A Study of Restaurant Management Department Students Difficulties in Learning English Conversation and Their Solutions

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1 A Study of Restaurant Management Department Students Difficulties in Learning English Conversation and Their Solutions Chia-Ying-Mao Postgraduate Student, Department of Foreign Language & Literature, Asia Universty Abstract The tourist industry of Taiwan develops rapidly in recent years; many Restaurant Management Departments are established in vocational high schools and attract many students to major. In order to improve the qualities of service for foreign customers, English conversation ability for the students of this department is obviously needed. Through this survey the researcher tries to understand the students difficulties in English conversation and their solutions. According to the questionnaires for students and English teachers, the major findings are as follows: 1. Most teachers consider lack of vocabulary result in students listening (32%) and speaking (31%) difficulty % students consider they can t catch the key points due to people s speaking too fast, resulting in their listening difficulty. 27.9% students consider they are unable to pronounce words correctly, leading to their speaking difficulty % students consider listening to English broadcast and music could improve their English listening ability. Also, speaking to English native speakers frequently can improve their speaking capacity (24.2%). 4. Both teachers and students agree that having more chances to do the practical training in the hotel will improve the motivation of learning English conversation. 5. Most teachers will translate the text into Chinese word by word and then ask students to follow the CD player. 6. About the remedial measures of ineffective learning, teachers will increase conversation practice in order to reinforce their memory. Key words: Restaurant Management Department English conversation English teaching 1

2 高 職 餐 飲 科 學 生 英 語 會 話 學 習 困 擾 與 提 升 方 式 毛 嘉 迎 亞 洲 大 學 外 國 語 文 研 究 所 研 究 生 摘 要 近 年 來 台 灣 休 閒 產 業 迅 速 發 展, 為 提 升 餐 飲 從 業 人 員 服 務 水 準 及 給 予 外 國 人 士 專 業 服 務, 教 育 部 曾 在 九 十 四 年 職 業 學 校 餐 旅 群 科 課 程 暫 行 綱 要 中 將 餐 旅 英 語 與 會 話 列 為 專 業 必 修 與 實 習 科 目 ; 另 在 九 十 八 推 動 技 職 通 識 教 育 改 善 計 畫 之 成 果 發 表 會 中, 分 析 技 職 院 校 熱 門 類 群 與 學 生 就 業 趨 勢 : 餐 飲 為 排 名 前 五 大 最 受 歡 迎 的 類 科 有 此 可 知, 餐 飲 科 學 生 學 習 英 語 課 程 比 其 他 非 英 語 主 修 科 別 更 受 重 視 從 另 一 方 面 來 看, 高 職 生 的 英 語 程 度 稍 較 一 般 高 中 生 低, 在 學 校 開 設 的 課 程 堂 數 教 材 設 計 也 與 一 般 高 中 不 同, 目 前 高 職 餐 飲 科 學 生 也 知 英 語 課 程 對 他 們 未 來 發 展 的 影 響, 但 在 學 習 過 程 中 有 非 常 多 的 挑 戰 與 挫 折 也 因 為 如 此, 想 藉 由 這 次 研 究 了 解 高 職 學 生 學 習 會 話 時 所 發 生 的 困 難 及 了 解 有 哪 些 教 學 方 式 可 增 進 餐 飲 科 學 生 學 習 英 語 會 話 動 機 與 能 力 並 以 餐 飲 科 二 年 級 學 生 與 教 授 本 科 英 語 課 程 的 老 師 為 問 卷 研 究 對 象, 依 研 究 結 果 提 出 建 議 本 研 究 發 現 : 1. 老 師 認 為 本 科 學 生 在 聽 力 方 面 最 困 擾 是 生 字 片 語 背 太 少 使 得 聽 不 懂 對 方 在 說 什 麼 另 在 說 方 面, 句 子 中 有 許 多 生 字 使 學 生 有 挫 折 2. 而 學 生 認 為 在 聽 力 方 面 最 困 擾 是 對 方 說 太 快 又 抓 不 住 關 鍵 字 另 在 說 方 面 發 音 不 正 確 使 學 生 有 挫 折 3. 學 生 認 為 聽 英 語 廣 播 或 英 語 歌 曲 可 提 升 聽 力 ; 另 多 與 外 籍 人 士 接 觸 可 提 升 說 的 能 力 4. 老 師 與 學 生 都 認 為 增 加 大 飯 店 實 習 機 會 可 提 升 本 科 學 生 學 習 英 語 會 話 動 機 5. 老 師 教 授 會 話 方 式 最 常 以 講 解 內 容 並 以 CD 跟 讀 為 主, 其 次 是 情 境 演 練 與 小 組 討 論 6. 老 師 以 增 加 其 練 習 次 數 為 主 要 補 救 教 學 方 式 關 鍵 字 : 餐 飲 管 理 英 語 會 話 英 語 教 學 2

