The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis"

Transcription

1 Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Review paper The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Filipe Dantas-Torres * Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, C.P. 7472, Recife , Pernambuco, Brazil Received 24 March 2007; received in revised form 8 May 2007; accepted 5 July Abstract Leishmania parasites cause a group of diseases collectively known as leishmaniases. The primary hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals of several orders (Rodentia, Marsupialia, Carnivora, etc.). Under certain circumstances, particularly in peridomestic and domestic transmission foci, synanthropic and domestic animals can act as source of infection for phlebotomine sand fly vectors. Dogs have long been implicated as the main domestic reservoirs of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, the aetiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, and there exists an increasing trend to regard dogs as the main domestic reservoirs of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the most widespread aetiological agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. However, insights derived from recent research indicate that not dogs but humans are probably the most important domestic reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis. In the present article, the role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on L. (L.) infantum and L. (V.) braziliensis, is reviewed. # 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Leishmaniasis; Reservoir; Leishmania; Dog; Epidemiology Contents 1. Introduction What does define a reservoir of infection? Dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (L.) infantum Dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (V.) braziliensis Dogs as reservoir hosts of other Leishmania species General conclusions Final comment Acknowledgements References * Tel.: ; fax: address: /$ see front matter # 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: /j.vetpar

2 140 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Introduction Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of great medical and veterinary significance (Dantas-Torres, 2006b), which are transmitted to a susceptible host by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia in the Old and New Worlds, respectively. The genus Leishmania is divided into two subgenera, Leishmania and Viannia, based on the pattern of development of the parasites in the sand fly gut (Lainson and Shaw, 1987). Of some 30 species of Leishmania known at present, 20 are pathogenic for humans. About 30 species of phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors (Ashford, 2000; Desjeux, 2004). Leishmania parasites cause leishmaniases, a group of diseases with diverse epidemiological and clinical patterns (from self-healing skin ulcers to severe, lifethreatening visceral disease). With some exceptions, the leishmaniases are zoonoses and the human infection is incidental. Natural vertebrate hosts of Leishmania parasites are mammals of the orders: Edentata (e.g., armadillos, sloths), Carnivora (e.g., dogs, cats), Hyracoidea (e.g., hyraxes), Rodentia (e.g., rats, gerbils), Primates (e.g., humans, monkeys), Marsupialia (e.g., opossums), and Perissodactyla (e.g., horses) (Ashford, 1996; Saliba and Oumeish, 1999; Gramiccia and Gradoni, 2005). The primary reservoir hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals, such as forest rodents and wild canids. With the increasing process of domiciliation of the zoonotic cycle of transmission of leishmaniases, synanthropic and domestic animals have assumed an important role as reservoirs of infection. Dogs have been found naturally infected by different species of Leishmania, such as Leishmania (Leishmania) major (Elbihari et al., 1987), although their role as reservoirs of some of these parasites is probably negligible; that is, they are more likely to be victims rather than reservoirs. In a recently published paper, Gomes et al. (2007) emphasize the utility of PCR in discriminating the species of Leishmania infecting dogs, particularly in areas where both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic. Indeed, PCRbased methods have been proven to be powerful tools for the detection in different clinical specimens and discrimination of Leishmania species infecting a wide range of vertebrate (Brandão-Filho et al., 2003; Oliveira et al., 2005; Silva et al., 2005; Andrade et al., 2006) and invertebrate hosts (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies, ticks) (Coutinho et al., 2005; Parvizi et al., 2005). In the aforementioned paper, Gomes et al. (2007) released the following statement:...domestic dogs are known to be the main visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis reservoirs. And this is an issue of ongoing debate in the scientific literature. As far it is known, the dog is not the main reservoir host of the aetiological agents of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (Ashford, 1996; Alvar et al., 2004; Desjeux, 2004; Gramiccia and Gradoni, 2005); except for Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, the aetiological agent of uta, a typical localized ulcerative cutaneous leishmaniasis whose geographical distribution is restricted to the Peruvian Andes. For some authors (Llanos-Cuentas et al., 1999), dogs are believed to be reservoir hosts of L. (V.) peruviana. But even in this case, the incrimination is based on circumstantial evidence; that is, the finding of dogs naturally infected by L. (V.) peruviana and a relatively high dog blood index (i.e., the proportion of blood meals taken from dogs) among specimens of Lu. peruensis, a known vector of L. (V.) peruviana (Llanos-Cuentas et al., 1999). So, the status of dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (V.) peruviana is still uncertain (Reithinger and Davies, 1999). In this article, the role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum [syn. Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi; Dantas-Torres, 2006a] and L. (V.) braziliensis, is reviewed in the light of epidemiological and experimental evidence as well as based on the author s personal experience. 2. What does define a reservoir of infection? Many researchers have tried to define what the term reservoir treated here as synonymous with reservoir host and reservoir of infection actually means (Ashford, 1996, 2003; Haydon et al., 2002; Silva et al., 2005). On the contrary to what one might think, to define what is a reservoir is not an easy task. In a practical point of view, however, this term can be used to define a host that fulfills some attributes that favor the maintenance and dissemination of a given disease agent. Although this definition is less elaborate than some others (e.g., Ashford, 2003), it is the one used here, as it provides a practical and applicable view of the importance of reservoirs of infection for maintenance of the transmission cycle of the pathogens they carry. It is worthwhile to note that the importance of each animal host as reservoir of a given disease agent can obviously vary widely from region to region. Results from local studies cannot be extrapolated to other regions, without strong ecological evidence.

3 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Perhaps it would be opportune to mention here that it is common to see in the scientific literature the following statement: dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis. This should be avoided. Dogs are not reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis; that is, they are reservoirs of the aetiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis. When taking its blood meal from an infected dog, a phlebotomine sand fly can become infected by Leishmania parasites (and not by leishmaniasis). In a subsequent blood meal, the phlebotomine sand fly can transmit Leishmania parasites to a naïve, susceptible human host. Note that the vector transmits the parasite to the human host, which can develop leishmaniasis or not, depending on several factors related to the host (e.g., age, nutritional status, genetics) and the parasite (e.g., species, strain). 3. Dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (L.) infantum Not only domestic dogs, but canids in general, fulfill the required attributes to be efficient reservoirs of L. (L.) infantum (Alvar et al., 2004; Dantas-Torres and Brandão-Filho, 2006). Due to its close relationship with humans, the domestic dog has long been implicated as the main reservoir of L. (L.) infantum in China, the Mediterranean basin and the Americas (Ashford, 1996; Moreno and Alvar, 2002; Desjeux, 2004; Gramiccia and Gradoni, 2005; Lainson and Rangel, 2005; Dantas-Torres and Brandão-Filho, 2006). And there are some reasons for this: Although some dog breeds e.g., Ibizian hounds (Solano-Gallego et al., 2000) appear to be more resistant than others, dogs are often susceptible to L. (L.) infantum infection (Moreno and Alvar, 2002). In areas where zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic, the prevalence of L. (L.) infantum infection in dogs is often high, with a large proportion of asymptomatic ones (Dantas-Torres et al., 2006). Dogs may present an intense cutaneous parasitism by Leishmania amastigotes (intracellular forms), increasing the possibility of transmission (Ashford, 1996; Dantas-Torres and Brandão-Filho, 2006). Dogs are usually in or next to human houses, which favors the maintenance of the domestic transmission cycle of L. (L.) infantum (Dantas-Torres and Brandão- Filho, 2006). Dogs can remain infected by L. (L.) infantum without displaying apparent clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis for years and even for their entire life (Moreno and Alvar, 2002). The L. (L.) infantum zymodeme MON-1, which is responsible for most of the cases of visceral leishmaniasis around the Mediterranean basin, is also the predominant zymodeme isolated from dogs (Pratlong et al., 2004). It has been proven that infected dogs are sources of infection for phlebotomine sand flies of species Lu. longipalpis (Deane and Deane, 1955) and P. perniciosus (Molina et al., 1994), the main vectors of the aetiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old Worlds, respectively. These phlebotomine sand flies can easily adapt to the peridomestic environment or human dwellings and feed frequently on dogs (Colmenares et al., 1995; Killick-Kendrick, 1999; Feliciangeli, 2004; Lainson and Rangel, 2005). There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting dogs as the main reservoir hosts of L. (L.) infantum for human infection. Therefore, it is plausible to conclude that the domestic dog plays an important role in the epidemiology of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. So, why cannot dog-culling programs control human visceral leishmaniasis? The definitive answer for this question is still unknown. The possible participation of other reservoir hosts, including asymptomatic infected persons (Costa et al., 2002) and cats (Maroli et al., 2007), in the transmission cycle of L. (L.) infantum cannot be excluded. Other possible reasons for the failure of dog-culling programs have been extensively discussed elsewhere (Reithinger and Davies, 1999; Courtenay et al., 2002; Moreira et al., 2004; Dantas-Torres, 2006b,c; Dantas-Torres and Brandão-Filho, 2006). 4. Dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (V.) braziliensis There exists an increasing trend to regard dogs as the main domestic reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis, the most widespread aetiological agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (Falqueto et al., 1991; Reithinger and Davies, 1999; Davies et al., 2000; Reithinger et al., 2000, 2003; Padilla et al., 2002; Gomes et al., 2007). Attempts to control American tegumentary leishmaniasis by treating (Sessa et al., 1994) or culling (Costa et al., 2004) infected dogs have been proposed, although there is little evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness either in theory or in practice. There are many reports of natural infection of dogs by L. (V.) braziliensis (Aguilar et al., 1989; Reithinger and Davies, 1999; Madeira et al., 2003, 2006; Ryan et al., 2003; Castro et al., 2007), which is expected for the following reasons:

