CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4)"

Transcription

1 CRITICAL THINKING REASONS FOR BELIEF AND DOUBT (VAUGHN CH. 4) LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Claims Without Arguments When Claims Conflict Conflicting Claims Conflict With Your Background Information Experts and Evidence Signs of Expertise Illegitimate Uses of Experts Bias Among Experts Signs of Dubious Authority Limits of Expertise Personal Experience As Source of Evidence Impairment Expectation Innumeracy Fooling Ourselves Resisting Contrary Evidence Looking for Confirming Evidence Preferring Available Evidence Claims In the News Importance of Critical Thinking Inside the News Sorting Out the News Advertising and Persuasion Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 1 of 7

2 CLAIMS AND EVIDENCE Believing or doubting a claim is usually not an all or nothing affair. There are degrees of belief and disbelief, where some claims merit a high degree of believability, some merit a low degree of believability, and many somewhere in between. This is because much of the time, the evidence for a claim is not as complete or as supportive to fully determine its credibility. The good critical thinker will always proportion his or her belief to the evidence. This is a principle that can be understood in terms of how much of your hard-earned money you would bet on backing up the claim. If you would bet your entire bank account on a claim, then you have a high degree of belief in its truth; if you would only bet a few nickels, then you have a fairly low degree of belief in its truth. Many of your beliefs will be somewhere in between. And many other claims call for a complete suspension of belief. What are the acceptable forms of evidence? All claims need evidential support in one form or another. One form of evidence is the giving of reason in the form of a deductive or inductive argument. But often these are not explicitly stated or not available. This can happen when someone makes a claim without argument, or when a premise of an argument is itself not backed up by another argument. Nonetheless, there are ways of gathering evidence that do not come in the form of deductive or inductive arguments. In this chapter, we will consider some principles concerning some forms of non-argumentative evidence. These principles are not strict rules; they are rough rules of thumb, because there are contexts and circumstances that call for disregarding the principle. However, they can be good things to keep in mind. (My wording of the principles is slightly different from Vaughn s.) WHEN CLAIMS CONFLICT Conflicting Claims Suppose there is a new product that promises to repel mosquitoes. There is a claim that the product is effective, but there is also a conflicting claim that it does nothing at all. Suppose also that you have no other information to help you decide between the two conflicting claims. What do you do? Here is the principle: Principle: If there is no evidence supporting either one of two conflicting claims, then you cannot believe either. Until you have evidence to favor one claim over the other, you cannot believe either claim. You must suspend your belief regarding both claims until further evidence, either in the form of personal experience or a reliable source. Conflict With Your Background Information A claim is always evaluated in light of many other things you believe. These other things that you believe are what we may call your background information. Much of this background Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 2 of 7

3 information is made up of common sense or common knowledge, which we amass as we go through life. Principle: If a claim conflicts with other claims you have good reason to believe, supported by common sense or common knowledge, then you have good reason to doubt the claim. Sometimes, this principle cannot be followed. If example, there was a time when it was common sense to believe that the earth was flat or that the earth was at the center of the solar system. Common knowledge itself had to change to accommodate new scientific findings. This means that we must always remain open to changing our background information, relying on personal experience or experts, depending on what is available. EXPERTS AND EVIDENCE Experts are a very big source of evidence. An expert is someone who is more knowledgeable about an area than others, and therefore deserves more credibility in their area of expertise than nonexperts. Principle: When experts disagree about a claim, then we have good reason to doubt it. This is not to say that experts are always right. Even experts change their views about their own areas of expertise. Also, an expert in one field is not necessarily an expert in another. Sometimes, this can be tricky to assess. As Vaughn explains in his discussion of whether doctors are experts, they are experts in diagnosing and sometimes treating disease and injury. However, they are not always experts in the effectiveness of a drug or a treatment, even though they administer them. Doctors rely upon the expert advice of medical scientists (who may also be doctors), who spend their time researching issues of drug or treatment effectiveness. Signs of Expertise There are usually two necessary prerequisites for gauging whether someone is an expert in a certain field. 1. Education and training from reputable institutions or programs in the relevant field. 2. A track record of making good judgments in the field. 3. Reputation among peers. 4. Professional accomplishments. Illegitimate Uses of Experts When we believe the claims of experts outside of their specialized area or when simply believe the claims of non-experts because of their celebrity, then we misuse the appeal to authority and commit what is known as the fallacy of the appeal to authority. Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 3 of 7

