1. Logical Fallacies (Misuse of logos)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. Logical Fallacies (Misuse of logos)"

Transcription

1 1. Logical Fallacies (Misuse of logos) Logical Fallacies occur when the writer relies on mistaken or misleading uses of logos. Since argument deals with probability rather than certainty, an argument may be perceived as very convincing, somewhat convincing, or not convincing at all-- depending on the use of proofs. Here are some commonly used fallacies that you should be able to locate in other s arguments. The Post Hoc Fallacy- The fallacy of faulty cause; confusing cause and effect o An advertisement claims that people will be more attractive and popular if they drink a certain brand of cola o Ex: (Budweiser) Hasty Generalization- jumping to conclusion by basing a conclusion without providing enough supporting evidence (i.e. stereotypes). Examples: o Since some students in urban schools belong to gangs, most students in those schools belong to gangs. o Since I got into a car accident with an Asian woman, all Asian women must be bad drivers. o Since most basketball players are Black males, all Black males must be good in basketball. Either-or-Argument- reducing an argument to a choice between two opposing choices by ignoring other possible scenarios. An oversimplified argument that views everything as either-or/ black-orwhite, ignoring the complexity of the issue at hand. Such fallacy does not acknowledge alternative or middle ground solutions. Examples:

2 o A woman can either be a mother or have a career. o A man can either go to graduate school or become a business man. o This country can either have a strong defense program or a strong social welfare program. Stacking the Evidence or Stacked Evidence- offering evidence for only one side of the issue. Not addressing counterarguments. o For example, to prove that television is an inspiring and uplifting medium, the only evidence given is that PBS nature shows are educational, Friends promotes personal bonds, and news programs and documentaries keep audiences informed. The sex and violence in TV shows are never mentioned. Begging the Question- using an argument as evidence for itself. No support is provided by the arguer who begs the question, and the claim is simply restated, over and over again, in one form or another. o Capital punishment deters crime because it keeps criminals from committing murder---simply restates the same idea in other words. o Why is this true? It s true because I know it s true o Everyone knows that the war in Iraq is justified because President Bush said so. You can remember the name of this fallacy by recalling that the arguer, when asked for support, begs off and simply restates the claim in the same or different words. The Red Herring- distracting the audience rather than focusing on the argument. o Whether or not the police were racist in the O.J. Simpson trial was a red herring because even though their alleged racism might have provided a motive for planting evidence, their racism was unrelated to whether Simpson was innocent or guilty for murder. o We should not vote for Hillary Clinton because her husband served as President.

3 2. Emotional Fallacies (Misuse of Pathos) When irrelevant, unrelated, and distracting emotional materials are introduced into the argument to try to convince the audience. Bandwagon Appeal- Everyone is doing something, so you should too type of appeal. Often used in political or national campaigns Slippery Slope- Scare tactic that suggests that if we allow one thing to happen, we will immediately be sliding down the slippery slope to disaster. Often used in environmental or abortion issues Ex. (figure 2.8) Bad breath leads to solitude and loneliness False Needs- Creating a false sense of need to make the argument seem more convincing or to sell a product or an idea. (CK ad from the 90 s) 3. Misuse of Ethos Trusting symbols of ethos rather than looking into the character of the product itself. Authority over Evidence- Overemphasizing authority or ethos rather than focusing on merits of the evidence itself. (i.e. Celebrity endorsements) (Pepsi) Ad Hominem- Argument that attempts to persuade by attacking an opponent s ethos or character (Attacking Clinton)

4 4. Kairos- The contingencies of time, place, and location; the cultural, social, and political context in which the exchange of rhetoric takes place (Post 911 Budweiser) Be sure to recognize the kairos (cultural, historical, political context) of the text that you are analyzing. 5. Analyzing Ads as Arguments Narration: Using their ad to tell a story (often appeals to our pathos) Compare-Contrast: To encourage the consumer to buy their product over others Example or Illustration: The usability or relativity of their product on a person s life (pathos, ethos) Cause and Effect: To demonstrate the benefits of using their product (Ex. Figure 2.2) Definition: To clarify their product s purpose or function (logos, ethos, pathos) Analogy: Using an analogy to make a difficult selling point or productlike fragrance- more accessible to their audience Process: To demonstrate the way a product can be used Description: To show specifications of the product (often used with other argumentative strategies) Classification and Division: To help the reader conceptualize how the product fits into a larger scheme.