4 142 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Dogs are susceptible to infection by L. (V.) braziliensis, as demonstrated by experimental studies (Pirmez et al., 1988; Genaro et al., 1990). Dogs appear to be relatively attractive for some proven or suspected vectors of L. (V.) braziliensis (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 1999; Afonso et al., 2005). Dogs are often present in areas where the peridomestic and domestic transmission cycles of L. (V.) braziliensis occur, which is obviously expected because dogs are among the most popular domestic animals around the world; that is, they are almost invariably present anywhere where humans are. Despite the relative attractiveness of dogs for some vectors of L. (V.) braziliensis, some species such as Lu. whitmani appear to be significantly more attracted to humans than to dogs (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 1999). Cases of natural infection by L. (V.) braziliensis have been reported in dogs, but also in cats, equines, rodents and opossums (Grimaldi and Tesh, 1993; Ashford, 1996; Gramiccia and Gradoni, 2005). So, are domestic dogs the main reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis? It has been experimentally demonstrated that Lu. whitmani can become infected by feeding on dogs infected by L. (V.) braziliensis (Vexenat et al., 1986). However, the results of this study cannot be extrapolated, mainly because the phlebotomine sand flies were fed artificially on lesions; that is, the insects were allowed to feed directly on ulcerated lesions. In the same study, 180 females of Lu. whitmani were allowed to feed on non-ulcerated regions of an infected dog and none of them became infected (Vexenat et al., 1986). In a study carried out in Venezuela, Hernandez et al. (2006) found Leishmania promastigotes (flagellate forms) in only 0.88% (4 out of 455) of the dissected specimens of Lu. youngi that were allowed to feed on two dogs. It is also worthwhile to note that the xenodiagnosis was performed with wild-caught phlebotomine sand flies. As a consequence, the possibility that the phlebotomine sand flies could have been already infected (i.e., prior to feed on the dogs) cannot be excluded, even though they were collected from an area considered free of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The results of a study recently carried out in Colombia indicate that although dogs are susceptible to L. (V.) braziliensis, their reservoir competence could be low. Travi et al. (2006) tested the competence of two naturally infected dogs to transmit L. (V.) braziliensis to phlebotomine sand flies both colonized and wildcaught of the following species: Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. youngi. Phlebotomine sand flies were allowed to feed on the lesion borders, but no infection was detected upon dissection of engorged specimens. The results of this study should also be interpreted with caution. The number of phlebotomine sand flies fed on dogs per xenodiagnosis was relatively low; that is, fewer than 50 per dog. Perhaps, this number was insufficient to detect truly infective individuals (Travi et al., 2006). To incriminate an animal host as a reservoir of Leishmania, the parasites isolated from the animals must be indistinguishable from those of man. In a study carried out in Argentina, Marco et al. (2005) identified a Leishmania stock from a dog as L. (V.) braziliensis. However, the zymodeme (KMS 3) found in the dog was not expressed in any of the 15 isolates from humans. Further studies,withalargernumberof stocks from humans, dogs and, if possible, vectors are needed. In areas where the human infection has been clearly acquired under certain specific situations, such as ecological tourism, road building, agricultural and military activities (Brandão-Filho et al., 1999; Ashford, 2000; Desjeux, 2001, 2004; Andrade et al., 2005; Alvar et al., 2006), the importance of dogs as reservoir hosts of L. (V.) braziliensis is certainly negligible. In peridomestic and domestic transmission foci (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 2001; Yadon et al., 2003), dogs can probably serve only as a minor source of infection for phlebotomine sand flies. It is important to note that it is not known whether the dog is an essential piece in the peridomestic and domestic transmission of L. (V.) braziliensis or not. Therefore, caution must be exercised to avoid mistaken conclusions on the role of dogs in the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The natural (i.e., primary) reservoir hosts of L. (V.) braziliensis are largely unknown or unproven. As its cycle of transmission is primarily rural and often associated with human penetration of forested or wooded areas, it is suspected that sylvatic mammals may be natural reservoir hosts of L. (V.) braziliensis (Grimaldi and Tesh, 1993; Gramiccia and Gradoni, 2005). Results of a study conducted in northeastern Brazil strongly indicate that, at least there, some small rodents are involved in the maintenance of the parasite in nature (Brandão-Filho et al., 2003). Castro et al. (2007) have recently carried out a study in Paraná state, southern Brazil, to access the possible role of dogs as reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis. Their results also suggest that dogs are not good reservoirs of this species of Leishmania.

5 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Dogs as reservoir hosts of other Leishmania species Cases of natural infection of dogs by L. arabica (Peters et al., 1986), L. (L.) major (Elbihari et al., 1987; Morsy et al., 1987), Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica, (Dereure et al., 1991; Guessous-Idrissi et al., 1997), L. (V.) peruviana (Llanos-Cuentas et al., 1999), and Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani (Dereure et al., 2003) have been documented. Although dogs have been found naturally infected by several species of Leishmania, their role as reservoir hosts of these parasites is probably negligible. In some instance [e.g., L. (L.) tropica in central to southwest Asia and L. (L.) donovani in northeast India], the man is the sole source of infection for the vector (Ashford, 2000). As previously mentioned (see Section 1), there is only circumstantial evidence about the role of dogs in the epidemiology of uta. Thus, the status of the dog as a reservoir host of L. (V.) peruviana is still uncertain. 6. General conclusions The epidemiology of leishmaniasis involves a dynamic network of highly complex interactions among Leishmania parasites, phlebotomine sand fly vectors, and susceptible hosts. These, in a given moment in their life cycle, are linked by chance, by necessity, or both. For most of the species of Leishmania, humans and domestic dogs are merely accidental hosts, which are unfortunate enough to be exposed to an infected female phlebotomine sand fly. The increasing domestication of the transmission cycle of some Leishmania species has caused dramatic changes in the epidemiology of leishmaniases, such as changes in transmission patterns due to the adaptation of these parasites to new vectors and hosts. It is well known that the dog plays an important role in the zoonotic cycle of transmission of L. (L.) infantum. For L. (V.) braziliensis, however, the dog is most likely to be an incidental host and its role in the zoonotic cycle of transmission is probably negligible; except in peridomestic and domestic transmission foci, where not only dogs but domestic and synanthropic animals in general are likely to have a role in the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Not necessarily acting as reservoirs of infection, but attracting vectors to human dwellings, for example. For most Leishmania species, people are typical incidental hosts, but in some cases can also act as important reservoirs of infection (Ashford, 1996; Desjeux, 2004). It has been suggested that some New World leishmaniases could become anthroponoses (Rotureau, 2006); that is, man is the sole source of infection for the vector. Insights derived from recent research strongly support this hypothesis. It is well established now that American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients may remain infected for several years, even after treatment completion and clinical cure (Schubach et al., 1998; Coutinho et al., 2002; Mendonça et al., 2004). Leishmania DNA has also been detected in blood of individuals with a positive leishmanin skin test but no past or present history of leishmaniasis (Coutinho et al., 2002). In Brazil, Ampuero et al. (2005) carried out a matched case control study to identify risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in children under 5 years of age. The most important risk factor was the presence of a family member with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the year prior to the appearance of the disease in the child. Based on the remarkable anthropophily (i.e., tendency towards human biting) of certain proven vectors of L. (V.) braziliensis (Killick-Kendrick, 1990; Campbell-Lendrum et al., 1999), the ability of American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients to remain infected for several years, and their infectivity to laboratory-reared sand flies (Rojas and Scorza, 1989; Vergel et al., 2006), one may obviously ask: are humans the main domestic reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis? The extensive available epidemiological and experimental data supports this hypothesis, which, however, remains to be proven. It is not known whether infected humans can solely maintain the domestic transmission cycle without the need of animals. Further studies aimed at determining whether American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients are infectious to phlebotomine sand flies, prior and after treatment, are advocated. 7. Final comment Considering the current scenery of the leishmaniases around the world, it seems to be clear that the control of these diseases is more complex than previously supposed. The control of reservoirs, particularly dogs, has been ethically rejected, mainly due its low impact on the incidence of leishmaniases in humans. The leishmaniases are intimately linked with poverty (Alvar et al., 2006). The control of the leishmaniases is quite complex but is possible with a strong commitment from all parts involved. Future attempts to control the leishmaniases must include measures not only to cut out the transmission cycle but also to improve housing conditions and environment sanitation as well as to ensure water and food supply among the poorest. It is

