1 Writing = A Dialogue You come late. When you arrive, others have long preceded you, and they are engaged in a heated discussion, a discussion too heated for them to pause and tell you exactly what it is about. You listen for a while, until you decide that you have caught the tenor of the argument; then you put in your oar. Someone answers, you answer him; another comes to your defense; another aligns himself against you. The hour grows late, you must depart. And you do depart, with the discussion still vigorously in progress. - Kenneth Burke Part I. They Say The simplest template for academic writing is this one: They say ; I say. In other words, writing all writing is about listening to others, summarizing their views, and responding with your own idea. It s about more than asserting your own position it s about placing that position within the conversation that s already been taking place. The conversation doesn t have to be a response to great authors or experts or some well-known person it can be a response to some interior struggle, or to your sister. But there s got to be some tension: When I was a kid, I thought that all people could succeed if they just tried hard enough. The older I get, though, the more I see that our chances for success are greatly restricted by our location, our upbringing, and the institutions we participate in. The goal of writing like this is NOT to play it safe. Good persuasive writing is not about repeating the truths that are already accepted by your audience; instead, persuasive writing can only have a purpose if it challenges some belief your readers hold. However, this expectation doesn t mean that you have to make ridiculous claims and in some cases, agreement can be a part of persuasive writing, if you have something NEW to add to the accepted view: Her argument that is supported by new research/my own experience/changing attitudes that. This structure works well for academic writing, but it s not only about the academy it s also a good model that helps us realize we need to listen to others different from us and find ways of engaging with them thoughtfully and respectfully. According to Graff and Birkenstein, argumentative writing needs to identify WHO it s responding to, early in the writing: To keep an audience engaged, a writer needs to explain what he or she is responding to either before offering that response or, at least, very early in the discussion. Delaying this explanation for more than one or two paragraphs in a very short essay, three or four pages in a longer one, or more than ten or so pages in a book-length text, reverses the natural order in which readers process material (18). So, start with what they say. (Then follow up with what an indication of what you say what you intend to ADD to the topic. Otherwise it feels like you re just going to deliver the party line.)
2 An illustrative quotation, a surprising fact/statistic, a personal experience can work as a way of introducing what they say, as long as it illustrates the view that you re addressing. Templates for introducing the standard view Americans today tend to believe that. Conventional wisdom is that. The standard way of thinking about is that. My whole life I have heard it said that. Many people have agreed with, who claims that. Presenting the standard view as your own I ve always believed that. When I was a child, I used to believe that. Presenting an argument that is often implied Although none of them have ever said so directly, my teachers have often given me the impression that Though they may not admit it, often take for granted that. Setting up sides of an issue In discussions of, one controversial aspect has been. On the one hand, argues. On the other hand, suggests that. [Because of,] My view is. When it comes to the topic of, most of us agree that. But the agreement usually ends when we reach the question of. While some believe that, others feel that. As you write, you should return to the view that you re responding to, which helps maintain a sense of purpose and significance for the writing. And it helps your readers see that you re honestly responding rather than just presenting information about a topic. Summarizing the positions of others If you do an honest job of summarizing, your reader shouldn t be able to tell whether you agree or disagree with the author s position. Words to show that the author is making a claim: argue, assert, believe, claim, emphasize, insist, observe, suggest Words to show that the author agrees with someone else s idea: acknowledge, admire, agree, corroborate, endorse, extol, praise, do not deny, verify Words to show questioning or disagreement: complain, complicate, contend, contradict, deny, disavow, refute, challenge, question, Words to show that the author is making a recommendation: advocate, call for, demand, encourage, implore, plead, urge, warn For example, in most persuasive writing, the authors aren t just talking about an idea. Instead, you might summarize by writing that Jones disagrees with authorities on by providing evidence to
