Chem 11 Oa-Section 2. Exam #2. 1 October 2004

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chem 11 Oa-Section 2. Exam #2. 1 October 2004"

Transcription

1 " Chem 11 Oa-Section 2 Exam #2 1 October 2004 Name: K~ Instructions Please read each question carefully and answer it completely and clearly. Do the problems in the order that is easiest for you. Point value is indicated with each question. There are a total of 100 points possible on the exam. Read through the entire exam before beginning. There should be 5 pages including this page and a score tabulation page. You should use clear, carefully drawn structures and pictorial representations for all molecules. Use precise and graphic arrow notation. Show 3-dimensional and resonance forms where necessary. Do not overlook the stereochemistry. Compose your answers so that the logic of your analysis is unmistakable.

2 1. Circle the correct IUPAC name corresponding to each of the following compounds. (3 pts each! 9 pts total) Q ( R)-2-fluoro-5, 6-dimethyl-5-heptene ( R)-6- fluoro-2, 3-d imethyl-2-heptene ~;;~ or ( 5)-2, 3-d imethyl-2-hepten-6-o1 2. a) Calculate the index of hydrogen deficiency (ID) for a molecule with the formula C6sOCI2, (5 pts) ID-= i ((2nt2)- (8..2C-1 )) n:.(p b) In a few words, what does the ID of this molecule tell you about its structure? Draw one possible isomer. This is not an essay question. (4 pts) II-ID: 2. -=> 2. units of UhSa tur-a..nct) (Tr bondslri~) possibl.q isoyy'le..ys: Q 1:1 O, I c..\ -=~ C.I O ( \'Y)o,ny oth;4-fs ~ o..re. t>os'sl b\q.) Ct C..I 3. The following molecule is one of the 10 fragments that were used by Professor Kishi's research group at arvard University to assemble Palytoxin. Label each chiral center as either R or $. (Kishi, V. et. al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 7525) (9 pts) 4. A recent article contained the following scheme. While the mechanism of this transformation is beyond the scope of this course, good conformational drawings are not. Each of the conformational drawings below has at least one error. The errors are not in the substituent labels. Clearly indicate three errors in these drawings for full credit. (Fodor, G. B. Tetrahedron 1999, 55, 7391) (6 pts) 'k 0.-\ \ 0,. ( e. ::'9 dk"o,u.)y\ o..~ O-r\0/ ~ ~ or ~ n()1r ~c: r\\ \Y\ 0., ~d~

3 5. a) Five compounds of the molecular formula CS1202 are depicted below. Choose compound(s) from those shown that fit each description. Place the letter corresponding to the compound(s) in the appropriate box. (3 pts each/ 15 pts total) O..r O O O O ~ O h b X;Z XA ~ \\\ A B D I-I I-I ( E all meso compounds a pair of enantiomers all structures that are achiral a pair of diastereomers two structures that describe the same molecule b) In a few words, comment on the optical rotation of a 1 :1 mixture of compounds A and B. What can you say about the optical rotation of a similar 1 :1 mixture of compounds D and E? (6 pts) " \ D: E => r"c) e.ornm2rt\ Co...Y\ be mcade j dl<is-\e.ye.o mer~ do no1 e'1(.h\bit opt\c~ o..c.-\iv\fus fuq,,1 o.re re\a..-\ed. 6. a) Draw two chair conformations of trans-1-ethyl-4-methylcyclohexane that are related to each other by a ring flip. Circle the (10 pts) <;:3 ""'- \- \ \ C.1-!2.C.."" 3 y C3 " W ~ ~~ ~nfby~n b) Is trans-1-ethyl-4-methylcyclohexane chiral? Mark the appropriate box. (3 pts) D Chiral