6 144 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) also fundamental to emphasize the importance of personal protective measures, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains, and to provide rapid diagnosis and treatment of the affected persons. Acknowledgements Thanks to the reviewers for their valuable comments on a draft of this paper. The author is the recipient of a PhD scholarship from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). References Afonso, M.M., Gomes, A.C., Meneses, C.R., Rangel, E.F., Studies on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae), vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica. 21, Aguilar, C.M., Rangel, E.F., Garcia, L., Fernandes, E., Momen, H., Grimaldi Filho, G., Vargas, Z., Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis associated with domestic animals in Venezuela and Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 84, Alvar, J., Canavate, C., Molina, R., Moreno, J., Nieto, J., Canine leishmaniasis. Adv. Parasitol. 57, Alvar, J., Yactayo, S., Bern, C., Leishmaniasis and poverty. Trends Parasitol. 22, Ampuero, J., Urdaneta, M., Macêdo, V.O., Factores de riesgo para la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea en niños de 0 a 5 años en un área endémica de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Cad. Saude Publica. 21, Andrade, M.S., Valenca, H.F., Silva, A.L., Almeida, F.A., Almeida, E.L., Brito, M.E.F., Brandão-Filho, S.P., Sandfly fauna in a military training area endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Atlantic Rain Forest region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica. 21, Andrade, H.M., Reis, A.B., dos Santos, S.L., Volpini, A.C., Marques, M.J., Romanha, A.J., Use of PCR-RFLP to identify Leishmania species in naturally infected dogs. Vet. Parasitol. 140, Ashford, R.W., Leishmaniasis reservoirs and their significance in control. Clin. Dermatol. 14, Ashford, R.W., The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses. Int. J. Parasitol. 30, Ashford, R.W., When is a reservoir not a reservoir? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9, Brandão-Filho, S.P., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Brito, M.E., Shaw, J.J., Davies, C.R., Epidemiological surveys confirm an increasing burden of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93, Brandão-Filho, S.P., Brito, M.E.F., Carvalho, F.G., Ishikawa, E.A., Cupolillo, E., Floeter-Winter, L., Shaw, J.J., Wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis locality of Amaraji, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97, Campbell-Lendrum, D.H., Pinto, M.C., Brandão-Filho, S.P., de Souza, A.A., Ready, P.D., Davies, C.R., Experimental comparison of anthropophily between geographically dispersed populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae). Med. Vet. Entomol. 13, Campbell-Lendrum, D.H., Dujardin, J.P., Martinez, E., Feliciangeli, M.D., Perez, J.E., Silans, L.N., Desjeux, P., Domestic and peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: changing epidemiological patterns present new control opportunities. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 96, Castro, E.A., Thomaz-Soccol, V., Augur, C., Luz, E., Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: epidemiology of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná (Brazil). Exp. Parasitol. 117, Colmenares, M., Portús, M., Botet, J., Dobaño, C., Gállego, M., Wolff, M., Seguí, G., Identification of blood meals of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Spain by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay biotin/avidin method. J. Med. Entomol. 32, Costa, C.H., Stewart, J.M., Gomes, R.B., Garcez, L.M., Ramos, P.K., Bozza, M., Satoskar, A., Dissanayake, S., Santos, R.S., Silva, M.R., Shaw, J.J., David, J.R., Maguire, J.H., Asymptomatic human carriers of Leishmania chagasi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66, Costa, C.M., Moutinho, F.F.B., Bruno, S.F., A experiência do município de Paraty (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) na prevenção e controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Parasitol. Latinoam. 59, Courtenay, O., Quinnell, R.J., Garcez, L.M., Shaw, J.J., Dye, C., Infectiousness in a cohort of Brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 186, Coutinho, S.G., Pirmez, C., Da-Cruz, A.M., Parasitological and immunological follow-up of American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96 (Suppl 1), S173 S178. Coutinho, M.T., Bueno, L.L., Sterzik, A., Fujiwara, R.T., Botelho, J.R., Maria, M., Genaro, O., Linardi, P.M., Participation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Vet. Parasitol. 128, Dantas-Torres, F., 2006a. Leishmania infantum versus Leishmania chagasi: do not forget the law of priority. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 101, Dantas-Torres, F., 2006b. Leishmune vaccine: the newest tool for prevention and control of canine visceral leishmaniosis and its potential as a transmission-blocking vaccine. Vet. Parasitol. 141, 1 8. Dantas-Torres, F., 2006c. Presence of Leishmania amastigotes in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 48, Dantas-Torres, F., Brandão-Filho, S.P., Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: revisiting paradigms of epidemiology and control. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 48, Dantas-Torres, F., Brito, M.E.F., Brandão-Filho, S.P., Seroepidemiological survey on canine leishmaniasis among dogs from an urban area of Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 140, Davies, C.R., Reithinger, R., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Feliciangeli, D., Borges, R., Rodriguez, N., The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries. Cad. Saude Publica. 16, Deane, L.M., Deane, M.P., Observações preliminares da importância comparativa do homem, do cão e da raposa (Lycalopex vetulus) como reservatórios de Leishmania donovani, em área endêmica do calazar, no Ceará. Hospital (Rio J) 48, Dereure, J., Rioux, J.A., Gallego, M., Perieres, J., Pratlong, F., Mahjour, J., Saddiki, H., Leishmania tropica in Morocco: infection in dogs. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85, 595.