3 support his claim that, and he wants to encourage his readers to as a result of his assertions. Crafting quotations to support your argument Avoid leaving out details for your reader by building quotation sandwiches the top slice gives the reader information to understand the quote, the middle part IS the quote, and the bottom slice helps the reader understand how the quotation is relevant to your own ideas. Templates for setting up and following up on quotations. Basically, X is saying. In other words, X believes. In making this comment, X argues that. Part II. I Say Okay, so you ve figured out how to fairly restate what somebody else is saying. But that s just the beginning. For persuasive writing, you also want to be able to add something to the conversation. There are three basic ways to respond: I agree. I disagree. I both agree and disagree. Merely agreeing, or merely disagreeing, is not enough. You ve also got to say why it matters. Templates for disagreeing: I think X is mistaken because she overlooks. X s claim that rests upon the questionable assumption that. In light of recent research showing, I disagree with X that. X contradicts himself. On one hand he seems to suggest that while at the same time he also asserts that. By focusing on, X distracts from the real problem of. Templates for agreeing I agree with X that because my own experience confirms it. Recent studies about support X s point that. X s writing about helps to shed light on the difficult/unrelated topic of. Since I agree with X that, we need to reassess the popular belief that. Most persuasive writing, then, walks a line between texts that line up with the author s viewpoint and those which complicate or contradict it. Usually, agreeing with some perspective also means disagreeing with some other way of looking at things. Templates for agreeing and disagreeing Although I disagree with X s main point, I concede that his point about is persuasive.
4 Although I agree with X up to a point, I cannot accept her overall point that. Whereas X provides ample evidence that, X and Z s research on convinces me that instead. A template for speculative exploration I have mixed feelings about the text. On one hand, I agree with X that. On the other hand, I find his claim that is problematic. Placing yourself clearly in the writing The danger of incorporating the ideas of other writers is that it can become hard for readers to tell where your summary of others ideas ends and your own stance begins. As a result, it s important for you to provide markers that help to indicate where you are beginning your own argument. Templates for marking off your own claims My own view, however, is that. I believe, as X may not, that. X s assertion that does not fit the facts. Rather, the evidence shows that. [In this sentence you re using a claim to distinguish your ideas from source X, and then you re letting the evidence establish your perspective.] Acknowledging naysayers You build credibility by acknowledging rather than dismissing or ignoring the beliefs of your audience. Those beliefs are sometimes counterarguments, and if you don t address counterarguments then you run the risk of being seen as close-minded. Templates for introducting counterarguments At this point I want to raise some objections inspired by the skeptic in me. She feels that I have been ignoring the issue of., she says to me,. Some readers, however, may challenge my view that. After all, many believe that. In truth, my argument about does seem to ignore. But is my idea realistic? What are the chances of it actually being adopted? Does the evidence I ve provided compellingly show -? Templates for introducing counterarguments held by a specific group of people (liberals, Christians, capitalists) Here many feminists may object that. Biologists, of course, may dispute my claim that. Though not all Christians think alike, a fairly common perspective they hold, in opposition to my own, may be that. Though labeling groups introduces a level of generalization that may be uncomfortable, it also allows for the possibility of connecting your ideas to the larger interaction of ideas. The third example shows a way to avoid overgeneralization while still ascribing a view to a certain group.
5 Answering objections It s not enough just to acknowledge the views of others you also need to answer them. And you need to answer them fairly, without mocking or oversimplifying. That s just wrong is not is not backed up with any research or logic or example. Although I admit that, I still maintain that since. Proponents are right to point out that. But they exaggerate/misrepresent the evidence when they say. While it is true that, this fact does not necessarily cause/indicate/show that. What if you discover that a counterargument is more persuasive than your stance? Well, this discovery probably means you need to do some major revision. One goal of writing is to help you extend your own thinking, and a fair investigation of the evidence may mean that you learn something new that changes your view. That s not a bad thing. Establishing significance If it isn t clear why your audience should care about your writing, they probably won t. Since you re writing to persuade someone to revisit their position on some topic, one of the easy ways to help a reader see the significance of your writing is by helping them see how your claim may differ from their own. If you re writing about something that everyone already accepts, there s not much reason to be writing about it. A thesis statement is not a bad place to establish significance by identifying the tension between a group s current view and the position that you advocate. used to think that. But a shifting focus on has meant that. This position challenges the work of critics who have assumed that. Recent studies shed new light on, which previous studies had not addressed. If sports enthusiasts stopped to think about it, they might simply assume that most athletes. However, new research/events show that. At first glance teenagers might say. But on closer inspection they might realize. In addition to identifying which groups of people might care about the topic, you probably also want to explain why they should care. matters because. Although may seem unimportant, it is a crucial factor in our society s investigation of. My discussion of is in fact addressing the larger matter of.