3 Background and Motivation The tourist industry of Taiwan develops rapidly in recent years; meanwhile, the success of introduction of Taiwan attracts many foreigners to visit. The number of employees in leisure industries increases continuously; therefore, many Restaurant Management Departments are established in vocational high schools and attract many students to major. We can understand the techniques of Restaurant Management are more and more important than those before. In order to improve the qualities of service for foreign customers, English conversation ability for the students of this department is obviously needed. On the other hand, vocational high schools have been labeled as inferior to those of academic high schools in English learning and achievement. Due to insufficient learning experience, English materials and the offer of English class hours are totally different from academic high schools. In order to enhance the students conversation ability, understanding their learning difficulties is important. Also, how to improve students learning motivation is the other object of this research. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of the study is to investigate the perceptions of restaurant management students and English teachers toward English communication. By conducting a survey of the students and the teachers, we can 1. find out restaurant management students learning difficulties in English listening and speaking; 2. find out the attitudes held by the instructors; 3. find out the best way for remedial measures of ineffective learning; and 4. find out the best way to improve learning motivation which teachers and students considered. Research questions A. Three questions will be concerned the teachers: A1. What is the teachers evaluation of the students English ability? A2. What causes the students listening and speaking difficulties? A3. What are the approaches the teachers use in teaching English conversation? B. Four questions will be concerned the students: B1. What is the students self-evaluation of their English conversation abilities? B2. What are the objects of this department students learning English conversation? B3. What are the students learning difficulties in English listening and speaking? B4. What are the approaches the students prefer in learning English listening and speaking? 3

4 Method and Procedure Subjects: The subjects of this study include 13 teachers who teach English conversation in this department and 150 students who major restaurant management department in this school. The researcher randomly chose 3 classes to attend this investigation and these students have learned English at least three years. The number of students in the first, second and third class is followed: 49, 51 and 50. Questionnaires: According to the purpose of the study, the researcher has modified some questions of the reference questionnaires in order to get more accurate answers. In the students questionnaire, students are asked to answer some general questions about their gender and their English conversation capability. Further, understanding their objects of learning English conversation will offer the researcher to comprehend students learning motivation and efficiency. Also, the researcher asks students to answer what their learning difficulties are and what methods can help them to improve their English conversation abilities. Some questions are the same in the teachers and students questionnaire in order to explore the different answers between teachers and students. Theses different answers will help teachers to understand the way of students learning. Most students consider their learning difficulties come from their teacher s teaching methods. The teacher speaks too fast or the practices are too hard to them. Students can t achieve the goal which the teacher s ask and they will feel frustrate. Therefore, the researcher will design the same questions between the student s and the teacher s questionnaire in order to improve teacher s teaching effect. Pilot Study: In order to ensure the content validity, the researcher has invited 5 English teachers and 10 restaurant management department students outside school to answer the questions. They have many similar characteristics with one another such as their teaching experiments and educational background. Procedures: The student questionnaire was carried out on May students were asked to fill out the form within 15 minutes in the class. 3 classes were randomly selected from restaurant management department. The teacher questionnaire was conducted on May 22 during the lunch time. They all gave back the questionnaires. Data Analysis: The data of this study was collected come from the questionnaires of the teacher and the student. The researcher chose excel software to figure out the specific answer of each question. The Q4 and Q5 of the student questionnaire and Q6 and Q7 of the teacher questionnaire are the same. The 4