5

Writing an Argument. The Writer:

Writing an Argument. The Writer: Writing an Argument The purpose of argument writing is to present a position and to have an audience adopt or at least seriously consider your argument. The Writer: Perhaps more than any other kind of

More information

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking.

Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. A good argument should: 1. be deductively valid (or inductively strong) and have all true premises; 2. have its validity and truth-of-premises be as evident

More information

The Art of Persuasive Writing

The Art of Persuasive Writing The Art of Persuasive Writing Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements Editorials Speeches Propaganda Reviews Blogs Persuasive Essays Forms of Persuasive Writing Advertisements try to convince you to

More information

Fact and Opinion. How to Tell the Difference

Fact and Opinion. How to Tell the Difference Fact and Opinion How to Tell the Difference Facts Facts are statements that can be proven. Facts may be true or false. Examples 1. Statistically, women live longer than men. 2. Most buses weigh more than

More information

Informal Fallacies informal fallacies fallacy fallacy of relevance fallacy of presumption Common fallacies of relevance ad hominem

Informal Fallacies informal fallacies fallacy fallacy of relevance fallacy of presumption Common fallacies of relevance ad hominem Informal Fallacies Aristotle called humans the rational animal. But this does not mean that we are purely reasoning creatures. Humans possess reasoning capabilities but are likewise governed by emotions

More information

Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies

Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies 1 Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies One cannot offer any disagreement that same-sex marriage has gained a great deal of publicity in the recent years. While the issue played a large

More information

Reviewfrom Last Class

Reviewfrom Last Class Reviewfrom Last Class The most used fallacy on Earth! Ad Hominem Several Types of Ad Hominem Fallacies 1. Personal Attack Ad Hominem 2. Inconsistency Ad Hominem 3. Circumstantial Ad Hominem 4. Poisoning

More information

CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT

CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT Sloan Communication Program Teaching Note CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT The purpose of most business writing is to recommend some course of action ("we should open a branch office in Duluth"; "management

More information

8 THE TWISTED THINKING OF LOGICAL FALLACIES (CHAPTER 5)

8 THE TWISTED THINKING OF LOGICAL FALLACIES (CHAPTER 5) 8 THE TWISTED THINKING OF LOGICAL FALLACIES (CHAPTER 5) Overview Statement: To be good critical thinkers, leaders must study logical fallacies, both so they can avoid using them and spot them in others.

More information

The Three Appeals of Argument. Logical Appeal (logos) Ethical Appeal (ethos) Emo7onal Appeal (pathos)

The Three Appeals of Argument. Logical Appeal (logos) Ethical Appeal (ethos) Emo7onal Appeal (pathos) The Three Appeals of Argument Logical Appeal (logos) Ethical Appeal (ethos) Emo7onal Appeal (pathos) Logical Appeal (logos) A logical appeal is one that appeals to the mind. A logical appeal is the strategic

More information

READTHEORY TEACHING STUDENTS TO READ AND THINK CRITICALLY

READTHEORY TEACHING STUDENTS TO READ AND THINK CRITICALLY READTHEORY TEACHING STUDENTS TO READ AND THINK CRITICALLY "Tools of Persuasion" Reading Comprehension Assessment ReadTheory.org For exciting updates, offers, and other helpful information, follow us on

More information

Writing a Critical or Rhetorical Analysis

Writing a Critical or Rhetorical Analysis Writing a Critical or Rhetorical Analysis The Writing Lab D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 What is a Critical (or Rhetorical) Analysis? A critical analysis is an essay that evaluates

More information

Sexual Assault of a Child VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS

Sexual Assault of a Child VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS ATTORNEYS Sexual Assault of a Child VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS 1. What are your feelings or opinions about criminal defense attorneys? 2. Have you ever had a bad experience with a criminal defense attorney? If

More information

Role Preparation. Preparing for a Mock Trial

Role Preparation. Preparing for a Mock Trial Civil Law Mock Trial: Role Preparation This package contains: PAGE Preparing for a Mock Trial 1-5 Time Chart 6 Etiquette 7-8 Role Preparation for: Plaintiff and Defendant Lawyers 9-12 Judge 13 Jury 13