6 Hey, you might even be able to say that a good thesis statement generally identifies your position in relationship to other positions and then explains why your position on the topic matters. To clarify and elaborate You use these because, no matter how clear your argument, sometimes readers will end up on a sideroad. Generally writers assume that the reader is more familiar with the topic than he or she really is. In other words,. What really means is that. To put it another way,. Template to prevent misunderstanding My point is not that we should, but that we should. Template to provide a roadmap to your structure The first section provides while the second section. Having just argued that, let us now turn our attention to. Given this information about we can now begin to investigate the dispute in more detail. Thus, the position of is. In contrast, the position of is. Moving from general claims to specific examples For example,., for instance, shows that. provides a specific illustration of. The words that help you show these connections are called transitions. The most common relationships indicated by transitions are Addition: also, and, besides, additionally Exemplification: after all, for example, to illustrate, specifically Elaboration: by extension, that is, to put it another way, ultimately Comparison: along the same lines, likewise, similarly Contrast: on the other hand, although, but, in contrast, despite the fact that, however, nonetheless Cause and effect: as a result, because, since, so, then, therefore, thus Concession: admittedly, although it is true, granted, of course Conclusion: in short, in sum, to sum up, overall, ultimately
INDEX OF TEMPLATES INTRODUCING WHAT THEY SAY A number of sociologists have recently suggested that X s work has several fundamental problems. It has become common today to dismiss X s contribution to the
School of Liberal Arts University Writing Center Because writers need readers Cavanaugh Hall 008H University Library 2125 (317)274-2049 (317)278-8171 www.iupui.edu/~uwc Academic Conversation Templates:
They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein ENTERING THE CONVERSATION Many Americans assume that Others more complicated: On the one hand,. On the other
EXAMPLE Why are so many college students mired in credit card debt? (title is essential question) I. Introduction: HOOK quote from In Debt We Trust Thousands of college students leave school with not only
Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers
The Argumentative Essay: Persuade Your Audience Don t Fight With Them! Goals Understand what an argumentative essay is Learn argument strategies: Summary Quoting Agree or Disagree Gray Areas Make use of
Graphic Organizers for Argumentative Writing Unpacking Prompts Do What GEDtestingservice.com GED.com GED and GED Testing Service are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education. They may
Organizing an essay the basics 2 Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3 Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4 Exemplification (one version) 5 Argumentation (shorter version) 6-7 Support Go from
Writing Political Theory Papers Political theory is a little bit different than political science. Here are some important differences. 1) It s more like philosophy than social science: it is more concerned
Reading Rhetorically Writing Rhetorically Understanding Academic Discourse The process of reading is not just the interpretation of a text, but the interpretation of another person s worldview as presented
Agenda Week 8 Hand in Writing Program Assessment paper Discussion of Writing on Demand chapters 5-7 SAT and EPT Summary Writing: GIST Show, Don t Tell in Non-fiction Writing Common Core Standards Academic
How to Write an Argumentative Essay The Writing Lab D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 An argumentative essay uses reasoning and evidence not emotion to take a definitive stand on
Today, we re going to talk about conflict resolution. As you know, conflict is a normal part of life. Whether it s at work, at home, with friends or neighbors, disagreements between people happen. When
One Approach to Guiding Peer Response By Kim Jaxon For the past few years, I have asked my students to write peer responses to each other's writing, and based on their feedback, we have continued to shape
: What the Research Tells Us J o A n n e Y a t e s We have seen that in all communication, whether persuasive or not, you should consider the audience, your credibility, your purpose, and the context of
Persuasive Essay Please read through the following notes. You will use these slides to complete the Persuasive Essay Notes part of your outline. I. Tips for Writing a Persuasive Essay: 1. Grab your reader
Directions for Narrative, Expository, and Descriptive Essays The Parts of an Essay An essay has the same elements as a well-written paragraph. A paragraph has a topic sentence; an essay has a thesis statement.
