Motorcycle Accident Investigation

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1 1st Forum Workshop: Motorcyclist safety: how can better road engineering help? Motorcycle Accident Investigation João M. P. Dias dem.ist.utl.pt IDMEC Department of Mechanical Engineering Instituto Superior Técnico Technical University of Lisbon 1

2 OUTILINE Motorcycles accidents in Portugal. Some statistics. Accident investigation: Methodologies and preliminary findings. Accident reconstruction: Techniques and methodologies. Computer Models under development for motorcycle safety. Discussion and concluding remarks. 2

3 ROAD ACCIDENTS IN PORTUGAL ACCIDENTS Total: About Injuries: About INJURIES (2003) Fatal: Serious: Slight: Only three levels of injuries recorded. POPULATION (10 Million) 3

4 ROAD ACCIDENTS IN PORTUGAL 4

5 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTORCYCLISTS Injuries (2003) Fatal % of Total Seriou s % of Total Slight % of Total Moped (L1) (<50 cm 3 ) Motorcycles (L3) (>50 cm 3 ) Motor two wheel vehicles Total (For all vehicle types) 1356 (*) (*) On scene Accidents involving represents one quarter of all the fatalities and serious injuries. 1 Fatality/day, 3 Serious injuries/day, >26 Slight injuries/day 5

6 ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTORCYCLISTS Other statistical data (Portugal 2003) - The drivers of two wheel powered vehicle represent 30.3% of the drivers fatalities (17.1 moped (L1), 13.2 motorcycles (L3)) times more fatalities per vehicles than for cars. - About 80% of the accidents occurred in urban areas. - The younger drivers represent the predominant age group in motorcycle (L3) accidents. -The older drivers represent the predominant age group in moped (L1) accidents. 6

7 PROJECT MRRA PROJECT MRRA Motorcyclists, Rails and Accident Reconstruction Main Goals: ( ) - In-depth investigation of motorcycle accidents in Portugal. - Propose countermeasures to reduce motorcycle accidents. - Development of computer tools and models for accident reconstruction and accident prevention. FINANCIAL SUPPORT 7

8 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation OECD methodology. MAIDS Project methodologies and findings taken into account. 1) Data police reports and insurance reports, or on scene collection of information. 2) Detailed inspection of the vehicle and motorcyclist equipment. 3) Medical reports. 4) Inspection of the road conditions. 5) 3D accident reconstruction techniques using PC-Crash or multibody dynamics tools. 6) Accident database. 8

9 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation 2) Detailed inspection of the motorcycle Mechanical Malfunction? 9

10 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation 2) Detailed inspection of the equipment 10

11 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation 3) Medical Data Injuries can be correlated with accident scenario with biomechical models. Force (N) Joints, Forces Fx (Femur left-lower leg left) N Fy (Femur left-lower leg left) N Fz (Femur left-lower leg left) N 65 J 9: Fx (Femur right-lower leg right) N Fy (Femur right-lower leg right) N Fz (Femur right-lower leg right) N Time (s) 11

12 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation 3) Inspection of the Road a) Motorcyclist view a) Other vehicle view 12

13 METHODOLOGY: Accident Investigation INCLUDE NON-ACCIDENT POPULATION (Ongoing) Video surveillance. Interview forms. Police control Stop or Petrol Station Procedure (Maids). Surveys: How to brake, lights use, training, qualifications, Current Sampling area: Lisbon. 13

14 TWO WHEELS ACCIDENTS: SAMPLE About 20 motorcycle accidents already investigated! CASE N. Helmet Usage Alcohol Use Vehicle Type Other Vehicle Motorcy -clist Injuries Motorcycle Speed Speed Limit Primary Contrib. Light Cond. Weather Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes No No No No No NA No No No Moped Motor. Motor. Moped Moped/ Motor Motor. Motor. Motor. Motor. Motor. Motor. Truck Truck Car Car S/M Car Forklift truck Car Car Guard rail Truck Severe Fatal (2) Minor Minor Fatal Fatal Fatal Fatal Fatal Fatal Fatal / NA Motor. Helmet use high, Alcohol Use low, Speed above the limits in the majority of the accidents with fatal injuries OV OV OV M M M OV OV M M Day Night Night Day Day Day Day Night Night Day Day Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry 14

15 TWO WHEELS MOTOR VEHICLES ACCIDENTS Some Preliminary findings: - The primary contribution factor is a Other Vehicle Manoeuvre. - Speed has found to be an important contributing factor for the consequences of the accident for motorcycles. - Fatal accidents currently over-represented in the database. - In a relevant number of cases the motorcyclist lost the control during the braking action. (ABS and CBS?). 15