More information

Strategic Planning for Public Relations

Strategic Planning for Public Relations Strategic Planning for Public Relations Third Edition Ronald D. Smith, APR Buffalo State College Routledge Taylor &. Francis Croup NEW YORK AND LONDON Preface Note to Students xi Note to Public Relations

More information

TOP TEN TIPS FOR WINNING YOUR CASE IN JURY SELECTION

TOP TEN TIPS FOR WINNING YOUR CASE IN JURY SELECTION TOP TEN TIPS FOR WINNING YOUR CASE IN JURY SELECTION PRESENTED BY JEFF KEARNEY KEARNEY & WESTFALL 2501 PARKVIEW STREET, SUITE 300 FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102 (817) 336-5600 LUBBOCK CRIMINAL DEFENSE LAWYERS

More information

Before you read an article, jot down some pros and cons of TV-watching in the chart below. Is Watching TV Good for Kids? PROS

Before you read an article, jot down some pros and cons of TV-watching in the chart below. Is Watching TV Good for Kids? PROS Oakland Unified School District Process Writing Assessment 7 th Grade Persuasive Essay: Is TV Good for Kids? Introduction How much TV do you watch? Do you know people who think that watching TV is bad?

More information

Glossary of Logical Fallacies (Unsound Arguments)

Glossary of Logical Fallacies (Unsound Arguments) Glossary of Logical Fallacies (Unsound Arguments) Glossary of Logical Fallacies 1 Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that undermine the validity of an argument. You need to be aware of these types

More information

Organizing an essay the basics 2. Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3. Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4

Organizing an essay the basics 2. Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3. Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4 Organizing an essay the basics 2 Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3 Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4 Exemplification (one version) 5 Argumentation (shorter version) 6-7 Support Go from

More information

How to Represent Yourself on a Drink Driving Charge in NSW

How to Represent Yourself on a Drink Driving Charge in NSW How to Represent Yourself on a Drink Driving Charge in NSW 1. Introduction Many people who are charged with a drink driving offence decide not to contest the charge because they cannot afford a lawyer

More information

Advertisements gaining control. Advertisement is affecting our everyday lives through the media, and many individuals

Advertisements gaining control. Advertisement is affecting our everyday lives through the media, and many individuals Mendoza1 Esperanza Mendoza Mrs.Toconis Writing 01 (40) 29 October 20 Advertisements gaining control Advertisement is affecting our everyday lives through the media, and many individuals have research the

More information

DUI Voir Dire Questions INTRODUCTION

DUI Voir Dire Questions INTRODUCTION DUI Voir Dire Questions INTRODUCTION 1. Can you give me an example of a law that you disagree with (i.e., the speed limit)? 2. Someone tell me what the First Amendment protects? You see Ladies and Gentlemen,

More information

Persuasive Writing. Section 2. What Is Persuasive Writing?

Persuasive Writing. Section 2. What Is Persuasive Writing? CHAPTER 7 Teaching Genres Using BEW Persuasive writing is fun for students because they get to use their best arguments to convince their audience to change their minds while also informing them. These

More information

Intro to Logic Fallacies Study Guide

Intro to Logic Fallacies Study Guide 1 Name Intro to Logic Fallacies Study Guide 1. Two types of fallacies a. Formal b. Informal 2. A fallacy is 3. Equivocation i. The same word is used with two different meanings i. Jesus is the Word of

More information

Structuring and Analyzing Arguments: The Classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin Models. Junior AP English

Structuring and Analyzing Arguments: The Classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin Models. Junior AP English Structuring and Analyzing Arguments: The Classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin Models Junior AP English Key Terms: Deductive vs. Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning = in traditional Aristotelian logic,

More information

1. T F What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle.

1. T F What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle. Chapter 17 True-False Questions 1. T F What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle. 2. T F Competence and character are the most important factors affecting a speaker

More information

Critique of Voting Democracy Off the Island : An Argument That Won t Hold Water

Critique of Voting Democracy Off the Island : An Argument That Won t Hold Water Sutton 1 Maxwell Sutton Halk WRIT 2 12 June 2014 Critique of Voting Democracy Off the Island : An Argument That Won t Hold Water In Voting Democracy Off the Island: Reality TV and the Republican Ethos,

More information

Marketing at McDonald s

Marketing at McDonald s at McDonald s Careers McDonald s is one of the best known brands worldwide. This case study shows how McDonald s aims to continually build its brand by listening to its customers. It also identifies the

More information

Point of View, Perspective, Audience, and Voice

Point of View, Perspective, Audience, and Voice Lesson Da 2 Day 1 Point of View, Perspective, Audience, and Voice A story can be told from more than one point of view. If a story is written by someone who is a character in the story, then it is said

More information

The Media Studies Section

The Media Studies Section Study Guidelines The Media Studies Section The fourth section to appear on your Higher Level exam paper is the Media Studies Section. Some of the options that may appear on the exam paper are as follows:

More information

CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4)

CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4) CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4) LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Claims Without Arguments When Claims Conflict Conflicting Claims Conflict With Your Background Information Experts

More information

Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques. What is it? What does it do?

Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques. What is it? What does it do? Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques What is it? What does it do? What is propaganda? The process of spreading ideas, information, or rumor to help or hurt a known cause, political system, or view Ideas,

More information

Essay Writing Terms. Introduction. Grabber. Focus Statement. Thesis Statement. Thesis Support. Topic Sentence. Body Paragraph. Details.

Essay Writing Terms. Introduction. Grabber. Focus Statement. Thesis Statement. Thesis Support. Topic Sentence. Body Paragraph. Details. Essay Writing Terms Title Introduction Grabber Focus Statement Thesis Statement Thesis Support Body Paragraph Conclusion Modified Focus Modified Thesis Challenge Bridge Audience Formality Tone Purpose

More information

On the Other Hand: The Role of Antithetical Writing in First Year Composition Courses

On the Other Hand: The Role of Antithetical Writing in First Year Composition Courses On the Other Hand: The Role of Antithetical Writing in First Year Composition Courses by This essay is a chapter in Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2, a peer-reviewed open textbook series for

More information

How to Brief an Agency

How to Brief an Agency How to Brief an Agency Contents: Introduction - Introduction - What makes a good brief? - Important Steps to take - Finalising the Brief - Evaluating the Agency's proposal Giving a thorough brief to your

More information

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements?

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements? Critical Thinking University of St Andrews March 2007 Bullet point material is not on the students copies. Feel free to use the material as you see fit, depending on timing, ability, enthusiasm etc. Good

More information

Here are several tips to help you navigate Fairfax County s legal system.

Here are several tips to help you navigate Fairfax County s legal system. Since 2004, I ve been a daily presence in the Fairfax County Courthouse and have handled hundreds of drug cases as both a Prosecutor and a Defense Attorney. I have spent the last decade analyzing the legal

More information

Analyzing TV Commercials

Analyzing TV Commercials Analyzing TV Commercials Sandra Gutiérrez Background: Unit: Persuasive Writing and Media Lesson Topic: Analyzing TV Commercials Length of Lesson: 90 minute Language Arts block. Background to Lesson: This

More information

Non-personal communication

Non-personal communication Week 8: Promotions Integrated Marketing Communications: advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, and Direct Marketing Strategic Goals Of Marketing Communication Create awareness Build positive images

More information

English II Literary Terms: List I

English II Literary Terms: List I English II Literary Terms: List I Figurative Language- words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant to be understood on a literal level. o Literal- what is actually being

More information

VOIR DIRE 2/11/2015 STATE OF TEXAS VS JANE DOE 1. CONVERSATION - ONLY TIME YOU CAN ASK THE LAWYERS QUESTIONS 2. NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER

VOIR DIRE 2/11/2015 STATE OF TEXAS VS JANE DOE 1. CONVERSATION - ONLY TIME YOU CAN ASK THE LAWYERS QUESTIONS 2. NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER STATE OF TEXAS VS JANE DOE VOIR DIRE 1. CONVERSATION - ONLY TIME YOU CAN ASK THE LAWYERS QUESTIONS 2. NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER 3. DESELECTION (TO MAKE THE JURY = SIT THERE & BE QUIET) 4. SOME QUESTIONS

More information

2004 The Writing Center at GULC. All rights reserved.

2004 The Writing Center at GULC. All rights reserved. FROM MEMO TO BRIEF * 2004 The Writing Center at GULC. All rights reserved. Just as you have become accustomed to writing memos, it is time for you to switch gears and focus on writing a brief. Writing

More information

Starting out in college I had no idea what I wanted to do, like most first year students. Since I

Starting out in college I had no idea what I wanted to do, like most first year students. Since I BIS: Mass Communication, Psychology, Management Starting out in college I had no idea what I wanted to do, like most first year students. Since I still had no direction going into my second year, I thought

More information

What Is Circular Reasoning?