5 researcher can compare and contrast them in order to get the different ideas between teachers and students. Literature Review Listening Difficulties in Second Language Acquisition Underwood, (1994) Breakdown in understanding input might invite an obstacle for the students when they were learning English as their second or foreign language. Seven potential difficulties were identified in listening comprehension as: (1) lack of control over the speed at which speakers speak, (2) not being able to get things repeated, (3) the listener s limited vocabulary, (4) failure to recognize the signals, (5) problems of interpretation, (6) inability to concentrate, and (7) established learning habits. Among them, two difficulties were associated with controlling the input. First, listeners could not keep up with the speed so that they felt that the utterances disappear rapidly before they caught the meaning. Second, the listeners might not have an opportunity to have the speaker repeat the utterance so that they had no opportunity to process their listening comprehension again. Listening Difficulties in Daily English Rubin& Thompson, (1994) Listening to daily English, the EFL students might encounter three common problems. The first problem was that the speaker talked too fast. If the listeners could not follow the speaker, the listeners could let the speaker know that they was not following, trying to ask the speaker for repetition, clarification, rephrasing, or slowing down the speed. The listeners themselves could pay attention to intonation and tone of voice, focus on question words and assume that what the speaker says was directly related to something they were experiencing at the very minute. The second problem was that the listeners were not getting anything out of foreign language TV and movies. If the listeners could not understand the foreign language TV and movies, they should try to take control of their listening by predicting what they were likely to hear. For example, the listeners could use visual clues, use their background knowledge, use information from the segment itself, determine the genre of the segment, listen to familiar elements, listen to familiar-sounding words, listen to and jot down repeated words or phrases, learn to recognize numbers or learn to recognize proper names. The third problem was that the listeners tended to stop listening when hearing an unfamiliar word or phrase. If the listeners were panic with an unfamiliar segment, they should try to concentrate on the familiar elements and keep on listening. Factors Affecting L2 Listening Difficulties Yagang, (1993) proposed that the sources of listening difficulties came mainly from four aspects: the message, the speaker, the listener, and the physical setting. The message factors comprised content and linguistic features. The speaker factors consisted of redundant utterances, such as repetitions, false starts, re-phrasings, self-corrections, elaborations, tautologies, apparently meaningless additions such 5

6 as I mean or you know and speakers personal factors such as their accents. The listener factors played a more important role in EFL student s listening. For example, foreign language students might be not familiar enough with clichés and collocations in English to predict a missing word or phrase. EFL students might be lack of sociocultural, factual, and contextual knowledge of the target language. Factors in physical setting included noise, both background noises on the recording and environmental noises, could carry the listener s mind out of the content of the listening passage. Students Speaking Difficulties Wen and Clement (2003) researched a Chinese classroom in which most Chinese students dared speak out. Wen and Clement (2003) attributed the Chinese students unwillingness to communicate to traditional Chinese philosophy and values. Brought up in the conservative Chinese society, students tend to be sensitive to social evaluation and care about their own images in relation to others. They worry about saving face and dare not express their ideas in English. In addition, the teacher-centered way of teaching also negatively affects the students willingness to communicate. The authors also mentioned that a large class was another factor which impeded students communicative competence. It is difficult to nurse a sense of intimacy and belongingness so the students are more self-conscious; therefore, they end to withdraw. Anxiety Phillips s study (1992) examined the effect of language anxiety on students oral proficiency and the highly anxious students experience of taking an oral exam in a foreign language. Phillips concluded that language anxiety obviously but partially affects students oral performance in language learning. Most importantly, language anxiety affects the students attitudes toward language learning and their intensions to continue the learning of a foreign language. Students Learning Difficulties from Their Families Bialystok, (2001) According to Hakuta, Butler, and Witt s study poverty and parental level of education had a strong relationship, and both of them influenced students progress in mastering both oral and academic usages of English (p.223). 蘇 莉 雯 ( 民 93) 許 靜 怡 (2003) indicated that parents socio-economic status will affect their children s conception of English learning. She mentioned that parents of different socio-economic status provide their children with different economic resources and instill different learning attitudes into them. Upper socio-economic status parents can offer better learning environments and are willing to spend money to enhance their children s linguistic competence. Contrarily, lower socio-economic status parents can t provide so much English learning opportunities for their children. Even if they understand the importance, they may be unable to financially support their children. Most vocational high school students come from lowersocio-economic status families. That is, their financial situation may negatively influence their 6