4 7. a) The 3-dimensional structure of 2,3-dimethylbutane is given below. This question requires you to draw three Newman projections. Draw one Newman projection to represent the conformer as shown with respect the indicated bond. Draw two additional Newman projections representing the lowest and highest energy conformations of 2,3-dimethylbutane. (3 pts each/ 9 pts total) ""(- C3 -- ~...,.. C3 3C --- C ~ " highest en~gy b) Do a "back of the envelope" calculation and predict the Ere, for the lowest energy conformer you just drew. Don't forget units. What interactions are responsible for the Ere,? (6 pts) Erel :. <2> \<.31 mot 8. In class, we discussed A values as a means of gauging the size of a substituent located on a monosubstituted cyclohexane ring. The A values for the ethyl, isopropyl (-C(C3)2). and tertbutyl (-C(C3)3) groups are 1.8 kcal/mol, 2.2 kcal/mol, and 4.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Progression through this series adds one additional methyl group per substituent. One might expect that given the incremental nature of this series, the difference in A value would be consistent as one went from the ethyl to isopropyl groups (difference = 0.4 kcal/mol) and then again from the isopropyl to tert-butyl substituents. Upon analysis, however, the difference in A value between an isopropyl and tert-butyl substituent seems disproportionately large (2.6 kcal/mol). Using a few words and several structures, explain the large difference in A value between the isopropyl and tert-butyl substituents. (12 pts) at a-t.,' I~prop-\\ CO-n adopt 0. ecviorrnatioh,u.)hlc.-h pl0...c.ls 0. intl.) ~ C:lj\\(.X Of +'v'u r(~. -tgrj- butyl ty\us+ pta(!i 0, LClr8er C3 'jroup tntb 9. Explain the concept of chirality in a way that my mom (an accountant in the Midwest with no fu~. real chemistry background) could understand. Use 1-2 sentences and appropriate images in your posltidn answer. (6 pts) ~.your na-nd s O-re. ch\w. l\1~ o.rq. w1\ '(\1) r.\\"{)q~~ \::J~ L(}X\ r\0\ be.~frx'~~d on t)'\e. ~~Y. ~y -\t1\)m~ c'on1 ~\&1 ) ) r ~

5

CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS PRACTICE EXERCISES. 1) Draw a Newman projection of the most stable conformation of 2-methylpropane.

CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS PRACTICE EXERCISES. 1) Draw a Newman projection of the most stable conformation of 2-methylpropane. CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS PRACTICE EXERCISES 1) Draw a Newman projection of the most stable conformation of 2-methylpropane. 2) The structures below are: C 3 C 3 C 3 C 3 A) not isomers. B) conformational

More information

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same

More information

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon and hydrogen, and with the maximum number of hydrogens - so no pi bonds, only sigma/single bonds)

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon and hydrogen, and with the maximum number of hydrogens - so no pi bonds, only sigma/single bonds) California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Organic Chemistry, CM 314 Wade Chapter 3: Alkanes Chapter Outline 1) Nomenclature (3-3) 2) Molecular Formula (3-1, 3-2) and Degrees/Sites

More information

Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4)

Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4) Elements of rganic Chemistry CM 201, Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Cal Poly Pomona Chapter 3: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3-1 Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4) Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon

More information

2/4/2011. 3.4 Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes

2/4/2011. 3.4 Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes 3.4 Systematic nomenclature devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Name has four parts 1. Prefix which specifies the location of functional groups and other substituents

More information

Molecule Projections

Molecule Projections Key Definitions ü Stereochemistry refers to the chemistry in 3 dimensions (greek stereos = solid). This science was created by Pasteur (1860), van Hoff et LeBel (1874). ü Stereisomers are isomeric molecules

More information

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Diagram of Methane. Member of Alkane family of hydrocarbons. Alkanes have only single bonds. When carbon is bonded to four atoms, the

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Chem 241 Fall 2008. Practice Problems For Chapters 1-4

Chem 241 Fall 2008. Practice Problems For Chapters 1-4 Chem all 008 Practice Problems or Chapters - Question. itrate ( ) is a common inorganic anion that you have encountered in general chemistry. The structure of the nitrate anion is shown below: verall charge:

More information

Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes Chemical nomenclature assigns compounds a unique name that allows them to be easily identified and structurally understood. The International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