WRITING AN ESSAY Writing an essay is an opportunity for you to develop new ideas and apply concepts and theories from your course. You ll develop a thesis (or position) and use reasoning and evidence to
Witness Prep 3 January 24, 2014 Top 10 Coaching Tips for Mock Trial Witnesses 1. Be true to the Whole Truth. You must believe what you are saying. There are bad facts that are unavoidable in every case:
Writing the Persuasive Essay What is a persuasive/argument essay? In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something Persuasive
HOW TO WRITE A CRITICAL ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY John Hubert School of Health Sciences Dalhousie University This handout is a compilation of material from a wide variety of sources on the topic of writing a
Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris
what a basic essay/written response is. the steps of writing an essay. what an essay consists of. helpful transition words. why it is important to support your thoughts. why you should proofread your essays.
15 Most Typically Used Interview Questions and Answers According to the reports made in thousands of job interviews, done at ninety seven big companies in the United States, we selected the 15 most commonly
Becky Talk Cushing H.S. Cushing, TX AP Language Question 3--persuasive 2007 Exam Charitable Acts A weekly feature of The New York Times Magazine is a column by Randy Cohen called The Ethicist, in which
Hi: Thank you for asking me to read your essay. You have written about a very interesting subject and each of the texts you have selected to discuss is linked to that subject. While I have read the essays
CfE Higher History Essay Writing Guide 1 CfE HIGHER HISTORY ESSAY WRITING Aim: To understand how to write a Higher History Essay. In your final exam, you will be required to write two coherently written,
CHAPTER 4 Direct Proof It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing this; we now examine the most straightforward approach, a technique called direct proof. As we begin, it
The 5 P s in Problem Solving 1 How do other people solve problems? The 5 P s in Problem Solving *prob lem: a source of perplexity, distress, or vexation *solve: to find a solution, explanation, or answer
Strong Student Model These writing models are also available in Assessment Masters. The Case for Graduated Licenses Statistics about teenage driving are illuminating: automobile accidents are the leading
www.englishbiz.co.uk 2014 Steve Campsall Essay Writing Guide WHAT IS AN ESSAY? An essay can never give answers it can only offer views ; and these need to be argued for. You need to argue in support of
WritePlacer Dimensions Checklist Purpose and Focus - clear purpose and a consistent focus Communicated the issue and declared a position on the issue Maintained focus on that main idea throughout the essay
AVID Socratic Seminar Socrates, a Classical Greek philosopher, was convinced that the surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation. He called this method
Persuade, Complain, Offer, Accept Help and Apologize CASAS Competencies: 0.1.2 Identify or use appropriate language for informational purposes 4.8.1 Demonstrate ability to work cooperatively with others
Academic vocabulary with more than one meaning (Defining your terms) Define one of the words below until your partner works out what you are talking about, making sure you include academic meanings. 1.