7 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) Dereure, J., El-Safi, S.H., Bucheton, B., Boni, M., Kheir, M.M., Davoust, B., Pratlong, F., Feugier, E., Lambert, M., Dessein, A., Dedet, J.P., Visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan: parasite identification in humans and dogs; host parasite relationships. Microbes Infect. 5, Desjeux, P., The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95, Desjeux, P., Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27, Elbihari, S., Cheema, A.H., el-hassan, A.M., Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 4. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Eastern Province. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81, Falqueto, A., Sessa, P.A., Varejão, J.B.M., Barros, G.C., Momen, H., Grimaldi Jr., G., Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Further evidence on the role of dogs as a reservoir of infection for humans. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 86, Feliciangeli, M.D., Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies. Med. Vet. Entomol. 18, Genaro, O., Carvalho, M.D., Pinto, F.A., Dias, M., The course of the experimental infections by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in dogs. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 85, S27. Gomes, A.H., Ferreira, I.M., Lima, M.L., Cunha, E.A., Garcia, A.S., Araújo, M.F., Pereira-Chioccola, V.L., PCR identification of Leishmania in diagnosis and control of canine leishmaniasis. Vet. Parasitol. 144, Gramiccia, M., Gradoni, L., The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control. Int. J. Parasitol. 35, Grimaldi, G., Tesh, R.B., Leishmaniasis in the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 6, Guessous-Idrissi, N., Berrag, B., Riyad, M., Sahibi, H., Bichichi, M., Rhalem, A., Short report: Leishmania tropica: etiologic agent of a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57, Haydon, D.T., Cleaveland, S., Taylor, L.H., Laurenson, M.K., Identifying reservoirs of infection: a conceptual and practical challenge. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8, Hernandez, D., Rojas, E., Scorza, J.V., Jorquera, A., Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela. Biomedica 26 (Suppl 1), Killick-Kendrick, R., Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review. Med. Vet. Entomol. 4, Killick-Kendrick, R., The biology and control of phlebotomine sand flies. Clin. Dermatol. 17, Lainson, R., Rangel, E.F., Lutzomyia longipalpis and the ecoepidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 100, Lainson, R., Shaw, J.J., Evolution, classification and geographical distribution. In: Peters, W., Killick-Kendrick, R. (Eds.), The Leishmaniasis in Biology and Medicine, 1. Academic Press, London, pp Llanos-Cuentas, E.A., Roncal, N., Villaseca, P., Paz, L., Ogusuku, E., Perez, J.E., Caceres, A., Davies, C.R., Natural infections of Leishmania peruviana in animals in the Peruvian Andes. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93, Madeira, M.F., Uchoa, C.M., Leal, C.A., Macedo Silva, R.M., Duarte, R., Magalhães, C.M., Barrientos Serra, C.M., Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis em cães naturalmente infectados. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 36, Madeira, M.F., Schubach, A., Schubach, T.M., Pacheco, R.S., Oliveira, F.S., Pereira, S.A., Figueiredo, F.B., Baptista, C., Marzochi, M.C., Mixed infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in a naturally infected dog from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 100, Marco, J.D., Barroso, P.A., Calvopina, M., Kumazawa, H., Furuya, M., Korenaga, M., Cajal, S.P., Mora, M.C., Rea, M.M., Borda, C.E., Basombrio, M.A., Taranto, N.J., Hashiguchi, Y., Species assignation of Leishmania from human and canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis cases by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis in North Argentina. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72, Maroli, M., Pennisi, M.G., Di Muccio, T., Khoury, C., Gradoni, L., Gramiccia, M., Infection of sandflies by a cat naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. Vet. Parasitol. 145, Mendonça, M.G., de Brito, M.E., Rodrigues, E.H., Bandeira, V., Jardim, M.L., Abath, F.G., Persistence of Leishmania parasites in scars after clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: is there a sterile cure? J. Infect. Dis. 189, Molina, R., Amela, C., Nieto, J., San-Andres, M., Gonzalez, F., Castillo, J.A., Lucientes, J., Alvar, J., Infectivity of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum to colonized Phlebotomus perniciosus. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88, Moreira Jr., E.D., Mendes de Souza, V.M., Sreenivasan, M., Nascimento, E.G., Pontes de Carvalho, L., Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission. Vet. Parasitol. 122, Moreno, J., Alvar, J., Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model. Trends Parasitol. 18, Morsy, T.A., Schnur, L.F., Feinsod, F.M., Salem, A.M., Wahba, M.M., el Said, S.M., Natural infections of Leishmania major in domestic dogs from Alexandria, Egypt. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37, Oliveira, F.S., Pirmez, C., Pires, M.Q., Brazil, R.P., Pacheco, R.S., PCR-based diagnosis for detection of Leishmania in skin and blood of rodents from an endemic area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Vet. Parasitol. 129, Padilla, A.M., Marco, J.D., Diosque, P., Segura, M.A., Mora, M.C., Fernandez, M.M., Malchiodi, E.L., Basombrio, M.A., Canine infection and the possible role of dogs in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniosis in Salta, Argentina. Vet. Parasitol. 110, Parvizi, P., Mauricio, I., Aransay, A.M., Miles, M.A., Ready, P.D., First detection of Leishmania major in peridomestic Phlebotomus papatasi from Isfahan province, Iran: comparison of nested PCR of nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA and semi-nested PCR of minicircle kinetoplast DNA. Acta Trop. 93, Peters, W., Elbihari, S., Evans, D.A., Leishmania infecting man and wild animals in Saudi Arabia. 2. Leishmania arabica n. sp. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 80, Pirmez, C., Coutinho, S.G., Marzochi, M.C.A., Nunes, M.P., Grimaldi Jr., G., Canine american cutaneous leishmaniasis: a clinical and immunological study in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 38, Pratlong, F., Rioux, J.A., Marty, P., Faraut-Gambarelli, F., Dereure, J., Lanotte, G., Dedet, J.P., Isoenzymatic analysis of 712 strains of Leishmania infantum in the south of France and relationship of

8 146 F. Dantas-Torres / Veterinary Parasitology 149 (2007) enzymatic polymorphism to clinical and epidemiological features. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, Reithinger, R., Davies, C.R., Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61, Reithinger, R., Lambson, B.E., Barker, D.C., Davies, C.R., Use of PCR to detect Leishmania (Viannia) spp. in dog blood and bone marrow. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38, Reithinger, R., Espinoza, J.C., Davies, C.R., The transmission dynamics of canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Huanuco, Peru. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69, Rojas, E., Scorza, J.V., Xenodiagnóstico con Lutzomyia youngi en casos Venezolanos de leishmaniasis cutánea por Leishmania braziliensis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 84, Rotureau, B., Are New World leishmaniases becoming anthroponoses? Med. Hypotheses 67, Ryan, P.R., Arana, B.A., Ryan, J.R., Wirtz, R.A., Wortmann, G.W., Rizzo, N.R., The domestic dog, a potential reservoir for Leishmania in the Peten region of Guatemala. Vet. Parasitol. 115, 1 7. Saliba, E.K., Oumeish, Y.O., Reservoir hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin. Dermatol. 17, Schubach, A., Marzochi, M.C., Cuzzi-Maya, T., Oliveira, A.V., Araujo, M.L., Oliveira, A.L., Pacheco, R.S., Momen, H., Conceicao-Silva, F., Coutinho, S.G., Marzochi, K.B., Cutaneous scars in American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients: a site of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis persistence and viability eleven years after antimonial therapy and clinical cure. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58, Sessa, P.A., Falqueto, A., Varejão, J.B., Tentativa de controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana por meio do tratamento dos cães doentes. Cad. Saude Publica. 10, Silva, E.S., Gontijo, C.M., Melo, M.N., Contribution of molecular techniques to the epidemiology of neotropical Leishmania species. Trends Parasitol. 21, Solano-Gallego, L., Llull, J., Ramos, G., Riera, C., Arboix, M., Alberola, J., Ferrer, L., The Ibizian hound presents a predominantly cellular immune response against natural Leishmania infection. Vet. Parasitol. 90, Travi, B.L., Tabares, C.J., Cadena, H., Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in two Colombian dogs: a note on infectivity for sand flies and response to treatment. Biomedica 26 (Suppl 1), Vergel, C., Palácios, R., Cadena, H., Posso, C.J., Valderrama, L., Perez, M., Walker, J., Travi, B.L., Saravia, N.G., Evidence for Leishmania (Viannia) parasites in the skin and blood of patients before and after treatment. J. Infect. Dis. 194, Vexenat, J.A., Barreto, A.C., Rosa, A.C.O., Infecção experimental de Lutzomyia whitmani em cães infectados com Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 81, Yadon, Z.E., Rodrigues, L.C., Davies, C.R., Quigley, M.A., Indoor and peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina: a retrospective case control study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68,

Use of PCR RFLP to identify Leishmania species in naturally-infected dogs

Use of PCR RFLP to identify Leishmania species in naturally-infected dogs Veterinary Parasitology 140 (2006) 231 238 www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Use of PCR RFLP to identify Leishmania species in naturally-infected dogs Hélida Monteiro de Andrade a, *, Alexandre Barbosa Reis

More information

Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission

Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission Veterinary Parasitology 122 (2004) 245 252 Assessment of an optimized dog-culling program in the dynamics of canine Leishmania transmission Edson Duarte Moreira, Jr. a,b,c,, Verena Maria Mendes de Souza

More information

The first case of VL was described in 1922 [1]. VL is endemic in the Rift and pre-rift mountains, with over 150 cases per year in 2006-2008.