ALKANE FORMULAS. Chapter 3 Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes. Lower Membered Alkanes trivial (common) names CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ETHANE

ALKANE FORMULAS. Chapter 3 Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes. Lower Membered Alkanes trivial (common) names CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ETHANE Organic hemistry, 5 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. hapter 3 Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes ALKANE FORMULAS Four carbon/or hydogen atoms bonded to each carbon atom All - single bonds Ratio: n 2n+2

More information

1. What is the hybridization of the indicated atom in the following molecule?

1. What is the hybridization of the indicated atom in the following molecule? Practice Final Exam, Chemistry 2210, rganic Chem I 1. What is the hybridization of the indicated atom in the following molecule? A. sp 3 B. sp 2 C. sp D. not hybridized 2. Name the functional groups in

More information

This Lewis structure can be condensed in a number of ways as shown here.

This Lewis structure can be condensed in a number of ways as shown here. Chem 226 Problem Set #2 Fundamentals of rganic Chemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. Chapter 2 26. Propose suitable structures for the following: (a) and alkene, C 7 14. There are a number of possible

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information Hydrocarbons (contain only C,H) Saturated (all single bonds) alkanes, cycloalkanes Unsaturated (cont. double, triple bonds) alkenes, alkynes, aromatic Need to

More information

cyclohexane cyclopentane Nomenclature Follows same rules as for stright-chain alkanes. Examples: name the following

cyclohexane cyclopentane Nomenclature Follows same rules as for stright-chain alkanes. Examples: name the following Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes Reading: Wade chapter 3, sections 3-10- 3-16 Study Problems: 3-43, 3-44, 3-45, 3-46 Key oncepts and Skills: ompare the energies of cycloalkanes, and explain ring

More information

Molecular Models Experiment #1

Molecular Models Experiment #1 Molecular Models Experiment #1 Objective: To become familiar with the 3-dimensional structure of organic molecules, especially the tetrahedral structure of alkyl carbon atoms and the planar structure of

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

IR Applied to Isomer Analysis

IR Applied to Isomer Analysis DiscovIR-LC TM Application Note 025 April 2008 Deposition and Detection System IR Applied to Isomer Analysis Infrared spectra provide valuable information about local configurations of atoms in molecules.

More information

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Outline 4.1 Alkanes: The Simplest Organic Compounds 4.2 Representing Structures of Organic Compounds 4.3 Families of Compounds Functional Groups 4.4 Nomenclature

More information

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature hemistry 1110 rganic hemistry IUPA Nomenclature 1 f the approximately 32 million unique chemical compounds presently known, over 95% of them can be classified as organic; i.e., containing carbon. The IUPA

More information

Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes

Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Objectives: 1. Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes. 2. Draw, identify, determine and name isomers: a. Stereoisomers

More information

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane Nomenclature: Organic Chemistry ydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending ane Examples: Methane ane,, Propane, Butane ane, Octane, 2-methylpent methylpentane

More information

Hydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas

Hydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas ydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas Structural Formulas for Organic Molecules ondensed Skeletal-line Lewis (Expanded) 1 Neutral Bonding Patterns for Organic ompounds 2 Skeletal Line Structures arbon

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes.

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. ydrocarbons Section 22.1 Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. hydrocarbons homologous

More information

Stereochemistry of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Stereochemistry of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Stereochemistry of Alkanes and ycloalkanes onformation of ethane: Rotation is possible around - Different arrangements of atoms that can be converted into one another by rotation about single bonds are

More information

CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date:

CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date: CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date: 1. Which of the following statements concerning organic compounds is correct? A) organic compounds are found only in non-living systems B) organic compounds are always

More information

CHE 232 - Organic Chemistry Exam 1, February 10, 2004

CHE 232 - Organic Chemistry Exam 1, February 10, 2004 CE 232 - rganic Chemistry Exam 1, February 10, 2004 ame Student ID o. Before you begin this exam: First: You are allowed to have a simple model set at your seat. Please put away all other materials. Second:

More information

2/10/2011. Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain. Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain

2/10/2011. Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain. Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain Angle strain The strain induced in a molecule when bond angles are forced to deviate from the ideal 109º tetrahedral value (Adolf von Baeyer 1885) Stability of

More information

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH Chapter 12 rganic Compounds with xygen and Sulfur 12.1 Alcohols, Thiols, and Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( ) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( )

More information

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL Basic Nomenclature a saturated hydrocarbon is denoted by the suffix ANE an unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond

More information

Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil

Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil Textbook and Materials What you must buy: Organic Chemistry 4 th Ed. Janice G. Smith, McGraw Hill. (Older edition is fine) Chem

More information

Conjugation is broken completely by the introduction of saturated (sp3) carbon:

Conjugation is broken completely by the introduction of saturated (sp3) carbon: Chapter 16 Conjugation, resonance, and dienes Conjugation relies on the partial overlap of p-orbitals on adjacent double or triple bonds. A common conjugated system involves 1,3-dienes, such as 1,3-butadiene.

More information

Organic Chemistry. O1: Ways of representing organic molecules. Dr Amanda Rousseau C503. 1. Molecular formula

Organic Chemistry. O1: Ways of representing organic molecules. Dr Amanda Rousseau C503. 1. Molecular formula O1: Ways of representing organic molecules Organic Chemistry Dr Amanda Rousseau C503 Chemistry the Central Science - Brown (Chapter 24) Extra reading: Organic Chemistry McMurry (any edition) Self study:

More information

1) Systematic naming of alkanes 2) Alkenes 3) Alkynes 4) Aromatic compounds (benzene etc) 5) Hydrocarbon physical properties 6) Petroleum chemistry

1) Systematic naming of alkanes 2) Alkenes 3) Alkynes 4) Aromatic compounds (benzene etc) 5) Hydrocarbon physical properties 6) Petroleum chemistry Chem 106 Tues 1-25-2011 1) Systematic naming of alkanes 2) Alkenes 3) Alkynes 4) Aromatic compounds (benzene etc) 5) ydrocarbon physical properties 6) Petroleum chemistry 1/25/2011 1 pencil : paper ::

More information

Figure 8. Example of simple benzene naming with chlorine and NO 2 as substituents.

Figure 8. Example of simple benzene naming with chlorine and NO 2 as substituents. BENZENE NAMING EXPLAINED. This was excerpted from CHEM WIKI and is used with appreciation to the authors. http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/organic_chemistry/hydrocarbons/aromatics/naming_the_benzenes. Simple

More information

CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami. Tel: (618)545-3361. Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu. Web: www.kc.cc.il.

CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami. Tel: (618)545-3361. Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu. Web: www.kc.cc.il. CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami Tel: (618)545-3361 Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu Web: www.kc.cc.il.us/ngoswami CHEM 208 COURSE SYLLABUS KASKASKIA COLLEGE NAME TERM YEAR TEXT:

More information

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes ontain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatics General formula n 2n+2 Each carbon is sp 3 hybridized Bond angles are 109.5 o Methane Ethane Propane Butane

More information

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes 1) Carbon-Carbon Bonding in Alkanes (C-C), Alkenes (C=C) and Alkynes (C C). Understand the hybridization of atomic orbitals (ground state promotion

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1 Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

More information

Stereochemistry Tutorial: Drawing Enantiomers and Diastereomers

Stereochemistry Tutorial: Drawing Enantiomers and Diastereomers tereochemistry Tutorial: Drawing Enantiomers and Diastereomers Definitions for vocabulary words can be found in the Illustrated Glossary of rganic Chemistry, available on the course web site. A. Discussion

More information

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES ydrocarbons are compounds containing only and Also known as saturated hydrocarbons all - bonds are an be found in straight chain form, but also have rings and branches STRAIGT AIN ALKANES ave the general

More information

ChemSketch: A Guide to Drawing Chemical Structures.