What Is Circular Reasoning? What Is Circular Reasoning? Logical fallacies are a type of error in reasoning, errors which may be recognized and corrected by observant thinkers. There are a large number of informal fallacies that are

More information

Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials

Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials Self Defense and Defense of Self; There is a Difference The following materials provide an outline of topics to cover by someone in your community

More information

LAW AND JUSTICE AS SEEN ON TV. by Elayne Rapping New York, London, New York University Press, 2003, Paper: ISBN (Price $19.00) pp. 308.

LAW AND JUSTICE AS SEEN ON TV. by Elayne Rapping New York, London, New York University Press, 2003, Paper: ISBN (Price $19.00) pp. 308. LAW AND JUSTICE AS SEEN ON TV by Elayne Rapping New York, London, New York University Press, 2003, Paper: ISBN 0-8147-7560-8 (Price $19.00) pp. 308. Reviewed by Daniel A. DiPietro Journal of High Technology

More information

Mr. Stiles s Essay: Introduction

Mr. Stiles s Essay: Introduction Overview: On Friday, October 24 th, we returned to a narrative nonfiction text that we had visited when we practiced vocabulary in context. This article, entitled I Survived the Boston Marathon Bombing,

More information

Role Preparation. Preparing for a Mock Trial

Role Preparation. Preparing for a Mock Trial Criminal Law Mock Trial: Role Preparation This package contains: PAGE Preparing for a Mock Trial 1 Time Chart 2 Etiquette 3-4 Role Preparation for: Crown and Defence Lawyers 5-7 Judge and Jury 8 Court

More information

Product core digital assets Campaign website http://www.oldspice.com/en-us/home-page.aspx. https://twitter.com/oldspice

Product core digital assets Campaign website http://www.oldspice.com/en-us/home-page.aspx. https://twitter.com/oldspice ASSIGNMENT: Integrated Marketing Campaign Assessment Description: Identify an integrated marketing campaign from a product that you really like and provide a comprehensive assessment based on criteria

More information

MKTG 680. Chapter 13-14 Global Marketing Communications Decisions: Advertising, Public Relations, Sales Promotion. Standardization vs.

MKTG 680. Chapter 13-14 Global Marketing Communications Decisions: Advertising, Public Relations, Sales Promotion. Standardization vs. MKTG 680 Chapter 13-14 Global Marketing Communications Decisions: Advertising, Public Relations, Sales Promotion Global Marketing Communications The primary purpose of marketing communications is to tell

More information

What is a fallacy? Fallacies of Relevance Defective Induction Fallacies of Presumption Ambiguity Summary. Logic 2: Fallacies Jan.

What is a fallacy? Fallacies of Relevance Defective Induction Fallacies of Presumption Ambiguity Summary. Logic 2: Fallacies Jan. Logic 2: Fallacies Jan. 17, 2014 Overview I What is a fallacy? Definition Formal and Informal Fallacies Fallacies of Relevance Appeal to Emotion Appeal to Pity Appeal to Force Argument Against the Person

More information

10 th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts

10 th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts 10 th Grade 3 10 th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts 1. Situation: Many high school students hold part-time jobs after school. Directions: Think about the effects part-time jobs have on students. Do part-time

More information

10th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts

10th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts 10th Grade Persuasive Essay Prompts Situation: Many high school students hold part-time jobs after school. Directions: Think about the effects part-time jobs have on students. Do part-time jobs hinder

More information

9694 THINKING SKILLS

9694 THINKING SKILLS CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series 9694 THINKING SKILLS 9694/41 Paper 4 (Applied Reasoning), maximum raw mark 50 This mark scheme is

More information

Combating Drink Driving: The Next Steps The Views of the Automobile Association. Summary

Combating Drink Driving: The Next Steps The Views of the Automobile Association. Summary Combating Drink Driving: The Next Steps The Views of the Automobile Association Summary * Drinking and driving is perceived by the great majority of AA members and drivers in general as inexcusable and

More information

Media Studies / 6th 7th Grade

Media Studies / 6th 7th Grade Media Studies / 6th 7th Grade MARY ENGLER HAGEN FYI I have set up these lessons/unit on media studies for a 6th or 7th grade class. I have not intended to make these lessons a surface study only of media,