7 children English learning. Low Motivation and Insufficient Confidence Researchers (e.g., 蘇 莉 雯, 民 93; 羅 美 貞, 2000) mentioned most vocational high school students have very weak motivation to learn English. They lack confidence and are not very willing to take part in any English activities. After the students graduate, they may feel frustrated because of their poor English ability. Some of them may find that their English ability is approximately equal to a junior high school student s. 李 振 清 (2003) advocated stimulating students motivation and enhancing their abilities in the four aspects. He stated that lack of motivation to elevate students English ability makes Taiwan less competitive in the world. Prevailing Phenomena among Vocational High Schools Researchers (e.g., 蘇 莉 雯, 民 93; 羅 美 貞, 2000) further summarized the prevailing phenomenon as follows. First, it s due to insufficient class hours, which may limit the students development in the four aspects. Second, vocational high school students have much more subjects to study than academic senior high school students. English is not the most important subject for them and they can t spare much time to study it. Third, their foundation of English ability is not good enough. Fourth, their parents do not expect high achievements in learning English. Ways to Enhance Listening Comprehension 1. Exact Repetition and Speech Rate Reduction Jensen and Vinther (2003) researched input enhancement used to support learners selection of a focus of attention in second language listening material. Eighty-four high intermediate learners of Spanish took part. The input consisted of video-recordings of dialogues between native speakers, in tests and in treatment. Exact repetition and speech rate reduction were examined for their effect on comprehension, acquisition of decoding strategies, and linguistic features. Each of three groups listened to each utterance of the dialogue three times, in different speed combinations; fast-slow-fast, fast-slow-slow, and fast-fast-fast, respectively. A fourth group served as a baseline and received no treatment. Comparison of pre-test and post-test scores showed significant effects for all three parameters. No difference with regard to effect could be established between treatment conditions. 2. Improving Listening by Paying Attention Moreover,( Leow,1997 & Schmidt, R. 1990) the finding that exact repetition has a positive effect 7