ChemSketch: A Guide to Drawing Chemical Structures. ChemSketch: A Guide to Drawing Chemical Structures http://www.acdlabs.com Scott A. Sinex and Barbara A. Gage Department of Physical Sciences Prince George s Community College http://academic.pgcc.edu/psc

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Exam Points 1. Nomenclature (1) 30

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Exam Points 1. Nomenclature (1) 30 Chem 316 Final Exam Winter, 2008 Beauchamp ame: Topic Total Points Exam Points 1. omenclature (1) 30 Credit 2. Explanation of elative eactivities of Aromatic 20 Compounds or Carbonyl Compounds 3. eactions

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

4.2 NOMENCLATURE OF ALKENES

4.2 NOMENCLATURE OF ALKENES 4.2 NOMENCLATURE OF ALKENES 131 PROBLEM 4.1 Which of the following alkenes can exist as double-bond stereo? Identify the stereocenters in each. (a) H 2 C A 2 2 (b) 2 A 2 1-pentene 3-hexene (c) H 2 C A

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Conformational and Geometric Isomerism

Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Conformational and Geometric Isomerism 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Conformational and Geometric Isomerism Chapter Summary ydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Alkanes are acyclic saturated hydrocarbons (contain only single bonds);

More information

Final Examination, Organic Chemistry 1 (CHEM 2210) December 2000 Version *A* A. B. C. D.

Final Examination, Organic Chemistry 1 (CHEM 2210) December 2000 Version *A* A. B. C. D. Final Examination, rganic hemistry 1 (EM 2210) December 2000 Version *A* 1. What are the hybridization of, and the geometrical shape around, the nitrogen atom in the following molecule? N 3 3 A. sp, linear

More information

Two hydrogen atoms join together to attain the helium Noble gas configuration by sharing electrons and form a molecule.

Two hydrogen atoms join together to attain the helium Noble gas configuration by sharing electrons and form a molecule. Lecture Simple Molecular Orbitals - Sigma and Pi Bonds in Molecules 1 An atomic orbital is located on a single atom. When two (or more) atomic orbitals overlap to make a bond we can change our perspective

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) NCEA Level 3 Chemistry (91391) 2013 page 1 of 8 Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) Evidence Statement Q Evidence Achievement Achievement

More information

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University Title : CHEM 3326 (Applied Spectroscopy) Credits : 3 Course Format : 2 lectures and 2 tutorials Course Text : Spectrometric Identification

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3 s for Chapter PRBLEM Assuming that the molecular ion is the base peak (00% abundance) what peaks would appear in the mass spectrum of each of these molecules: (a) C5Br (b) C60 (c) C64Br In cases (a) and

More information

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Alkanes Single bonds between carbon atoms General formula: C n H (2n+2) The maximum amount of hydrogen atoms are bonded so alkanes are referred to as saturated 1 IUPAC name Molecular

More information

Nomenclature of Organic Molecules Dr. Carl Hoeger

Nomenclature of Organic Molecules Dr. Carl Hoeger Nomenclature of rganic Molecules Dr. Carl oeger Introduction Nomenclature, as you might expect, is an simple yet important topic in chemistry. Without a standardized system of nomenclature scientists would

More information

Campus Academic Resource Program Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes

Campus Academic Resource Program Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes This handout will: Define alkanes Show and explain how to name various alkanes Introduction: Alkanes are molecules that consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, all connected by single bonds. Names of

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of hemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders ollege Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To become familiar with organic molecules in three dimensions

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction: The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Part 4 Nomenklatur -konformation

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Part 4 Nomenklatur -konformation MULTIPLE COICE QUESTIONS Part 4 Nomenklatur -konformation (Answers on pages 21-22) Topic: Nomenclature 1. The IUPAC name for A) 6-Ethyl-3,4-dimethylheptane B) 2-Ethyl-4,5-dimethylheptane C) 3,4,6-Trimethyloctane

More information

IUPAC System of Nomenclature

IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC System of Nomenclature The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is composed of chemists representing the national chemical societies of several countries. ne committee of the

More information

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Main points of the chapter 1. Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance a. Splitting or coupling (what s next to what) b. Chemical shifts (what type is it) c. Integration