Unit One Lesson Four Communication In Relationships Lesson Overview Students will apply communication skills learned in the previous lesson to scenarios, situations, and in an interview/discussion with
PERSUASIVE WRITING 2003 The Writing Center at GULC. All rights reserved. Finding your PURPOSE PERSUASIVE WRITING vs. OBJECTIVE WRITING While the goal of objective writing is to inform and predict using
WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW A critical article review briefly describes the content of an article and, more importantly, provides an in-depth analysis and evaluation of its ideas and purpose. The
1 Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies One cannot offer any disagreement that same-sex marriage has gained a great deal of publicity in the recent years. While the issue played a large
Active Reading Before you can write well, you must read well. 1. strategies for active reading 2. stages of active reading 3. writing a critique Passive Reading: reading done without an active, critical
Revising and Editing Your Essay 1 Revising and editing are two distinct processes. Revising is intentionally looking at ways of improving your essay. Editing is correcting the mechanics of your essay like
Formal, Analytical Essay Writing Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.) What is an Literary Analysis Essay? (pg 245-252) An essay is essentially an argument, based
Victory Bible Colleges International Essay Writing Tips 1 Essay Writing Tips Table of Contents Ten Steps for Writing An Essay Read the Essay Question... 3 Construct the Initial Plan... 5 Read and Research...
Critical Thinking Dona Warren www.drddwarren.org www.uwsp.edu/special/wact/index.htm First Year Seminar Learning Outcomes A First Year Seminar is designed to introduce skills Upon completing this requirement,
Johnson County Community College Book Report/Review The book report is a longer more involved writing about a book that has been read. It is not just a summary. The major purpose of a book report/review
Put That In Writing - Level Two 113 UNIT 9 Lesson: Editing Guidelines and Response Writing: Essay Exam (Part 1) 9.1 Learning Objectives A. To know the guidelines for editing an essay. B. To edit and improve
Summer Reading List for English 9 Honors Required Books for Ninth Grade October Sky Homer Hickam A Raisin in the Sun Lorraine Hansberry The Pearl John Steinbeck Ninth-Grade Summer Reading Assignment: Dialectical
cchapter EIGHTb Core beliefs Think Good - Feel Good Paul Stallard Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBN: 0470842903 (Paperback) CORE BELIEFS Core beliefs are the fixed statements ideas that we have
Scope and Sequence: Early Learning WEEK 1 Welcoming Weekly Concepts UNIT 1: SKILLS FOR LEARNING There are many ways to welcome someone new to class. Welcoming someone is a way to show you care. Welcoming
Developing Critical Thinking Skills with The Colbert Report Why Teach Critical Thinking with The Colbert Report? A. Young people receive the majority of their information through popular culture. B. Using
Slide 1: Preparation and introduction This lesson was initially created for use by two researchers visiting a school, but we have provided all the materials and guidance needed to allow teachers to use
Handout 27 (1 of 1) Writing an Introductory Paragraph for an Expository Essay Prompt Read the following: If you re like many Americans, you have just spent a few days in close quarters with your parents,
This month s lesson will help you become familiar with a number of common English proverbs. You will also learn how proverbs are used in English and when it may be appropriate to use them. What is a Proverb?
GRADE: Sixth Grade NAME OF ASSESSMENT: Reading Informational Texts and Argument Writing Performance Assessment STANDARDS ASSESSED: Students will cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text
CARING HONESTY RESPECT RESPONSIBILITY Character Development Youth Sports YMCA OF THE INLAND NORTHWEST TABLE OF CONTENTS Caring, Honesty, Respect, Responsibility Activity: The Big Four 4 Activity: Sports
Skills 360 9 Hacks for Improving your Business English (Part 1) iscussion Questions 1. What do you usually say to someone if you don t understand what they are saying? 2. What special words do you usually
WRITING AN ESSAY Some thoughts to help you get started. A: 'Golden rules' of essay-writing 1. STRUCTURE Always make it clear to yourself and to your reader: "Where you are, how you got there, and where
Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Middle and High School Science This document is based on the Connections to the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical
How to Write a Book Analysis A book analysis is a description, critical analysis, and an evaluation on the quality, meaning, and significance of a book, not a retelling. It should focus on the book's purpose,
P A R T I C I P A N T W O R K S H E E T S CONTENTS INSTRUCTIONS: This document contains the worksheets and slides from the leader s guide for easy printing. Worksheets only, print pages: 3 13 Worksheets
Outlining Your Speech Once you have chosen (or been assigned) a topic and conducted your initial research, you should begin outlining your speech. Like all outlines, the public speaking outlining process
Writing a Critical or Rhetorical Analysis The Writing Lab D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 What is a Critical (or Rhetorical) Analysis? A critical analysis is an essay that evaluates
Persuasive Speeches We use persuasion in our personal and professional lives, and we also are subjected to others attempts to persuade us. At home we may try to convince someone to see a particular movie,
THESIS STATEMENTS THE BASICS A thesis statement is a sentence or two, at most, which contains your stance on the topic and the main ideas you will cover. An effective thesis clearly communicates your essay
TEACHER S GUIDE: DIVERSITY LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will understand that differences between people are positive. Students will learn that some people handle diversity in negative ways. Students will
Thesis Statements What Is a Thesis Statement? A thesis or thesis statement is a sentence that identifies the purpose of your essay and captures the central message of the same. What Is a Thesis Statement?