8 on intake and hence acquisition would support the noticing hypothesis. The reason why an increase in proficiency resulted from repetition would be due to the opportunity it afforded them to pay closer attention to form. According to the noticing hypothesis, it is crucial for the development of learners inter-language to have plenty of opportunities to pay attention to the formal features of the input they receive. Attention will provide them with a chance for self-examination and self-correction, and allow them to reconstruct their second language grammar. However, comprehension is an active processing in which attentive listening may vary with the degree of proficiency. That is, listeners of different levels may decode the same text or input into a totally different interpretation and hence receive different forms of the language. Therefore, learners must encounter opportunities to pay attention to linguistic features not yet mastered. Krashen (1980) put forward an input hypothesis that more exposure to comprehensible input was assumed to be sufficient for acquisition to take place. Ways to Enhance Speaking Skill According to Reid, J (1994), teacher involvement is also significant. A teacher should try to dedicate himself to the interpersonal relationships with their students. Teacher involvement and teacher immediacy are effective in L2 learning. According to William and Burden (1997), to achieve second language acquisition, the learners have to undergo meaningful communicative interaction. Through the process of interacting, negotiating and conveying meanings in the target language, they will be able to improve their spoken ability. Interaction Hypothesis states that interaction is a necessary condition for learners to acquire second language competence. It s impossible for learners to acquire communicative competence without engaging in meaningful communication. Ellis, (1990) The Interaction hypothesis claims that input should be made comprehensible as a result of modification when communication problems arise. Hatch (1978) also pointed out that conversation was essential to the development of a second language. Besides negotiation of meaning, communicating and comprehending messages and the negotiation of form, and expressing these meanings accurately and precisely have been found to be crucial for second language acquisition Spada, (1987). This viewpoint cast doubt on Krashen s earlier input hypothesis that exposure to comprehensible input is sufficient for L2 acquisition. Pica, they agreed that modified input could help learners acquisition. Swain (1985) further suggested that L2 acquisition was advanced through modified output, which consisted of the learners own messages that were adjusted during meaningful negotiation. It is the output hypothesis which claims that the learners need to produce in order to develop native-like levels of grammatical proficiency. Thus, through negotiation, the activity in which the learners and the instructors work together linguistically can repair or resolve problems or misunderstanding in order to achieve the purpose of communication. Result and Discussion A. Questionnaires about the teachers: 8

9 A1. What is the teachers evaluation of the students English conversation ability? (Q4, Q5) According to the Question 4 of teachers questionnaire, no teachers consider the students English ability is good (0%). Most teachers consider the students ability is not good (46%). There are two teachers think that their ability is average (15%). It is worthy of note that students English conversation ability is extremely good or bad (38%). According to the Question 5 of the questionnaire, a bad foundation (19.11%) is one of the reasons which results in students poor English conversation ability. Next is weak motivation (17.64%) and then seldom contact foreigner (16.17%). In addition, there are % of the teachers considering that students use improper ways of learning. And there are 13% of the teachers considering that family indifference results in poor English ability. Generally speaking, students study in vocational high school in order to learn techniques. But there are a lot of students studying here because of their low achievement in junior high school. Studying in vocational high school is their second choice. Most students have low performance in Chinese, Math, even English. But in the resent years, due to the tourist industry of Taiwan develops rapidly; students of this department should learn not only techniques but foreign languages. Most students have difficulties in learning English. That is why the researcher is eager to probe their learning difficulties and to find out ways to improve. A2. What causes the students listening and speaking difficulties? (Q6, Q7) Q6: what causes the students English listening difficulties? There are 32% of the teachers choosing this item which a lot of vocabulary that students unknown causes in students English listening difficulties. Less time practicing (27%) and students can t keep up with the speed of listening (27%) are others choice. Q7: what causes the students English speaking difficulties? There are many new words for students. It is the answer which most teachers choose (31%). There are also 26% teachers considering the reason of students speaking difficult is about the pronounce English incorrectly. According to the answers of the teachers, lack of vocabulary causes students learning difficulties in listening and speaking. Actually, most students gave up learning English when they studied in the junior high school. Recalling their memory of English and improving their learning motivation are these teachers jobs. Teaching materials should fit in with students English level. Teacher can encourage them to recite the vocabulary and sentences. Also, frequent practicing is an important way to learn it. A3. What are the approaches the teachers use in teaching English conversation? (Q8, Q9, Q10) Q8: what are the approaches the teachers use frequently? According to Question 8 in the questionnaire, there are three teaching methods which the teachers usually to use. First is translation the text into Chinese word by word then ask students to follow the CD player (27.9%) Second is a role- play activity (25%). Third is group discussion (23%). 9