More information

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0 Chemical Shifts 1 H-NMR Type of Hydrogen (CH 3 ) 4 Si RCH 3 RCH 2 R R 3 CH R 2 C=CRCHR 2 RC CH ArCH 3 ArCH 2 R ROH RCH 2 OH RCH 2 OR R 2 NH O RCCH 3 O RCCH 2 R Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0

More information

(c) Step 1: The longest chain that contains the multiple bond has 6 carbon atoms, so the

(c) Step 1: The longest chain that contains the multiple bond has 6 carbon atoms, so the Section 1.2: Alkenes and Alkynes Tutorial 1 Practice, page 21 1. (a) Step 1: The longest chain that contains the multiple bond has 4 carbon atoms, so the root name contains but-. Step 2: There is one double

More information

3.4 The Shapes of Cycloalkanes: Planar or Nonplanar?

3.4 The Shapes of Cycloalkanes: Planar or Nonplanar? 3.4 The Shapes of Cycloalkanes: Planar or Nonplanar? Adolf von Baeyer (19th century) assumed cycloalkanes are planar polygons distortion of bond angles from 109.5 gives angle strain to cycloalkanes with

More information

Calculation of Relative Energies of Conformers and Stereoisomers and Equilibrium Ratios of Products using Molecular Mechanics

Calculation of Relative Energies of Conformers and Stereoisomers and Equilibrium Ratios of Products using Molecular Mechanics Calculation of Relative Energies of Conformers and Stereoisomers and Equilibrium Ratios of Products using Molecular Mechanics Molecular mechanics uses a force field to calculate the steric energy of the

More information

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example ucleophilic Substitution & Elimination hemistry 1 eginning patterns to knowfor S and E eactions - horizontal and vertical templates for practice Example 1 - two possible perspectives (deuterium and tritium

More information

the double or triple bond. If the multiple bond is CH 3 C CCHCCH 3

the double or triple bond. If the multiple bond is CH 3 C CCHCCH 3 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic ompounds Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated contain carbon-carbon double and triple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added. Alkenes: carbon-carbon double bonds Alkynes:

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons. Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis.

Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons. Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis. Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons hapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, onformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis Simplest alkane = methane 4 We can build additional alkanes by adding - 2 units

More information

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there?

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there? 1 H NMR Spectroscopy (#1c) The technique of 1 H NMR spectroscopy is central to organic chemistry and other fields involving analysis of organic chemicals, such as forensics and environmental science. It

More information

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: YDROCARBONS Organic chemistry is the study carbon containing compounds. 7.1 Bonding in Organic Compounds Organic compounds are made up of only a few elements and the bonding

More information

Course Prerequisite: Chemistry 141 or 143.

Course Prerequisite: Chemistry 141 or 143. Instructor: Matthias Brewer; Office: Cook A316; email: Matthias.Brewer@uvm.edu BlackBoard Site: bb.uvm.edu Lecture: 10:40am 11:30am MWF, Angell B106 Review Sessions: 5:30pm Thur., Angell B106 Laboratory

More information

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes 1 Chapter 11 Unsaturated ydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes Saturated ydrocarbons 2 Saturated hydrocarbons have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom are alkanes and cycloalkanes

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 7

Suggested solutions for Chapter 7 s for Chapter 7 7 PRBLEM 1 Are these molecules conjugated? Explain your answer in any reasonable way. C Et C Et C Et Revision of the basic kinds of conjugation and how to show conjugation with curly arrows.

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

Chapter 15 Radical Reactions. Radicals are reactive species with a single unpaired electron, formed by

Chapter 15 Radical Reactions. Radicals are reactive species with a single unpaired electron, formed by Chapter 15 Radical Reactions Radicals are reactive species with a single unpaired electron, formed by homolysis of a covalent bond; a radical contains an atom that does not have an octet of electrons,

More information

Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes

Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes Each student work group choose a Leader (reads activity out loud, poses questions to group), Facilitator (makes sure everyone is participating equally,

More information

Chapter 11 Homework and practice questions Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations

