CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

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1 18 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This method of research divided into two branches; they are object of research and method of research itself. A. Object of Research This sub chapter discussed two parts, they were location of research and population and sample. 1. Location of research The location of the research took place in the Sumberejo village, Mranggen-Demak. Sumberejo village consists of five rustics. They are; Karangasem, Dukoh, Puro, Dawung, and Sendang Delik. When Sumberejo is seen by geographical, Sumberejo is located in the end of south part of Mranggen. The south of Sumberejo is a hill. Sumberejo has wide of area 1.796,5 ha, it consists of ha for agricultural, 500 ha for living place, and 41,5 ha for inventory of village. Sumberejo people have activities as a farmer, seller, employer, businessman, teacher and others, but the majority of their job is a farmer. In addition, farmer is as particularly job of Sumberejo society, so that must be remembered is the resulting of farming. The majority of resulting of farming is corn, soybean, rice plant, and tobacco. Corn, soybean, and rice plant are planted in wet season and tobacco is planted in dry season.

2 19 Population of Sumberejo village is people, it consists of for men, for women, and for patriarchs. If it seen by education of inhabitants are follows: Education Population Illiteracy Not yet to school 573 No finished Elementary School 152 Graduated of Elementary School 975 Graduated of Junior High School Graduated of Senior High School Graduated of College 265 Facilities of infrastructure of Sumberejo Village in education sector are Sumberejo has 4 kindergarten buildings, 5 Elementary School buildings, 1 Mts building, and 1 MA building. In religion sector, Sumberejo has 5 mosques and 32 prayer houses. The road of Sumberejo village still uses sedimentary rock with length of road is around five km, and has fifteen concrete bridges. Sumberejo also has one local government clinic and one field of football. 2. Population and Sample Population is all of research object that consist of concrete or abstract things, events, or phenomenon that become data resources and has specific characteristic (Sukandarrumidi, 2004:47) According to Nawawi (1993) cited by Mutmainnah (2008:51), population can be divided into two parts, they are; homogenous population and

3 20 heterogeneous population. Homogenous population is the resources of data that its element has the same characteristics. Heterogeneous population is the resources of data that its element has variation characteristics. The heterogeneous population is a lot found in social research whose object is human or symptoms of the life of people. Population of this research is homogenous one. when the population is homogenous, so amount of taking sample does not become problem (Hadi Sutrisno, 2004:81). This research uses qualitative method. According to Bogdan and Taylor (1975:5) in Moleong (2002:3) states that qualitative method is procedure of research that resulted descriptive data which is in words or spoken and attitude that can be observed. Supporting the definition above, Kirk and Miller (1986:9) in Moleong (2002:3) also give statement about qualitative research. According to them, qualitative research is a tradition of social knowledge science that its basic based on observation of people in area itself and has relationship with the people with their language and term. Population of this research was all utterances spoken by speech community of Sumberejo people in family domain. To support this research, the researcher gave limitation for population of data, the limitation were: a. All utterances spoken by speech community of Sumberejo in family domain minimal for children of Elementary school. The researcher had an assumption that the children of Elementary School could speak at least two languages.

4 21 b. All utterances spoken by speech community of Sumberejo people in family domain except old people that have been loosing their memory to remember something. The researcher had an assumption that those people could not understand what code they use. Sample is part of population that has the same characteristic of research object (Sukandarrumidi, 2004:50). Technique of sampling is divided into two; random sampling and non-random sampling. Random sampling is how to take sample in population where each element has the same chance to become sample (Marzuki, 2002:43). Meanwhile non-random sampling is how to take sample where each element has not the same chance to become a sample of research (Maarzuki, 2002:45) Sample of this research used non-random sampling that was purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is sample that is chosen orderly and relevantly with research design ( Nasution, 2006:98). The researcher used this sample because researcher chooses sample based on data that have been known before. It means that choosing sample of data based on the purposes of the research. This research, the researcher took 98 data of population from all population. From the data of population that the researcher got, the researcher took 24 samples as the samples of this research. The researcher took the data of population in five rustics that was in Sumberejo village. Then the researcher chose the sample based on data that was suitable with purposes of this research. B. Method of Research

5 22 1. Method of Data Collection Method of data collection is an action of the researcher to get data needed in the research. Collecting of data is important of the research. It is because without data, the research will not ever happen. Collecting of data must be paid attention more to support the successful research. The researcher used metode simak in this research. Metode simak is method done by listening, it means that the researcher listen to language usage ( Sudaryanto, 1993:133). Metode Simak is usually called observation method. In metode simak of the research uses two continuance techniques; they are Simak Libat Cakap (SLC) and Simak Libat Bebas Cakap (SLBC). In Simak Libat Cakap technique, the researcher participates and listen the conversation. Besides the researcher pays attention about using language by respondent, the researcher also makes conversation towards respondent. In doing conversation toward respondent, the researcher can do it actively and receptively. In this technique, the researcher involved directly in conversation to get data. In Simak Libat Bebas Cakap, the researcher does not involve directly. The researcher just pays attention to get data. After using the techniques, the researcher used record technique to get data. The recording is run by recorder equipment. The process of recording is done together with process of SLC/SLBC. In process of recording, the researcher must be able to hide the recorder equipment that is for keeping the original of data. Besides using the record technique, the researcher also used the note

6 23 technique. Note technique was used to observe all anything done by respondents. With this technique, the researcher knew about context of the conversation. The researcher also used Metode Cakap. Metode Cakap is also called interview method. Metode Cakap is a method where the contact person happens directly between researcher as a researcher and speaker as a informant ( Sudaryanto, 1993:137). The researcher used Cakap Semuka (CS) technique to get data. In Cakap Semuka technique, the researcher gave question toward informants. The researcher might prepare the question for informant. The questions arranged must be suitabled with the data needed in the research. The researcher also used note technique to get data that have been explained before. 2. Method of Data Analysis At this step, the researcher made analysis of data. Data analysis is done when all data have completed. This research used contextual analysis method. Based on Rokhman in his dissertation (2003) in Mutmainah (2008:60) metode analisis kontekstual adalah cara analisis yang diterapkan pada data dengan mendasarkan, memperhitungkan, dan mengaitkan konteks. The researcher also used correlation method or metode padan. Correlation method is a method that describes object of research in relationship to context situation or context of cultural social (Arimi, 2006:7) The researcher took some steps to analysis of data. First step, the researcher did data reduction, it means that the researcher identified various of language code choice. Second step was making transcription the result of data

7 24 recording. Third step was making classification of data. Final step was making conclusion toward data analyzed. 3. Method of Data Presentation In this research, the researcher used informal presentation method (Sudaryanto, 1993:145). In this method, the researcher presented the result of data analysis by verbal description or explains by words. The researcher presented the result of data analysis based on the purposes of the research.

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