The first case of VL was described in 1922 [1]. VL is endemic in the Rift and pre-rift mountains, with over 150 cases per year in 2006-2008. MOROCCO BASIC COUNTRY DATA Total Population: 31,951,412 Population 0-14 years: 30% Rural population: 43% Population living under USD 1.25 a day: 2.5% Population living under the national poverty line:

More information

Detection and identification of Leishmania species in field-captured phlebotomine sandflies based on mini-exon gene PCR

Detection and identification of Leishmania species in field-captured phlebotomine sandflies based on mini-exon gene PCR Acta Tropica 99 (2006) 252 259 Detection and identification of Leishmania species in field-captured phlebotomine sandflies based on mini-exon gene PCR B.R. Paiva a,d,, N.F.C. Secundino e, J.C. Nascimento

More information

Review Article. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas

Review Article. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas Review Article Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas Soraia A. Diniz, 1 Fabiana L. Silva, 2 Alcina V. Carvalho Neta, 2 Regina Bueno, 3 Rita M.S.N.C. Guerra, 4 Ana

More information

Victims Compensation Claim Status of All Pending Claims and Claims Decided Within the Last Three Years

Victims Compensation Claim Status of All Pending Claims and Claims Decided Within the Last Three Years Claim#:021914-174 Initials: J.T. Last4SSN: 6996 DOB: 5/3/1970 Crime Date: 4/30/2013 Status: Claim is currently under review. Decision expected within 7 days Claim#:041715-334 Initials: M.S. Last4SSN: 2957

More information

Acta Tropica 98 (2006) 176 182

Acta Tropica 98 (2006) 176 182 Acta Tropica 98 (2006) 176 182 Domestic swine in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area produce antibodies against multiple Leishmania infantum antigens but apparently resist to L. infantum infection Evandro

More information

Leishmaniasis in Dogs

Leishmaniasis in Dogs Leishmaniasis in Dogs What are the signs and symptoms of leishmaniasis in dogs? Some dogs can have the Leishmania parasite for extended periods of time and may not exhibit any signs or symptoms of disease

More information

IRAQ BASIC COUNTRY DATA

IRAQ BASIC COUNTRY DATA IRAQ BASIC COUNTRY DATA Total Population: 32,030,823 Population 0-14 years: 43% Rural population: 34% Population living under USD 1.25 a day: 4% Population living under the national poverty line: 22.9%

More information

CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN BARRA DE GUARATIBA, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS

CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN BARRA DE GUARATIBA, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo 45(2):79-83, March-April, 2003 CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN BARRA DE GUARATIBA, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS Maria Alice A. CABRERA(1), Adelzon

More information

Leishmaniasis in Veterans of Desert Storm & Iraqi Freedom

Leishmaniasis in Veterans of Desert Storm & Iraqi Freedom Leishmaniasis in Veterans of Desert Storm & Iraqi Freedom Alan J. Magill MD, FACP Science Director Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 25 May 2005 Gulf War and Health: Infectious Dieseases 1 The Leishmaniases

More information

Abstract. Veterinary Parasitology 131 (2005)

Abstract. Veterinary Parasitology 131 (2005) Veterinary Parasitology 131 (2005) 213 220 www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Importance of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the dynamics of transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Porteirinha

More information

Prospective Study on the Incidence and Progression of Clinical Signs in Naïve Dogs Naturally Infected by Leishmania infantum

Prospective Study on the Incidence and Progression of Clinical Signs in Naïve Dogs Naturally Infected by Leishmania infantum Prospective Study on the Incidence and Progression of Clinical Signs in Naïve Dogs Naturally Infected by Leishmania infantum Valentina Foglia Manzillo 1, Trentina Di Muccio 2, Sivia Cappiello 1, Aldo Scalone

More information

Trentina Di Muccio, Fabrizia Veronesi, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Andrea Onofri, Daniela Piergili Fioretti and Marina Gramiccia

Trentina Di Muccio, Fabrizia Veronesi, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Andrea Onofri, Daniela Piergili Fioretti and Marina Gramiccia REFERENCES CONTENT ALERTS Diagnostic Value of Conjunctival Swab Sampling Associated with Nested PCR for Different Categories of Dogs Naturally Exposed to Leishmania infantum Infection Trentina Di Muccio,

More information

Physical Factors Influencing the Oviposition of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Laboratory Conditions

Physical Factors Influencing the Oviposition of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Laboratory Conditions Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 92(6): 733-737, Nov./Dec. 1997 Physical Factors Influencing the Oviposition of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Laboratory Conditions Elsa Nieves

More information

APPLICABILITY OF kdna-pcr FOR ROUTINE DIAGNOSIS OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN A TERTIARY REFERENCE HOSPITAL

APPLICABILITY OF kdna-pcr FOR ROUTINE DIAGNOSIS OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN A TERTIARY REFERENCE HOSPITAL Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 55(6):393-399, November-December, 2013 doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652013000600004 APPLICABILITY OF kdna-pcr FOR ROUTINE DIAGNOSIS OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN A TERTIARY

More information

Seroepidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs of Ahvaz district, Iran

Seroepidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs of Ahvaz district, Iran Archives of Razi Institute, Vol. 62, No. 1, Winter (2007) 31-37 Copyright 2007 by Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute Seroepidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs of Ahvaz district,

More information

Factors Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Factors Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Factors Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Vinícius Silva Belo 1 *, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck 2, David Soeiro Barbosa 1, Taynãna César Simões

More information

João Silva de Mendonça, MD, PhD Infectious Diseases Service Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual São Paulo - Brazil

João Silva de Mendonça, MD, PhD Infectious Diseases Service Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual São Paulo - Brazil Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Society of Hepatology PAHO, Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board PART III SESSION 9 Prevention and control of Viral Hepatitis in Brazil HEPATITIS IN SPECIAL RISK GROUPS/

More information

Brazilian Ministry of Health Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Mariza G. Morgado, PhD Lab. AIDS & Molecular Immunology Oswaldo Cruz Institute

Brazilian Ministry of Health Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Mariza G. Morgado, PhD Lab. AIDS & Molecular Immunology Oswaldo Cruz Institute Brazilian Ministry of Health Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Mariza G. Morgado, PhD. AIDS & Molecular Immunology Oswaldo Cruz Institute Fev 2006 HPTN Brazilian Sites NICHD/HPTN 040 PHASE III RAMDOMIZED TRIAL OF

More information

A Retrospective Study of Rabies Cases Reported at Vom Christian Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria, 2006 2010.

A Retrospective Study of Rabies Cases Reported at Vom Christian Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria, 2006 2010. Nigerian Veterinary Journal VOL:32 (4) 366-370 A R T I C L E A Retrospective Study of Rabies Cases Reported at Vom Christian Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria, 2006 2010. *1 2 1 2 3 2 1 AWORH, M. K., NWOSUH,

More information

Characterization and speculations on the urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

Characterization and speculations on the urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil FÓRUM FORUM 2959 Characterization and speculations on the urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil Caracterização e especulações acerca da urbanização da leishmaniose visceral no Brasil Carlos

More information

Results from the Clinical Trial of Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR): Decrease in Bacteriological Index

Results from the Clinical Trial of Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR): Decrease in Bacteriological Index Lepr Rev (2014) 85, 262 266 Results from the Clinical Trial of Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR): Decrease in Bacteriological Index MARIA LUCIA FERNANDES PENNA*, SAMIRA

More information

Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina

Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina 282 Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 103(3): 282-287, May 2008 Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina Oscar D Salomón/ +, María G Quintana 1, Mario

More information

Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Dias D Ávila, State of Bahia, Brazil

Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Dias D Ávila, State of Bahia, Brazil Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 43(4):400-404, jul-ago, 2010 Article/Artigo Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Dias D Ávila, State

More information

The rate of failure to thrive among children aged 2 months - 5 years in Kanaan sub-district / Diyala province

The rate of failure to thrive among children aged 2 months - 5 years in Kanaan sub-district / Diyala province The rate of failure to thrive among children aged 2 months - 5 years in Kanaan sub-district / Diyala province Mehdi SH. Al-Zuheiry (M.B.Ch.B., F.I.C.M.S.Ped.) College of Medicine-Diyala University Background:

More information

Luis Fernando Chaves* INTRODUCTION. attention has been given to the community structure of sand fly vectors.

