia NOAA 2009

17 Rainbow Trout Hybrid Striped Bass Bluegill Channel Catfish Chum Salmon Chinook Salmon Walleye American Shad Largemouth Bass

18 Rainbow Trout Hybrid Striped Bass Bluegill 12,931 MT coldwater sportfish 294 MT coolwater sportfish 1,012 MT warmwater sportfish 5,424 MT salmon and steelhead Channel Catfish 158 MT rare Chum or Salmon declining 198 MT forage Chinook Salmon Walleye ~1.75 billion fish stocked by federal American Shad & state Largemouth agencies Bass in 2004 Halverson 2008

19

20 U.S. is the world s largest importer of ornamental fish ~$278 million in global ornamental imports species and millions of specimens traded every year The global aquarium industry is valued over $1 billion Livengood and Chapman 2007

21 Species of interest in Illinois/Indiana Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis X. M. chrysops Yellow perch Perca flavescens Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Baitfish Notemigonus and Pimephales spp.

22 Pounds Total Illinois Aquaculture Production 100 K 75 K 50 K 25 K 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J ~344 K lbs ~528 K lbs ~479 K lbs ~259 K lbs

23 Pounds Illinois Hybrid Striped Bass Production 100 K 75 K 50 K 25 K 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J ~111 K lbs ~220 K lbs ~155 K lbs ~62 K lbs

24 Pounds Illinois Largemouth Bass Production 100 K 75 K 50 K 25 K 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J ~87 K lbs ~93 K lbs ~198 K lbs ~154 K lbs

25 Pounds Illinois Channel Catfish Production 100 K 75 K 50 K 25 K 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J ~125 K lbs ~151 K lbs ~56 K lbs ~5 K lbs

26 Pounds Illinois Tilapia Production 100 K 75 K 50 K 25 K 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J ~13 K lbs ~58 K lbs ~55 K lbs ~39 K lbs

27 Addressing the issues in aquaculture Integrated systems and efficient use of resources Site selection and habitat rehabilitation

28 Addressing the issues in aquaculture Integrated systems and waste recapture Greater production efficiency

29 Addressing the issues in aquaculture Use of wild fishes Antibiotic usage

30 A word on environmental requirements Health issues in fish are almost exclusively preceded by acute or chronic problems with husbandry or environmental conditions Handling or transport Water quality issues temperature, turbidity, etc. Water chemistry issues oxygen, ammonia/nitrite, etc. Poor nutrition The best veterinary medicine cannot take the place of proper culture conditions What defines proper culture conditions varies!

31 Nutritional Demands Omnivores Carnivores

32 A word on culture systems Common health issues, prevention and mitigation strategies will also vary by system

33 Questions?

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