Lesson Plan Healthy Relationships TOPIC: Healthy Relationships SUBJECT: Life Skills IDEAL NUMBER OF LEARNERS: 40 TARGET AGE RANGE: 9 15 TIME: 45 minutes WHAT ADVANCE PREPARATION, IF ANY, IS REQUIRED OF
HOW TO PREPARE AND COMMUNICATE YOUR PERSONAL TESTIMONY Purpose: To motivate and equip you to prepare and use your testimony in sharing your faith with others. Objectives: By the end of this session you
Writing Essays A GOOD ESSAY CONTAINS: 1. An introductory paragraph 2. A clear thesis statement 3. A body consisting of supporting paragraphs 4. A concluding paragraph Step 1: Review Assignment Read the
Disability and Dyslexia Service: Study Skills for Students some ideas on essays and essay writing why this document might be helpful for students: Before beginning work on an essay, it is vital to know
TEXT FEATURES SASS ELA Lesson Plan Unit: Unit 2 -Unraveling Other s Stories Text(s): Textbooks, Magazine Articles, Other texts with multiple text features (at least 2 per group) Standards Common Core State
Chapter 5: Fallacies 23 February 2015 Plan for today Talk a bit more about arguments notice that the function of arguments explains why there are lots of bad arguments Turn to the concept of fallacy and
Character Analysis Essay for To Kill a Mockingbird Class: Language Arts Subject: Writing Lesson Title: Character Analysis Essay Grade Level: 7 Lesson Length: 5+ days (85 min each day) The purpose of this
1 Contents Getting the best from your 360 degree feedback... 3 What it is.... 3 And isn t.... 4 Using the system... 5 Choosing your respondents... 5 Choosing your competencies... 5 Compiling your questionnaire...
Chapter Four: How to Collaborate and Write With Others Why Collaborate on Writing? Considering (and Balancing) the Two Extremes of Collaboration Peer Review as Collaboration * A sample recipe for how peer
Your Style Under Stress Test What kind of a self-monitor are you? One good way to increase your selfawareness is to explore your Style Under Stress. What do you do when talking turns tough? To find out,
Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.
Triad Essay *Learned about myself as a Teacher* Through doing the triads, I learned a lot more than I thought about my teaching. I was surprised to see how hard it is not to jump in and tell someone the
PUBLIC AGENDA Independent, Thought-Provoking, Always in the Public Interest Helping All Students Succeed in a Diverse Society A PUBLIC AGENDA CITIZEN CHOICEWORK GUIDE FOR COMMUNITY CONVERSATIONS, CLASSROOMS,
The Relationship Institute www.therelationshipinstitute.org Evaluating the relative strengths and weaknesses in your marriage The checklist below will help you determine the relative weaknesses and strengths
Going Way Beyond Positive Thinking By Andy Shaw If you have previously spent virtually any time at all in the personal growth area then it is almost certain that you cannot have avoided at least some work
#2 Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons We ll start with the very basics here, so be patient. It becomes far more challenging when we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as