4 Bias Among Experts Sometimes, experts are biased even in their own field of expertise. They can be driven by their personal religious convictions, or by financial rewards, or just their own inflated egos. When this happens, the claims they make are not always reliable. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to detect bias among experts. We thus have to do some of our own research in gauging the reliability of an expert. Signs of a Dubious Authority When an expert does the following things, that is a signal that we should not give them as much authority: Make simple factual or formal errors. Does not support their claims, even when given the opportunity. Commit logical contradictions or inconsistencies in their speech or writing. Does not treat opposing views fairly. Is biased, emotion, or dismissive. Relies on information that you know is out of date. Most other experts in the same field disagree. Again, none of these things are hard and fast rules. It depends on the amount, the extent, and the context. And just as belief can come in degrees, so does doubt about the reliability of an expert. Limits of Expertise The kinds of areas to which re reply for expert opinion are things like science, medicine, engineering, history, and current affairs. For these areas, we have people who excel in the body of knowledge that goes with these fields: scientists, doctors, engineers, historians, and journalists. But there are some areas that cannot be decided by experts. These involve problems that arise in morality, politics, and religion. Although there are people who are experts in the scholarship of these areas, they are not necessarily the people who know what is right for an individual when specific problems arise. PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AS SOURCE OF EVIDENCE Much of the evidence for a claim comes from one s own personal experience. Evidence gained from personal experience includes the things you discover from your senses, the events you remember, and our judgment involving the faculties of sensory observation and memory. But personal experience is not always perfect. Thus, we have the following principle: Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 4 of 7

5 Principle: We should accept the evidence of personal experience unless there are good reasons to doubt the personal experience. A number of things can impede the reliability of the evidence gained from personal memory. It is fairly easy to identify these when these impediments occur in other people. It is much harder when we try to identify when they occur in ourselves. Let us see what they are. Impairment Our sense can be debilitated in several ways: illness, injury, stress, intoxication, distraction, disorientation, and others. Information from the senses can also be poor when conditions for perception are not optimal: poor lighting, noisy environment, we are too far away from the object of perception, and so on. Memory is also not always reliable, since we often forget things or simply misremember events. Part of the reason for this is that our faculties of sensory perception and memory function constructively. They do not just passively record an event the way cameras or tape recorders do. Instead, they construct perceptions from partial data, shaped in large part by a person s expectations and background information. Expectation We need to be aware of how influential someone s expectations may be. We often perceive what we want to perceive, or what we expect to perceive, even when there is no input that justifies the perception. Expectation can also distort memories. Innumeracy When it comes to judging the probability of an event, we need to be extra careful. This is because human brains are very bad at figuring out probabilities. Our gut feelings about the probability of an event are often wrong. Even doctors, who have had years of math and science training, routinely make errors about probabilities. (There are several basic laws of probability that we will be introduced to at the end of the semester.) FOOLING OURSELVES Human weakness is not only a problem for morality. It is also a problem for critical thinking. There are three common forms of human weakness in the area of crucial thinking, all of which lead us to mishandle evidence. Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 5 of 7