10 Actually this answer tells us teacher use of the teaching methods depends on students English ability. The first method is accepted by most students because they can t analyze sentences by themselves. Teachers will lead and train them step by step until they recite sufficient sentences or words. Role-play is an important and active teaching method in conversation, but students should be familiar with the text and then try to practice. Q9: What are the remedial measures of ineffective learning for the teachers? According to the Q9, there are 29% of teachers consider giving extra practices are the best way to help students to overcome their ineffective learning. Further, slow down the speed of teach (27 %) and peer assistance (27%) will also help those students. There are 18% teachers asking students to do some extra assignment in order to improve their learning effective. The remedial measures of ineffective learning are important to the vocational high school students. A Chinese adage said Practice makes perfect. Sometimes keeping practice is the best way for students. Q10: What is the best way to improve students learning motivation? There are 22% of teachers consider that having more chances to do the practical training in the hotel will improve students learning motivation. Learning with native speaker (20%) and studying abroad to be interchange students also attract them to approach learning. From teachers viewpoint, connecting learning and practical training are good ways to improve students learning effect. Through this training, students can realize two things. First, having good foreign language ability is required by this business. It will remind them to learning English hardly. Second, before they graduate, students can beforehand understand this job suits them or not. Unfortunately, not all students have chances to do the practical training. This is one of parts which the school should effort. B. Questionnaires about the students: B1. What is the students self-evaluation of their English listening and speaking abilities? (Q2) According to the Question 2 of students questionnaire, 52% of the students think their English ability is very poor. 22.6% of the students think their English conversation ability is so-so and 22% of the students think their English is average, but can be improved. Only five students think their English is very good (2.66%). Most students consider their conversation ability is not very good but they expect to improve it gradually. Both the teachers and the students have the same view about the students English ability. B2. What are the objects of this department students learning English conversation? (Q3) There are 28% students consider English conversation is a basic skill and will help them 10

11 to looking for jobs easily. But there are also 22.2% students thinking they are force to learn it due to afraid fail this subject. 18.8% of students consider they can apply for better college if their conversation abilities are good. This question tries to investigate the attitude of their learning English conversation. Good communicable ability is also the object of this department. Most students considered that learning techniques are more important then learning languages, but they can t ignore that communication is one of important ways to show their techniques. Teachers should build this concept on their minds, during their learning. B3. What are the students learning difficulties in English listening and speaking? (Q4, Q5) Q4: what causes the students English listening difficulties? According to the Q4, we can understand students English listening difficulties come from people speak too fast; it results in students missing the key points (29.6%). Q5: What causes the students English speaking difficulties? According to students responses to Q5, 27.9% students think they can t pronounce English correctly causing their speaking difficulty. There are too many new words which make them feel frustrate (24%). There are even 25.5% of the students afraid of speaking English. It means the teachers should provide more chances for students to talk. If the students English ability has been excluded, lacking chances speaking English could be the other reason which they can t performance well. Most students can understand the meaning of sentences if they read them but they don t understand when they heard them. So teachers could play CD player to train their listening and meanwhile ask them to speak out the answers. This way could improve students listening and speaking ability. B4. What are the approaches the students prefer in learning English listening and speaking? (Q6, Q7, Q8, Q9, Q10) According to Q6, it shows 27% of students consider listening broadcast and listening to English music will help their listening ability. Further, Q7 shows that speaking to foreigners frequently is the easy way to improve their speaking ability (24.2%). Besides, the Q10 shows that 22.4% of students consider that having more chances to do the practical training in the hotel will improve students learning motivation. Studying abroad to be interchange students (20.7%) and learning with native speaker (18.9%) also attracting them to approach learning. According to the student responses listed above, most students have good ways to improve their English communication ability. But having good ways to learn is not enough, keeping learning is the key to learn. They should understand having good English communication ability will improve their working efficiency, especially to be the staff of the first line in a hotel or restaurant. Contrasting Result 11

