Subphylum Madibulata, Class Insecta!

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1 4/2/15 Subphylum Madibulata, Class Insecta head Subphylum Mandibulata Class Insecta 3 tagmata: has 1 pair of antennae, 3 pairs of mouth appendages may have wings thorax abdomen has 3 pairs of legs may have 2 pairs of wings 1

2 4/2/15 Class Insecta: Flight Some insects have both direct and indirect flight muscles (e.g. Orthoptera, Odonata): indirect muscles pull body wall down and lift wings direct muscles pull the wings down direct indirect 2

3 4/2/15 Class Insecta: Flight Other insects have only indirect flight muscles (e.g. Diptera, Hymenoptera). In these insects, the wings are moved by altering the shape of the thorax. Class Insecta: Subclasses Insects are separated into 2 subclasses based on whether they undergo metamorphosis/develop wings. Subclass Apterygota - primitive insects that do not have wings silverfish Subclass Pterygota - insects that develop wings via 2 types of metamorphosis 3

4 4/2/15 Class Insecta" Subclass Pterygota Hemimetabola Division Exopterygota Holometabola Division Endopterygota 2 types of Metamorphosis: Hemimetabolous (incomplete nymph metamorphosis) (mini adult) egg Holometabolous egg adult (complete metamorphosis) larva pupa adult Division Exopterygota Hemimetabolous (incomplete metamorphosis) 5 ORDERS: Order Orthoptera Order Isoptera Order Odonata Order Hemiptera Order Homoptera 4

5 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Orthoptera crickets, grasshoppers, roaches, mantids Division Exopterygota Order Isoptera Termites 5

6 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Odonata dragonflies, damselflies Division Exopterygota Order Hemiptera True bugs: assassin bugs, bedbugs 6

7 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Homoptera cicadas, aphids, leaf hoppers Division Endopterygota Holometabolous (complete metamorphosis) 4 ORDERS: Order Coleoptera Order Lepidoptera Order Hymenoptera Order Diptera 7

8 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Coleoptera beetles Division Exopterygota Order Diptera Flies, mosquitoes 8

9 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Hymenoptera bees, wasps, ants Division Exopterygota Order Lepidoptera butterflies, moths 9

10 4/2/15 Division Exopterygota Order Lepidoptera butterflies, moths Ecology Insects are important pollinators Many flowering plants have evolved to exploit insects as pollinators Sexually deceptive orchids Extrafloral nectaries Many flowering plants have evolved rewards to attract pollinators (nectar) Nectar guides and displays to advertise these rewards. 10

11 4/2/15 Ecology Eusocial insects (Hymenoptera and Isoptera) live in societies Symbioses Parasitism Parasitic insects are usually only parasites for part of their lives (e.g. mosquitoes). Anopheles mosquitos transmit malaria Lice are ectoparasites of most birds and mammals 11

12 4/2/15 Symbioses Parasitoids Parasitoid larvae are parasites that eventually kill their hosts, while the adults are free-living. Symbioses Mutualisms Some insects are involved in obligate mutualisms (both partners require one another). Figs and fig wasps Yucca and Yucca Moths 12

13 4/2/15 Behavior Fungus gardening (leaf-cutter) ants Collect leaves and bring them back to nest The ants chew up the leaves, and inoculate the mash with enzymes from the hind gut. Behavior Honey bees are capable of communicating the location of foraging sites to the rest of the colony by dancing. The waggle dance communicates the location and quality of distant food sources. The round dance communicates the location and quality of nearby food sources. 13

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