More information

Course Law Enforcement I. Unit III United States Legal Systems

Course Law Enforcement I. Unit III United States Legal Systems Course Law Enforcement I Unit III United States Legal Systems Essential Question What is the difference between civil and criminal law? TEKS 130.293(c) (5)(E) Prior Student Learning State and Federal Court

More information

DERBY CITY COUNCIL S EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY POLICY

DERBY CITY COUNCIL S EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY POLICY Achieving equality and valuing diversity DERBY CITY COUNCIL S EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY POLICY November 2009 Translations and making the booklet accessible This policy booklet gives details of the Council

More information

Developing Critical Thinking Skills with The Colbert Report

Developing Critical Thinking Skills with The Colbert Report Developing Critical Thinking Skills with The Colbert Report Why Teach Critical Thinking with The Colbert Report? A. Young people receive the majority of their information through popular culture. B. Using

More information

ROLE PREPARATION MOCK BAIL HEARING PREPARING FOR A MOCK BAIL HEARING

ROLE PREPARATION MOCK BAIL HEARING PREPARING FOR A MOCK BAIL HEARING THIS PACKAGE CONTAINS: PAGE Preparing for a Mock Bail Hearing 1-2 Background: The Bail Process 3-7 Courtroom Etiquette 8-9 Mock Bail Hearing Schedule 10 Role Preparation Packages for: Crown & Defence Counsel

More information

Sample Prompts for a Variety of Types of Analytical/Expository Essays. Prompt: A Comparison and Contrast of Mariana and Miss Havisham

Sample Prompts for a Variety of Types of Analytical/Expository Essays. Prompt: A Comparison and Contrast of Mariana and Miss Havisham 148 Sample Prompts for a Variety of Types of Analytical/Expository Essays Comparison/Contrast Essay Prompt: A Comparison and Contrast of Mariana and Miss Havisham After carefully analyzing Tennyson's poem

More information

Units of Study 9th Grade

Units of Study 9th Grade Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.

More information

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now Criminal Court Felonies The U.S. has the highest rate of felony conviction and imprisonment of any industrialized nation. A felony crime is more serious than a misdemeanor, but the same offense can be

More information

Why Privacy Matters: Debunking the Nothing-to-Hide Argument

Why Privacy Matters: Debunking the Nothing-to-Hide Argument 1 Why Privacy Matters: Debunking the Nothing-to-Hide Argument In today s society, the word privacy has become ubiquitous. We see it every day; on HIPAA forms, social networking sites, online transactions,

More information

HIGH SCHOOL MASS MEDIA AND MEDIA LITERACY STANDARDS

HIGH SCHOOL MASS MEDIA AND MEDIA LITERACY STANDARDS Guidelines for Syllabus Development of Mass Media Course (1084) DRAFT 1 of 7 HIGH SCHOOL MASS MEDIA AND MEDIA LITERACY STANDARDS Students study the importance of mass media as pervasive in modern life

More information

What Is a Thesis Statement?

What Is a Thesis Statement? Thesis Statements What Is a Thesis Statement? A thesis or thesis statement is a sentence that identifies the purpose of your essay and captures the central message of the same. What Is a Thesis Statement?

More information

Study of the Violent Nature of Crime in South Africa Creating a violence free society

Study of the Violent Nature of Crime in South Africa Creating a violence free society Study of the Violent Nature of Crime in South Africa Creating a violence free society Presentation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, at a press briefing of the Justice, Crime

More information

Prejudice and stereotypes

Prejudice and stereotypes Prejudice and stereotypes Week 4 1 Definitions PREJUDICE A negative or positive evaluation of a social group and its members. STEREOTYPE A belief about the personal attributes of a social group and its

More information

Reptile Theory: A Tail of Two Reptiles. Julia B. Semenak

Reptile Theory: A Tail of Two Reptiles. Julia B. Semenak Reptile Theory: A Tail of Two Reptiles Julia B. Semenak If phrases like safety rules and community safety sound familiar, you have likely encountered a plaintiff s lawyer using the strategies set forth

More information

Lesson Plan. Preparation

Lesson Plan. Preparation Lesson Plan Course Title: Professional Communications Session Title: Communication Strategies & Technical Writing: Advertising, Marketing, & Propaganda Techniques - PART II Lesson Duration: Three 90-minute