12 There are some different choices between teachers and the students in English speaking and listening difficulties. In this survey, the question 4 and 5 of the students questionnaire and the 6 and 7of the teachers questionnaire have decided the same questions. In order to understand the ideas between the teachers and the students, the researcher contrasts the different results between these two questionnaires. According to the Q4 from the students questionnaire, the result shows people speak too fast affect their listening comprehension (29.6%). But the same question in teachers questionnaire (Q6), the result shows lack of vocabulary (32%) affecting students listening comprehension. So the same question for the teachers is different form the students. Q5 is a question to figure out what the reason affect students speaking comprehension. According to the students answers to the questionnaire, it shows that students can t pronounce English correctly (27.9%). But in the teachers questionnaire there are 31% of the teachers consider there are too many new words which students unknown causing their speaking difficulty (Q7). According to Q10, the researcher tries to find out the ways which the school could provide helps of improving learning motivation. Then we can understand both the teachers and the students choose the same item which is practical training in hotels. Conclusion: Pedagogical Implications: Practical and pragmatic teaching methods will improve students learning efficiency. As we know the amount of vocabulary which the students comprehend, the frequency of using English and the familiarity with English grammar will affect learning outcome. Sufficient practicing is a good way to improving their English abilities. According to the theme of each lesson, the teachers could ask students to prepare some substitute words or sentences to practice so that students will enhance their abilities to handle various situations in English. To sum up, learning techniques are very important to restaurant management department s students. Service and communication with people are required in this business as well. If the employees don t have good English conversation ability, they will not fit in with this position. According to the result of this survey, we can understand the different perceptions of learning English conversation between the teachers and the students. I hope this survey will help teachers to understand students requirements and also improve their conversation ability. 12

13 References Bialystok,E.(2001).Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy,& cognition. Cambridge University Press. Dornyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientation, and motivation in language learning: Advances in theory, research and applications. Language Learning, 53 (1), Ellis, R. (1990). Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell. Hatch, E. (1983). Psycholinguistics: A second language perspective. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Jensen, E. D., Vinther, T. (2003). Exact Repetition as Input Enhancement in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning, 53, Krashen, S. (1980). The input hypothesis. In J. Alatis (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education (pp ). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Leow, R. (1997). Attention, awareness and foreign language behavior. Language Learning, 47, Phillips,E.M.(1992). The effects of language anxiety on students oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Joural, 76, Reid, J. (1994). Responding to ESL students texts: The myths of appropriation. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1994). How to be a more successful language learner: Toward learner autonomy. MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Spada, N. (1987). Relationship between instructional differences and learning outcomes: A process-product study of communicative language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 8, Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. M. Gass & C. G. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition, 15, William, M. & Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. A social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wen,W.P.&Clement,R.(2003). A Chinese conceptualization of willingness to communicate in ESL. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16, Yagang, F. (1993). Listening: Problems and solutions. English Teaching Forum, 31(2), 羅 美 貞 (2000) 高 職 英 文 教 學 面 臨 的 困 境 與 因 應 商 業 職 業 教 育, 第 76 期, 頁 王 百 民 ( 2001) 提 升 高 職 教 師 教 學 品 質 : 談 多 元 智 慧 概 念 的 應 用 商 業 職 業 教 育 第 82 期, 頁 許 靜 怡 (2003) 從 社 會 階 級 談 英 語 教 學 師 友 月 刊, 第 429 期, 頁 李 振 清 (2003) e 世 代 的 價 值 調 適 與 英 語 能 力 提 昇 失 之 策 略 2003 年 外 語 應 用 研 究 學 術 研 討 會 技 職 5 大 類 科 就 業 夯 (2009,7 月 8 日 ) 聯 合 報, 頁 8 李 育 奇 ( 民 89) 父 母 對 子 女 學 習 英 語 支 持 態 度 之 研 究 : 以 英 語 績 優 國 三 學 生 父 母 為 例 未 出 版 碩 士 論 文, 國 立 嘉 義 大 學, 嘉 義 市 蘇 莉 雯 ( 民 93) 高 職 學 生 英 語 學 習 困 擾 與 因 應 解 決 方 法 之 研 究 - 以 國 立 台 南 高 商 為 例 未 出 版 碩 士 論 文, 國 立 成 功 大 學, 台 南 市 13

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