16 TWO WHEELS MOTOR VEHICLES ACCIDENTS Key issues/countermeasures: - Direction indicators, traffic lights, use of mirrors (OV). - Speed enforcement (M). - Motorcyclists training (Braking, Roadway hazards, ) - Conspicuity/Visibility. - Equipment. - Road design. 16

17 MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS Reconstruction of motorcycles accidents is complex, and requires 3D models for the vehicle and biomechanical models for the rider. 17

18 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES CAD 3D MODELS CAD 3D models used for visualization but also to be used for multibody dynamics and finite elements simulation. 18

19 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES FINITE ELEMENTS AND MULTIBODY MODELS Finite elements models are used to determine crash properties for multibody models. 19

20 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYLES Accident Reconstruction with multibody dynamics models Issues: - Motorcycle models. - Motorcycle dynamics. - Plastic deformation models. - Detailed contact models. - Crash Data. -Include structural failure. - Include optimization methodologies to determinate pre-crash scenarios. 20

21 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES MULTIBODY MODELS Motorcycle dynamics models Braking and tyre models 21

22 MODELING OF ROADSIDE HARDWARE These models are useful for the design for safer barriers, terminal and energy absorbers as also to calculate dissipated energies for accident reconstruction. 22

23 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES Accident Reconstruction with multibody dynamics models 23

24 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES PORTUGUESE ACCIDENTS! SPEED LIMIT 50 KM/H Motorcycle Speed: 110 ± 10 km/h Fatal! Motorcycle Speed: 127 ± 10 km/h Fatal! Passenger: severe injuries! 24

25 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES Motorcycle Speed: 30 km/h Minor Injuries! Speed plays a crucial role! Witnesses sometimes are not reliable! 25

26 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES SOME DIFFICULTIES: 3D Models for vehicles and occupants are required. Deformation doesn't mean direction. Independent braking front/rear wheel. Few crash data for Two Wheels Motor Vehicles. 26

27 ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION Photographs (at the accident scene) are very important. Information collected at the crash scene is crucial for a reliable accident reconstruction. New procedures to collect data are being developed in collaboration with authorities. 27

28 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES Vehicle Inspection - Mechanical failure can occur pre or post crash. Detailed reconstruction can give the answer. This motorcyclist live can be saved with a guardrail post protection. 28

29 MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS: COLLISIONS OV Other vehicle characteristics play an important role in the injuries of motorcyclists. Trucks and SUV s are dangerous also for motorcyclists. 29

30 ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION: MOTORCYCLES VEHICLE CRASHWORTHINESS 1) Dissipate the collision energy! Motorcycles? - Sliding 2) Provide a survival space! Motorcycles? - No survival space Reduce the decelerations. How for motorcycles? - Increasing sliding distance Road and traffic conditions are very important for motorcyclists safety! 30

31 ROAD ENGINEERING FOR MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY Remove roadside obstacles as far as possible. Impact attenuators for guardrail post increase the safety, but can be ineffective if the collision speed is high. Maintenance conditions of the road are more important for motorcycles than for other vehicles. Debris, holes, fluid spills Metal Road Surface components, potholes, can be dangerous. 31

32 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS The accidents pedestrians and riders represent about 40% of the injuries in Portugal. About 25% for motorcyclists. The methodologies and procedures of the investigation of accidents involving motorcycles have been presented. The work presented is preliminary but a in-depth investigation of these type of accidents is under progress. Speed has found to have a crucial role in the injuries of riders. Motorcycles: License plates, riding training, qualifications, identified and to be quantified. 32

33 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS 3D models are important for the reconstruction of accidents involving riders and pedestrians. Multibody dynamics models especially for motorcycle accident reconstruction, are under development. Finite elements models of roadside barriers are under development. Biomechanical models (Madymo software) for riders in the collision with obstacles (including barriers) are under study. European Projects as Maids should be extended to other European Countries with high accident rates such as Portugal and Greece. 33

34 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Financial support of the Projects MRRA Motorcyclists, Rails and Accident Reconstruction e PARA Pedestrians and Accidents, by Allianz Portugal, DGV (Portuguese Directorate- General for Traffic) and PRP (Road Safety Prevention Institute) To all the students involved not only in accident research, but also in multibody dynamics and crashworthiness. Thank you FINANCIAL SUPPORT 34

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