More information

Jury Duty and Selection

Jury Duty and Selection Jury Duty and Selection Introduction That unwelcome letter arrives in the mail jury duty. Many famous trial attorneys have described jurors as a group of individuals who didn't have a good enough reason

More information

Arguments and Methodology INTRODUCTION

Arguments and Methodology INTRODUCTION chapter 1 Arguments and Methodology INTRODUCTION We should accept philosophical views in general, and moral views in particular, on the basis of the arguments offered in their support. It is therefore

More information

AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 The score should reflect the essay s quality as a whole. Remember that students had only 40 minutes to read and write; the paper,

More information

Inductive Reasoning. Definition. Basing a conclusion on specific examples. Examples: All crows are black. The sun will rise tomorrow.

Inductive Reasoning. Definition. Basing a conclusion on specific examples. Examples: All crows are black. The sun will rise tomorrow. Inductive Reasoning Definition. Basing a conclusion on specific examples. Examples: All crows are black. The sun will rise tomorrow. All Islamic people are terrorists. Gravity: Things fall down. Scientific

More information

How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case

How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case A whitepaper by Travis Mayor, Attorney If you have filed a civil lawsuit in your personal injury case against the at fault driver, person, corporation,

More information

How to Write a Book Analysis

How to Write a Book Analysis How to Write a Book Analysis A book analysis is a description, critical analysis, and an evaluation on the quality, meaning, and significance of a book, not a retelling. It should focus on the book's purpose,

More information

Critical Thinking. I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate

Critical Thinking. I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate 1 Critical Thinking Typical Comments I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate The word critical sounds so negative, as though you have to undermine everything The word analysis

More information

Writing Business documents and. All material will be adapted from Botha, D. et al. 2007. Public Relations: Fresh Perspectives. Pearson Education SA

Writing Business documents and. All material will be adapted from Botha, D. et al. 2007. Public Relations: Fresh Perspectives. Pearson Education SA Writing Business documents and Formal Texts All material will be adapted from Botha, D. et al. 2007. Public Relations: Fresh Perspectives. Pearson Education SA Introduction Writing business documents in

More information

Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions. Three Key Strategies to Implement Common Core Standards

Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions. Three Key Strategies to Implement Common Core Standards Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions Three Key Strategies to Implement Common Core Standards Goal: To Raise Student Achievement First Key Strategy Close Reading Standard 1 What is Close

More information

When you open the newspaper, what types of stories are you most interested in reading? If you answered crime stories, you are not alone.

When you open the newspaper, what types of stories are you most interested in reading? If you answered crime stories, you are not alone. Students will understand the 5 W s of the criminal justice system, identify ways that the media can shape its audience s perception of what is true and apply their understanding of media bias to their

More information

PSHE & CITIZENSHIP BBC Three The Crash

PSHE & CITIZENSHIP BBC Three The Crash What is BBC Three The Crash? The Crash tells the stories of a group of friends whose lives change forever following a car crash. These clips show life following a car crash and look at the lasting consequences

More information

Writing Emphasis by Grade Level Based on State Standards. K 5.1 Draw pictures and write words for specific reasons.

Writing Emphasis by Grade Level Based on State Standards. K 5.1 Draw pictures and write words for specific reasons. Writing Emphasis by Grade Level Based on State Standards Grade K K 5.1 Draw pictures and write words for specific reasons. Grade 1 1.5.1 Write brief narratives describing an experience. Grade 2 2.5.2 Write

More information

The Communication Process - Source, Message & Channel Factors. Con Stavros. Model of Communication. A Basic Model of Communication

The Communication Process - Source, Message & Channel Factors. Con Stavros. Model of Communication. A Basic Model of Communication The Communication Process - Source, Message & Channel Factors Con Stavros A Basic Model of Communication SOURCE - person or organisation who has information to share. The source/sender encodes the message

More information

Email Marketing Content Creation

Email Marketing Content Creation Email Marketing Content Creation Writing your way into the inbox. Email marketing is primarily a textual medium focusing on phrases, stories and sentences that are used to gain attention and hold it until

More information

Writing the Persuasive Essay

Writing the Persuasive Essay Writing the Persuasive Essay What is a persuasive/argument essay? In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something Persuasive

More information

KOREAN WAR PROPAGANDA

KOREAN WAR PROPAGANDA KOREAN WAR PROPAGANDA GRADES: 9-12 AUTHOR: Melony Sanford SUBJECT: World History TIME REQUIRED: One class period OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will define propaganda. 2. Students will learn to distinguish between

More information

FAULTY LOGIC/REASONING. Or What is wrong with this statement?