Luis Fernando Chaves* INTRODUCTION. attention has been given to the community structure of sand fly vectors. BOLETÍN DE MALARIOLOGÍA Y SALUD AMBIENTAL Vol. LI, Nº 1, Enero-Julio, 2011 Phlebotomine sand fly species co-occurrence at the local scale: Differences between agricultural and forested areas Patrones de

More information

EXTERNAL DOSE RATES IN COASTAL URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN BRASIL

EXTERNAL DOSE RATES IN COASTAL URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN BRASIL X Congreso Regional Latinoamericano IRPA de Protección y Seguridad Radiológica Radioprotección: Nuevos Desafíos para un Mundo en Evolución Buenos Aires, 12 al 17 de abril, 2015 SOCIEDAD ARGENTINA DE RADIOPROTECCIÓN

More information

Curriculum Vitae. Name: Lenea Maria da Graça Campino. Nationality: Portuguese

Curriculum Vitae. Name: Lenea Maria da Graça Campino. Nationality: Portuguese Curriculum Vitae Name: Lenea Maria da Graça Campino Nationality: Portuguese Institutional address: UEI Parasitologia Médica. Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT). Universidade Nova de Lisboa

More information

INDIA BASIC COUNTRY DATA

INDIA BASIC COUNTRY DATA INDIA BASIC COUNTRY DATA Total Population: 1,170,938,000 Population 0-14 years: 31% Rural population: 70% Population living under USD 1.25 a day: 41.6% Population living under the national poverty line:

More information

ADPH Zoonotic, Rabies Control and Bite Manual, July

ADPH Zoonotic, Rabies Control and Bite Manual, July Assessing the Need for PEP Administration of rabies PEP is a medical urgency, not a medical emergency. Persons who have been bitten by animals suspected or proven to be rabid should begin PEP as soon as

More information

Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology

Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 97(4): 477-483, June 2002 477 Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and

More information

AVANCES EN CIENCIAS E INGENIERÍAS. Renato León 1, Christina Erkelenz 1, Carlos Reck 2, Rommy Terán 3. Introduction

AVANCES EN CIENCIAS E INGENIERÍAS. Renato León 1, Christina Erkelenz 1, Carlos Reck 2, Rommy Terán 3. Introduction ARTÍCULO/ARTICLE AVANCES EN CIENCIAS E INGENIERÍAS SECCIÓN/SECTION B Short review and detection of Leishmania parasites in skin biopsies from patients coming from Echeandía, Bolívar Province, Ecuador Breve

More information

Successful isolation of Leishmania infantum from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from naturally infected dogs

Successful isolation of Leishmania infantum from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from naturally infected dogs Medeiros-Silva et al. BMC Veterinary Research (2015) 11:258 DOI 10.1186/s12917-015-0576-5 RESEARCH ARTICLE Successful isolation of Leishmania infantum from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

More information

Fact sheet. Introductory statement. Aetiology. Natural hosts. World distribution

Fact sheet. Introductory statement. Aetiology. Natural hosts. World distribution EXOTIC Screw-worm fly Fact sheet Introductory statement Screw-worm fly is a major cause of disease in warm blooded animals around the world (Bowman 2003, Allan 2001). These flies lay their eggs on wounded

More information

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hatay

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hatay Research Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hatay Cenk Akçalı, 1 * MD, Gülnaz Çulha, 2 MD, H. Serhat İnalöz, 1 MD, Nazan Savaş, 3 MD, Yusuf Önlen, 4 MD, Lütfü Savaş, 4 MD, Necmettin Kırtak, 1 MD Address: 1Department

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

List of Part Numbers Manufacturer's No. / Hella No.

List of Part Numbers Manufacturer's No. / Hella No. List of Part Numbers Manufacturer's No. / No. List of part numbers.02-.09 Manufacturer's no. / no..-.53 Note: The original numbers listed in the manufacturer number - number comparison serve exclusively

More information

Clinical signs of leishmaniasis Clinical signs of leishmaniasis vary widely. The main ones are:

Clinical signs of leishmaniasis Clinical signs of leishmaniasis vary widely. The main ones are: Canine leishmaniasis mosquito disease Canine Leishmaniasis is a serious, even fatal for your dog. Discover how to protect it. Canine leishmaniasis is a serious parasitic disease in dogs caused by a parasite

More information

107, %, P < 01001

107, %, P < 01001 2002 1 40 1 Chin J Pediatr January 2002 Vol 40 No. 1 45 2 294 1 906 (PCR) (MP) ;307 ;81 (NPS) (RSV) (ADV) 1 906 28 1147 % ;544 107 19167 % P < 01001 A ( GAS) 1816 % 615 % 213 % 210 % 210 % ;34 GAS 26 7615

More information

Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil - A Review

Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil - A Review Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 100: 811-827, December 2005 811 Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil - A Review

More information

Outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Santa Catarina, Brazil 1

Outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Santa Catarina, Brazil 1 Outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Santa Catarina, Brazil 1 Mário Steindel 2 *, Álvaro Menin 2, Tatiane Evangelista 3, Patrícia H. Stoco 2, Mariel A. Marlow 2, Renata C. Fleith

More information

Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela

Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela Olga Zerpa, 1 Marian Ulrich, 1 Rafael Borges, 1 Vestalia Rodríguez, 1 Marta Centeno, 1 Emilia Negrón, 1 Doris Belizario,

More information

The 2015 African Horse Sickness season: Report

The 2015 African Horse Sickness season: Report The 2015 African Horse Sickness season: Report 1 September 2014 to 30 June 2015 Report by Dr M de Klerk, Ms M Laing, Dr C Qekwana and Ms N Mabelane Directorate: Animal Health 2015/07/03 Contents Introduction...

More information

Principles of Disease and Epidemiology. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Principles of Disease and Epidemiology. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Pathology, Infection, and Disease Disease: An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally Pathology: The study of disease Etiology: The study of

More information

FedEx Ground Rates. Effective January 7, 2013

FedEx Ground Rates. Effective January 7, 2013 FedEx Ground Rates Effective January 7, 2013 Introduction FedEx Ground shipping services provide you with dependable, cost-effective, day-definite delivery for packages that don t require the speed of

More information

BRADEN SCALE: THE RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSES IN THE PROMOTION OF PATIENT SAFETY 1

BRADEN SCALE: THE RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSES IN THE PROMOTION OF PATIENT SAFETY 1 BRADEN SCALE: THE RESPONSIBILITY OF NURSES IN THE PROMOTION OF PATIENT SAFETY 1 FERREIRA, Emanuelli Mancio 2 ; MAGNAGO, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza 3 ; CERON, Marinez Diniz 4 ; PASA, Thiana Sebben 5 ;

More information

Breast cancer control in Brazil. Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

Breast cancer control in Brazil. Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Breast cancer control in Brazil Gulnar Azevedo e Silva London, May 2014 The burden of breast cancer in Brazil Incidence Age-standardized incidence of breast cancer in Brazil, selected cities Ministério

More information

AARHUS UNIVERSITY JUNE 15, 2010 BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT DENMARK

AARHUS UNIVERSITY JUNE 15, 2010 BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT DENMARK BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT AARHUS DENMARK 1 Bed bug problems in Europe Bed bug biology -new results and importance for control Host

More information

AVSC 230 SYLLABUS Animal Health and Diseases

AVSC 230 SYLLABUS Animal Health and Diseases AVSC 230 SYLLABUS Animal Health and Diseases Instructor: Susan Prattis VMD Ph.D. MSNMP Dipl. ACLAM Office: Rm. 305 Wing A Agricultural Building Phone: 961 001 340460 x 4451 E mail: sp07@aub.edu.lb Office

More information

Zika Virus. History of Zika virus

Zika Virus. History of Zika virus Zika Virus Zika fever is caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV), an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus). The Zika virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus in the family Togaviridae. It is related to dengue, yellow

More information

Relationship Between Blood-borne Parameters and Gross Lesions in Leishmania chagasi Seroreagents Dogs

Relationship Between Blood-borne Parameters and Gross Lesions in Leishmania chagasi Seroreagents Dogs 207 Original Full Paper Relationship Between Blood-borne Parameters and Gross Lesions in Leishmania chagasi Seroreagents Dogs Pedro H. O. Viadanna 1, Alessandra A. Medeiros 2, Matias J. P. Szabó 2, Antonio

More information

Sand fly saliva & host immune response

Sand fly saliva & host immune response CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE Faculty of Science Sand fly saliva & host immune response Iva Rohoušová Supervisor Prof. RNDr. Petr Volf, CSc. Advisor Doc. Marie Lipoldová, CSc. Institute of Molecular Genetic

More information

Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing

Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing Short Communication Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing T.C. Vieira 1,2,3,4, M.A.D. Gigonzac 2,3,4, D.M. Silva

More information

Jundishapur Journal of.