Chapter 11 Homework and practice questions Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations Chapter 11 Homework and practice questions Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations SHORT ANSWER Exhibit 11-1 Circle your response in each set below. 1. Circle the least

More information

EXPERIMENT ONE COVALENT BONDING AND MOLECULAR MODELS. In order to draw proper Lewis structures chemists use two rules,

EXPERIMENT ONE COVALENT BONDING AND MOLECULAR MODELS. In order to draw proper Lewis structures chemists use two rules, EXPERIMENT ONE COVALENT BONDING AND MOLECULAR MODELS Today you will use ball-and-stick molecular model kits to better understand covalent bonding. You will figure out the structures of several different

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry. Overview Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes 1 Organic hemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain O, S, N, and halogens

More information

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 81 Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon with the exception of simple compounds e.g. carbonates (CO 3 2- ), carbon dioxide

More information

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015)

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015) (Revised 05/22/2015) Introduction In the early 1900s, the chemist G. N. Lewis proposed that bonds between atoms consist of two electrons apiece and that most atoms are able to accommodate eight electrons

More information

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH.

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH. 216 S11-E2 Page 2 Name Key I. (9 points) Answer in the boxes below the following questions for the Grignard reagent C 3 -Mg. (1) (2 points) Is the carbon atom associated with magnesium electrophilic or

More information

10.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

10.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas Name Class Date 10.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas Essential Understanding of its empirical formula. A molecular formula of a compound is a whole-number multiple Lesson Summary Percent Composition

More information

Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes;

Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Conformational and Geometric Isomerism Feb, 2008 Dr. Abdullah I. Saleh/236-2 1 Hydrocarbons The main components of petroleum and natural gas. Hydrocarbons: compounds

More information

4a. Alkanes. Conformational Stereoisomerism. Structural Isomerism.

4a. Alkanes. Conformational Stereoisomerism. Structural Isomerism. Grossman, CE 230 4a. Alkanes. Conformational Stereoisomerism. Structural Isomerism. 4a.1 Derivatives of methane. We can replace one of the atoms in methane with another atom or group. These atoms or groups

More information

1 Three-dimensional structure of a molecule

1 Three-dimensional structure of a molecule h 1 Three dimentional structure of a molecule 1 Three-dimensional structure of a molecule Purpose In this chapter, you will learn that it is sometimes not sufficient to describe the structure of a molecule

More information

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 203 Exam 1 KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _D C 1. Which of the following elements is a large percentage of both

More information

Q.1 Draw out some suitable structures which fit the molecular formula C 6 H 6

Q.1 Draw out some suitable structures which fit the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Aromatic compounds GE 1 BENZENE Structure Primary analysis revealed benzene had an... empirical formula of and a molecular formula of 6 6 Q.1 Draw out some suitable structures which fit the molecular formula

More information

Chapter 10. Conjugation in Alkadienes and Allylic Systems. Class Notes. B. The allyl group is both a common name and an accepted IUPAC name

Chapter 10. Conjugation in Alkadienes and Allylic Systems. Class Notes. B. The allyl group is both a common name and an accepted IUPAC name Chapter 10 Conjugation in Alkadienes and Allylic Systems Chapter 10 suggested problems: I. The allyl group Class Notes A. B. The allyl group is both a common name and an accepted IUPAC name 1. Allyl alcohol

More information

CHM121 COURSE COMPACT

CHM121 COURSE COMPACT Course CHM 121 General Organic Chemistry (2 UNITS) Compulsory CHM121 COURSE COMPACT Course Duration Two hours per week for 15 weeks (30hours) Lecturer Data Name of the lecturer: Oluyori Abimbola Peter

More information

Chapter 1 Benzene Blues 27

Chapter 1 Benzene Blues 27 hapter 1 Benzene Blues 27 The ybridization Model of Atoms in Molecules An important question facing chemists about 80 years ago, was, ow does one go from recently invented atomic orbitals to rationalizing

More information

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation hapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated ydrocarbon: ontains one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds or benzene-like rings. Alkene: contains a carbon-carbon double bond and has the general formula

More information