POLICE TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION Identify and report on causative and/or related events in a traffic crash

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1 1 of 7 level: 6 credit: 20 planned review date: April 2006 sub-field: purpose: entry information: accreditation option: moderation option: Police This unit standard is intended for sworn or warranted police officers. People credited with this unit standard are able to: produce a sketch scene plan; determine the speed and actions of vehicles involved in a crash; identify the dynamics involved in a vehicle crash; identify types and causes of personal injury sustained by participants in a vehicle crash; and identify factors relating to behaviour/actions of road users in a vehicle crash. Recommended: Unit 2784, Create and use a simple computer spreadsheet to solve a problem; Unit 3491, Write a report; Unit 5236, Use Pythagoras Theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving right angled triangles; Unit 5246, Manipulate algebraic expressions and use algebraic methods to solve problems; and Unit 5251, Solve problems modelled by triangles; or demonstrate equivalent knowledge and skills. Evaluation of documentation and visit by NZQA and industry. A centrally established and directed national moderation system has been set up by The Skills Organisation. special notes: 1 Definitions Workplace procedures refers to documented procedures specific to the police, which set out the quality management requirements for the business practice and activities of that organisation. Yaw means the motion of a car that is both sliding and rotating simultaneously. 2 Police general instructions and best practice guides and codes of conduct relating to traffic crash reporting,

2 2 of 7 investigation and forensic mapping apply to this unit standard. 3 Legislation applying to this unit standard may include but is not limited to the Cadastral Survey Act 2002, Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, Police Act 1958, Transit New Zealand Act 1989, Trespass Act 1980, and all regulations related to these acts. 4 Unit 20281, Demonstrate knowledge of forensic mapping details the work discipline of forensic mapping that is a complimentary study to traffic crash investigation. As these two disciplines work closely together it is recommended that candidates seeking credit for this unit standard also seek credit for unit standard Traffic crash investigation techniques are found in the following textbooks but may be found in other texts: Traffic Collision Investigation. Published by Northwestern University Center for Public Safety, Evanston, Illinois, USA. Traffic Accident Reconstruction. Published by Northwestern University Center for Public Safety, Evanston, Illinois, USA. 6 Evidence may be collected by, but is not necessarily restricted to any of the following means: photography, (digital or emulsion based), sketch plans, master table of exhibits, dictaphone recordings, notebooks, microscopic examination, electronic distance measuring devices (EDM). 7 Additional specialist vehicle examination may be provided by a vehicle inspector or low volume vehicle certifier.

3 3 of 7 Elements and Performance Criteria element 1 Produce a sketch scene plan. 1.1 Impact area is identified and recorded. 1.2 Sketch scene plan is produced according to workplace procedures. element 2 Determine the speed and actions of vehicles involved in a crash. vehicle types may include but are not limited to truck, car, motorcycle, bicycle, trailers drawn by any of these vehicles; actions include but are not limited to falls, flips, vaults, yaws, right-angled momentum. 2.1 Friction, factors and types are determined and where appropriate measured in accordance with police best practice guides. may include but is not limited to rolling, static, dynamic friction. 2.2 Speed change from tyre friction marks is derived in accordance with police best practice guides. tyre friction marks may include but are not limited to single or multi wheel marks, marks created by a vehicle moving in a straight line or rotating while moving. 2.3 Distances required to change speed are determined. 2.4 Vehicle speeds and speed values are determined where wheels are being braked with differing amounts of force and different surfaces are being crossed.

4 4 of 7 surface type may include but is not limited to seal, gravel, concrete, slick and rough bitumen, grass, ice, snow or other surface type. 2.5 Radius of a curve and related critical curve speed is determined. road curves, tyre friction marks denoting a vehicle rotating while sliding in a circular arc. 2.6 Vehicle speeds are calculated using kinetic energy. 2.7 Data from a forensic plan or crime scene measurements are used to derive the speed that a vehicle requires to travel the distance recorded while vaulting, flipping or falling. 2.8 Motorcycle speed is calculated from rider and/or pillion post impact trajectories and at rest positions. 2.9 Vehicle speed is determined using conservation of momentum techniques (CMT). rear-end collisions, 90-degree collisions, opposing direction collisions where one vehicle is stationary Anti-lock brake marks are identified, speed is calculated and actions are determined. surface type may include but is not limited to seal, gravel, concrete, slick and rough bitumen, grass, ice, snow or other surface type.

5 5 of 7 element 3 Identify the dynamics involved in a vehicle crash. force type includes but is not limited to centred, offset, acceleration, positive or negative, centripetal force reaction; objects to be considered include but are not limited to vehicles, road users, road surface, roadside furniture, animals. 3.1 Response of vehicle to force types is identified. 3.2 Effect of forces applied during a collision, turning or roll-over process on vehicle occupants is identified. 3.3 Effect of forces applied during a collision on other participants or objects is identified. element 4 Identify types and causes of personal injury sustained by participants in a vehicle crash. 4.1 Injury types are identified. may include but is not limited to damage to skeletal structure, body surface bruising, abrasions, cuts and other external trauma types commonly associated with traffic crashes. 4.2 Injury is identified in terms of the objects or process that caused the injury. may include but is not limited to fittings inside vehicles, fittings outside vehicles, road scour, gravel rash.

6 6 of 7 element 5 Identify factors relating to behaviour/actions of road users in a vehicle crash. factors that impact and/or influence road user behaviour. 5.1 Sight lines and distances are identified. 5.2 Environmental factors impacting on sight lines are identified. may include but is not limited to fixed objects eg fences; moveable objects eg other vehicles, pedestrians; climatic factors eg sun, fog; road surface eg wet, oily. 5.3 Potential avoidance alternatives, if any, are identified. 5.4 Reaction times that include consideration of sight lines and environmental factors are identified. 5.5 Factors that influence night driving are identified and their impact on a crash is explained. headlight throw, focus, observation, reaction time, conspicuity issues. Comments on this unit standard Please contact The Skills Organisation if you wish to suggest changes to the content of this unit standard. Please Note Providers must be accredited by the Qualifications Authority or a delegated interinstitutional body before they can register credits from assessment against unit standards or deliver courses of study leading to that assessment. Industry Training Organisations must be accredited by the Qualifications Authority before they can register credits from assessment against unit standards.

7 7 of 7 Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against unit standards must engage with the moderation system that applies to those standards. Accreditation requirements and an outline of the moderation system that applies to this standard are outlined in the Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP). The AMAP also includes useful information about special requirements for providers wishing to develop education and training programmes, such as minimum qualifications for tutors and assessors, and special resource requirements. This unit standard is covered by AMAP 0121 which can be accessed at

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