Jundishapur Journal of. KOWSAR Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2;6(): 5-56. DOI:.582/jjm.622 Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology www.jjmicrobiol.com Nocturnal Activity, Monthly Leptomonad Infection, Parity Rate and Physiological Status

More information

Coordinator of the Brazilian Institute of Health Technology Assessment Coordinator, Hypertension Unit, Division of Cardiology

Coordinator of the Brazilian Institute of Health Technology Assessment Coordinator, Hypertension Unit, Division of Cardiology FLÁVIO DANNI FUCHS Current Administrative and Academic Appointments Administrative Academic Coordinator of the Brazilian Institute of Health Technology Assessment Coordinator, Hypertension Unit, Division

More information

West Nile virus in the WHO european region

West Nile virus in the WHO european region West Nile virus in the WHO european region This information leaflet contains six sections and is intended for a generic and public health audience: 1. WNv is found in europe. What are the risks in European

More information

Brazil February Production Update and Weekly Crop Condition Report

Brazil February Production Update and Weekly Crop Condition Report February 27, 2014 Informa Economics South American Crop Reporting Service Brazil February Production Update and Weekly Crop Condition Report The Informa Economics staff in Brazil conducted its survey between

More information

Deworming and immunization synergies and opportunities

Deworming and immunization synergies and opportunities Deworming and immunization synergies and opportunities Antonio Montresor Neglected 1 Tropical Diseases Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission Control Presentation Outline - Brief introduction about worms

More information

Course Descriptions. I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students)

Course Descriptions. I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students) Course Descriptions I. Professional Courses: MSEG 7216: Introduction to Infectious Diseases (Medical Students) This course is offered during the first semester of the second year of the MD Program. It

More information

WHO Regional Office for Europe update on avian influenza A (H7N9) virus

WHO Regional Office for Europe update on avian influenza A (H7N9) virus WHO Regional Office for Europe update on avian influenza A (H7N9) virus Situation update 2: 30 April 2013 Address requests about publications of the WHO Regional Office for Europe to: Publications WHO

More information

Spatiotemporal analysis of sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at Pantanal, central South America

Spatiotemporal analysis of sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at Pantanal, central South America Casaril et al. Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:364 RESEARCH Open Access Spatiotemporal analysis of sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at Pantanal, central South

More information

Sensitive, Specific, and Rapid Detection of Leishmania donovani DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

Sensitive, Specific, and Rapid Detection of Leishmania donovani DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81(4), 2009, pp. 578 582 doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0145 Copyright 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Sensitive, Specific, and Rapid Detection of Leishmania

More information

Economic impact of dengue episode: multicenter study across four Brazilian regions

Economic impact of dengue episode: multicenter study across four Brazilian regions Economic impact of dengue episode: multicenter study across four Brazilian regions First Regional Dengue Symposium Rio de Janeiro, November 2015 Celina Maria Turchi Martelli Visiting Researcher - CPqAM

More information

DATING YOUR GUILD 1952-1960

DATING YOUR GUILD 1952-1960 DATING YOUR GUILD 1952-1960 YEAR APPROXIMATE LAST SERIAL NUMBER PRODUCED 1953 1000-1500 1954 1500-2200 1955 2200-3000 1956 3000-4000 1957 4000-5700 1958 5700-8300 1959 12035 1960-1969 This chart displays

More information

, variety. Histoplasma capsulatum,, C,. , 3. ,. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum histoplasmosis capsulati,,

, variety. Histoplasma capsulatum,, C,. , 3. ,. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum histoplasmosis capsulati,, Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. Vol. 44, 239 243, 2003 ISSN 0916 4804,., 4 1,. variety,,,,, 2.,, 2, 1.,,. 4 3 H. capsulatum RNA ITS., H. capsulatum var. farciminosum.,,.,,,. Key words: dog, Histoplasma capsulatum,

More information

Les interactions parasites eucaryotes-hôtes: * * transient pathogenic processes in humans. How does Leishmania Adaptive

Les interactions parasites eucaryotes-hôtes: * * transient pathogenic processes in humans. How does Leishmania Adaptive Les interactions parasites eucaryotes-hôtes: l exemple de Leishmania * * t = 24h Geneviève Milon * * * Leishmania major : first recognized as the etiological agent of transient pathogenic processes in

More information

NASAL COLONIZATION BY MICROORGANISMS IN NURSING PROFESSIONALS IN UNITS SPECIALIZING IN HIV/AIDS

NASAL COLONIZATION BY MICROORGANISMS IN NURSING PROFESSIONALS IN UNITS SPECIALIZING IN HIV/AIDS University of Sa o Paulo at Ribeira o Preto College of Nursing. WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Research Development. Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil. RENAIDST Rede Nacional NASAL COLONIZATION BY MICROORGANISMS

More information

Animal Health Diagnostic Center. Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs. Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs

Animal Health Diagnostic Center. Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs. Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Dogs Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in dogs Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes are

More information

ISE Satellite Student Regional Symposium - Environmental Electrochemistry Meeting (Semana de Eletroquímica Ambiental (in Portuguese))

ISE Satellite Student Regional Symposium - Environmental Electrochemistry Meeting (Semana de Eletroquímica Ambiental (in Portuguese)) ISE Satellite Student Regional Symposium - Environmental Electrochemistry Meeting (Semana de Eletroquímica Ambiental (in Portuguese)) Aim The proposal to hold the Environmental Electrochemistry Meeting

More information

Surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in epidemiologically distinct locations in Juruti, a mining municipality in Pará State, Brazil

Surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in epidemiologically distinct locations in Juruti, a mining municipality in Pará State, Brazil doi:.523/s276-622326 ARTIGO ORIGINAL ORIGINAL ARTICLE ARTÍCULO ORIGINAL Surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in epidemiologically distinct locations in Juruti, a mining municipality in Pará State, Brazil

More information

THE EVOLUTION OF THE POPULATION- BASED CANCER REGISTRIES IN BRAZIL: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

THE EVOLUTION OF THE POPULATION- BASED CANCER REGISTRIES IN BRAZIL: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 2nd International Cancer Control Congress November 25 to 28, 07 THE EVOLUTION OF THE POPULATION- BASED CANCER REGISTRIES IN BRAZIL: A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Cláudio Pompeiano Noronha; Gulnar Azevedo Mendonça;

More information

AAP. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Havrix (GlaxoSmithKline Rixensart ) Vaqta (Merck & Co Inc Whitehouse Station NJ)

AAP. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Havrix (GlaxoSmithKline Rixensart ) Vaqta (Merck & Co Inc Whitehouse Station NJ) AAP Committee on Infectious Diseases 1995 () 1996 1999 2 1999 2005 (FDA) 24 12 12 23 Havrix (GlaxoSmithKline Rixensart) Vaqta (Merck & Co Inc Whitehouse Station NJ) 1 d 5 (hepatitis A); (immunization);

More information

Department of Epidemiological Surveillance and Intervention

Department of Epidemiological Surveillance and Intervention Department of Epidemiological Surveillance and Intervention EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA FOR MALARIA IN GREECE (MANDATORY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM) Key Points The notification rate of malaria in Greece shows an increasing

More information

Paediatrica Indonesiana. Limitations of the Indonesian Pediatric Tuberculosis Scoring System in the context of child contact investigation

Paediatrica Indonesiana. Limitations of the Indonesian Pediatric Tuberculosis Scoring System in the context of child contact investigation Paediatrica Indonesiana VOLUME 51 November NUMBER 6 Original Article Limitations of the Indonesian Pediatric Tuberculosis Scoring System in the context of child contact investigation Rina Triasih 1,2,