FAULTY LOGIC/REASONING. Or What is wrong with this statement? FAULTY LOGIC/REASONING Or What is wrong with this statement? What is faulty reasoning and faulty logic? First of all, faulty reasoning and faulty logic are two different ways to say the same thing. To

More information

POLITICAL ADS IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT

POLITICAL ADS IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT POLITICAL ADS IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT OBJECTIVE Students will analyze ads from two presidential campaign years. In the process, they will learn how ads reflect their historical context while also addressing

More information

WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE AD?

WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE AD? WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE AD? OBJECTIVE By viewing and analyzing selected presidential campaign advertisements, students will develop criteria for evaluating what makes a political ad effective. OVERVIEW

More information

9.1 Basic Principles of Hypothesis Testing

9.1 Basic Principles of Hypothesis Testing 9. Basic Principles of Hypothesis Testing Basic Idea Through an Example: On the very first day of class I gave the example of tossing a coin times, and what you might conclude about the fairness of the

More information

Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions below.

Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. READTHEORY Reading Comprehension 1 Level 10 Name Date Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. Xandersol, a new, potentially lethal drug, is being blamed for numerous illnesses and

More information

lesson ten the influence of advertising overheads

lesson ten the influence of advertising overheads lesson ten the influence of advertising overheads commonly used advertising techniques information Presentation of simple, direct information. status Associates product use with those who have status,

More information

Strong vs. Weak Arguements. Reading activities This week, we are going to be working on Strong vs. Weak Arguments.

Strong vs. Weak Arguements. Reading activities This week, we are going to be working on Strong vs. Weak Arguments. Week 5 (10-5 thru 10-9-09) Strong vs. Weak Arguements Monday 10-5-09 Tuesday, October 6, 2009 Reading activities This week, we are going to be working on Strong vs. Weak Arguments. STRONG ARGUMENT: Statements

More information

An Illustrative Communication Strategy for Female Condoms: Step 4 (Design Message Strategy) 1. Step 4: Design Message Strategy OBJECTIVES

An Illustrative Communication Strategy for Female Condoms: Step 4 (Design Message Strategy) 1. Step 4: Design Message Strategy OBJECTIVES An Illustrative Communication Strategy for Female Condoms: Step 4 (Design Message Strategy) 1 Step 4: Design Message Strategy OBJECTIVES Demand generation objectives should articulate clearly what activities

More information

SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA. Mock Trial Script. The Case of a Stolen Car

SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA. Mock Trial Script. The Case of a Stolen Car SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF CONTRA COSTA Mock Trial Script The Case of a Stolen Car This mock trial is appropriate for middle and high school students. The script includes a role for a narrator,

More information

Syllogisms and Fallacies 101

Syllogisms and Fallacies 101 1 Syllogisms and Fallacies 101 This isn t a course in logic, but all educated people should know the basic vocabulary and the basic underlying logic of the syllogism. Major premise: No reptiles have fur.

More information

Writing Political Theory Papers

Writing Political Theory Papers Writing Political Theory Papers Political theory is a little bit different than political science. Here are some important differences. 1) It s more like philosophy than social science: it is more concerned

More information

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015 Chapter 5: Fallacies 23 February 2015 Plan for today Talk a bit more about arguments notice that the function of arguments explains why there are lots of bad arguments Turn to the concept of fallacy and

More information

Recognition, recall and persuasion

Recognition, recall and persuasion MindC16.qxd 04/04/2005 13:56 Page 164 16 Recognition, recall and persuasion The phenomena that advertisers describe as recognition and recall both figure heavily in the history of copy testing techniques,

More information

Criminal Law Lesson #3: Theories of Crime and Punishment Justifications for Punishment and Plea Bargaining/Negotiation Exercise

Criminal Law Lesson #3: Theories of Crime and Punishment Justifications for Punishment and Plea Bargaining/Negotiation Exercise Model Lesson Plan: Criminal Law February 12, 2001 David Westbrook Criminal Law Lesson #3: Theories of Crime and Punishment Justifications for Punishment and Plea Bargaining/Negotiation Exercise I. Time:

More information