More information

CURRICULUM VITAE. José Wanderley Marangon Lima

CURRICULUM VITAE. José Wanderley Marangon Lima CURRICULUM VITAE José Wanderley Marangon Lima Personal Data Name: José Wanderley Marangon Lima Institution: Federal University at Itajubá - UNIFEI Address: Av. BPS, 1303 37500-903 Itajubá MG Phone: +55

More information

HOST RECORDS FOR THE IMMATURE STAGES OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN TICK, AMBLYOMMA FUSCUM (ACARI: IXODIDAE) 1

HOST RECORDS FOR THE IMMATURE STAGES OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN TICK, AMBLYOMMA FUSCUM (ACARI: IXODIDAE) 1 370 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS HOST RECORDS FOR THE IMMATURE STAGES OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN TICK, AMBLYOMMA FUSCUM (ACARI: IXODIDAE) 1 Thiago F. Martins, 2 Filipe Dantas-Torres, 3 Fernanda A. Nieri-Bastos, 2 Arlei

More information

NET SERVIÇOS DE COMUNICAÇÃO S.A. CORPORATE TAX ID (CNPJ) # 00.108.786/0001-65 NIRE # 35.300.177.240 PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANY

NET SERVIÇOS DE COMUNICAÇÃO S.A. CORPORATE TAX ID (CNPJ) # 00.108.786/0001-65 NIRE # 35.300.177.240 PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANY NET SERVIÇOS DE COMUNICAÇÃO S.A. CORPORATE TAX ID (CNPJ) # 00.108.786/0001-65 NIRE # 35.300.177.240 PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANY MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING HELD ON APRIL 19, 2004 VENUE, TIME AND

More information

FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE

FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Naresuan University 171 Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology The time is critical now for graduate education and research

More information

LIST OF ATTORNEYS. Maio Island

LIST OF ATTORNEYS. Maio Island LIST OF ATTORNEYS Although these attorneys have been chosen with care, the Embassy cannot be responsible for their ability nor can the Embassy accept any financial responsibility. Their names are arranged

More information

EVALUATION OF DARK FIELD MICROSCOPY, ISOLATION AND MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE LEPTOSPIROSIS

EVALUATION OF DARK FIELD MICROSCOPY, ISOLATION AND MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE LEPTOSPIROSIS Page85 Research Article Biological Sciences EVALUATION OF DARK FIELD MICROSCOPY, ISOLATION AND MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE LEPTOSPIROSIS S. Vamshi Krishna *, Siju Joseph,

More information

Comments from the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) on Proposed Revision of HHS/CDC Animal-Importation Regulations

Comments from the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) on Proposed Revision of HHS/CDC Animal-Importation Regulations November 30, 2007 Comments from the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) on Proposed Revision of HHS/CDC Animal-Importation Regulations Response to Section 2, Other Animal

More information

The global classroom: Training the world s healthcare professionals

The global classroom: Training the world s healthcare professionals The global classroom: Training the world s healthcare professionals Dr Stuart Anderson Associate Dean of Studies London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 1 Overview Describe the main education and

More information

Containing an Epidemic: A Study of the Spread and Control of Rabies

Containing an Epidemic: A Study of the Spread and Control of Rabies Freeman 1 Leah Freeman Dr. LeFebvre and Master Dockter COSMOS Cluster 7 July 30, 2012 Containing an Epidemic: A Study of the Spread and Control of Rabies Abstract: Rabies spread and control is an important

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology The Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences / Clinical Microbiology, Immunology or

More information

Presentation to SHAREHOLDERS AND INVESTORS. Energy and Growth, a win-win Combination November 2013

Presentation to SHAREHOLDERS AND INVESTORS. Energy and Growth, a win-win Combination November 2013 Presentation to SHAREHOLDERS AND INVESTORS Energy and Growth, a win-win Combination November 2013 Disclaimer This presentation may contain forward-looking statements, Such statements are not statements

More information

Duration of Tick Bites in a Lyme Disease-endemic Area

Duration of Tick Bites in a Lyme Disease-endemic Area American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright 1996 by The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health All rights reserved Vol. 143, 2 Printed in U.S.A. Duration of Tick Bites in a Lyme Disease-endemic

More information

T2007 Seattle, Washington. Traffic and Alcohol: A study on alcohol-related traffic accident deaths in Sao Paulo

T2007 Seattle, Washington. Traffic and Alcohol: A study on alcohol-related traffic accident deaths in Sao Paulo T2007 Seattle, Washington Traffic and Alcohol: A study on alcohol-related traffic accident deaths in Sao Paulo Julio de Carvalho Ponce 1, Vilma Leyton 1, Gabriel Andreuccetti 1, Debora Goncalves de Carvalho

More information

Advances in the knowledge of parasite resistance of ruminant hosts and parasites

Advances in the knowledge of parasite resistance of ruminant hosts and parasites Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP Main research areas: epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Hygiene /Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Hygiene /Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Hygiene /Faculty of Veterinary Medicine The Master Degree Food Hygiene /Veterinary Medicine is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University

More information

Brazil: Dengue Outbreak

Brazil: Dengue Outbreak Brazil: Dengue Outbreak DREF operation n MDRBR003 GLIDE n EP-2008-000042-BRA 27 November 2008 The International Federation s Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) is a source of un-earmarked money created

More information

Date of Commencement: January, 2004 Duration: One Year Status: Ongoing. Objectives

Date of Commencement: January, 2004 Duration: One Year Status: Ongoing. Objectives Development of a computer based Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Rajasthan using Geographical Information System- R. C. Sharma, Vinod Joshi and Manju Singhi Date of Commencement: January,

More information

Trichinellosis (Trichinosis) Extended Version

Trichinellosis (Trichinosis) Extended Version Classic case: Pigs: NO clinical signs Humans: High fever, weakness, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, facial & periorbital edema, hives, dizziness, paresis & occasionally death Presentation:

More information

HR DEPARTMENTAL SUFFIX & ORGANIZATION CODES

HR DEPARTMENTAL SUFFIX & ORGANIZATION CODES HR DEPARTMENTAL SUFFIX & ORGANIZATION CODES Department Suffix Organization Academic Affairs and Dean of Faculty, VP AA 1100 Admissions (Undergraduate) AD 1330 Advanced Ceramics, Colorado Center for--ccac

More information

A BRIEF DESCRIPTON OF THE MEDICAL SCHOOL CURRICULA IN BRAZIL

A BRIEF DESCRIPTON OF THE MEDICAL SCHOOL CURRICULA IN BRAZIL A BRIEF DESCRIPTON OF THE MEDICAL SCHOOL CURRICULA IN BRAZIL 1. The Brazilian Educational System Primary and secondary schooling in Brazil and the United States are similar in terms of student age and

More information

MODELING A HEXAPOD ROBOT BY MEANS OF CAD TECHNIQUES

MODELING A HEXAPOD ROBOT BY MEANS OF CAD TECHNIQUES Thiago Augusto Ferreira 1, Armando Carlos de Pina Filho 2, Aloísio Carlos de Pina 3 1 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Mechanical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Rio de Janeiro - RJ,

More information

World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response

World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response WHO/CDS/CSR/ISR/2000.1 WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-prone Infectious Diseases World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response This document has been

More information

PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form)

PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form) PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form) Site developed by Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Modesto Junior College,

More information

Lyme Disease/ Lyme Borreliosis By Simone Swanepoel

Lyme Disease/ Lyme Borreliosis By Simone Swanepoel Lyme Disease/ Lyme Borreliosis By Simone Swanepoel Outline Taxonomy/ History / Life cycle Morphology of agents involved/ Epidemiology & Distribution Ecology / Evolution / Genetics / Physiology/Immunology

More information

Credit Suisse II Brazil Construction & Mortgage Field Trip. August 30th, 2007 SÃO PAULO

Credit Suisse II Brazil Construction & Mortgage Field Trip. August 30th, 2007 SÃO PAULO Credit Suisse II Brazil Construction & Mortgage Field Trip August 30th, 2007 SÃO PAULO Speakers Cesar Parizotto CEO Marco Parizotto Commercial Vice-president Ricardo Perpetuo CFO and IRO 2 Agenda Chapter

More information