6 Resisting Contrary Evidence When something challenges a cherished belief, we tend to deny evidence, ignore it, or reinterpret it so that it fits better with our prejudices. This often happens when one is emotionally tied to believing something. The emotional tie make you blind to the relevant evidence. Looking for Confirming Evidence In chapter 2, we went over the problems of self-interested thinking (pp ). We discussed the problems of what is known as confirmation bias, which is the tendency to believe things that already conform to our opinions. Preferring Available Evidence Another mistake is what is known as availability error. This is when we rely on evidence because it is memorable or striking, not because it is trustworthy. This may underlie airplane phobia, where the phobic flyer avoids taking airplanes because of vivid pictures of airplane crashes. Such sensational pictures are more psychologically available than numbers and statistics about car and air travel and accidents. CLAIMS IN THE NEWS Importance of Critical Thinking The news is supposed to be in the business of updating us on the facts, not in rationally justifying what they believe are the facts. This is why critical reasoning is so important. Without justifying one s beliefs about the facts, one cannot really claim to have knowledge, since knowledge is more than mere belief. Knowledge requires justification, and journalists are not always good about justifying their claims. Inside the News We need to remember that news organizations are businesses that aim to make a profit. This may compromise the quality of the reporting, since valuable stories do not always sell. There are several ways in which an accurate account of the world gets distorted: passive reporting versus hard investigative journalism selective, non-offensive, reporting inaccurate coloring and emphasis Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 6 of 7

7 Sorting Out the News Here are some things you can look out for to assess whether a news report is trustworthy. As always, it is easier harder to identify the biases in real life cases. look for reporter slanting consider the source check for missing information look for false emphasis check alternative news sources ADVERTISING AND PERSUASION Ads make all sorts of claims favoring their products. Since their purpose is to get you to buy their things, there is an undeniable bias about their products that discredit their credibility. The following principle is: Principle: We generally have good reason to doubt advertising claims and to be wary of advertising s persuasive powers. In other words, we should always approach claims made by ads with suspicion. This is for several reasons. First, advertisements are not always interested in promoting the welfare of the consumer; it is much more interested in getting you to buy. Second, there is a poor track record of truth and accuracy. There are certain things to be wary of: celebrity endorsements slogans misleading comparisons weasel words Reasons for Belief and Doubt Page 7 of 7

Chapter 4: Reasons for Belief and Doubt

Chapter 4: Reasons for Belief and Doubt Chapter 4: Reasons for Belief and Doubt Strategies to correct unsupported or unreasonable beliefs When are there good reasons to doubt? We do not want to be neigh-sayers or unreasonable skeptics! When

More information

Descartes rationalism

Descartes rationalism Michael Lacewing Descartes rationalism Descartes Meditations provide an extended study in establishing knowledge through rational intuition and deduction. We focus in this handout on three central claims:

More information

Speaking Persuasively

Speaking Persuasively 1 Persuasive Speaking Chapter 19 Speaking Persuasively 2 Persuasive speaking goal is to change or reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behaviors of receivers Purpose of Persuasion 3 Proposition

More information

Lesson 5. Social Influence and Persuasion

Lesson 5. Social Influence and Persuasion Lesson 5 Social Influence and Persuasion 1 Lesson Outline Attitude Change via Persuasion Compliance with Threats and Promises Obedience to Authority Resisting Influence and Persuasion 2 Social Influence

More information

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense Perspectives in Philosophy Rene Descartes Descartes Philosophy is the search for certainty the search to know, for yourself, what is really true and really false to know which beliefs are reliable. However,

More information

The Art of Critical Thinking

The Art of Critical Thinking The Art of Critical Thinking It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it. -Aristotle Why Think Critically? Society is becoming more polarized every day. News

More information

Organizing an essay the basics 2. Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3. Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4

Organizing an essay the basics 2. Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3. Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4 Organizing an essay the basics 2 Cause and effect essay (shorter version) 3 Compare/contrast essay (shorter version) 4 Exemplification (one version) 5 Argumentation (shorter version) 6-7 Support Go from

More information

Science and Scientific Reasoning. Critical Thinking

Science and Scientific Reasoning. Critical Thinking Science and Scientific Reasoning Critical Thinking Some Common Myths About Science Science: What it is and what it is not Science and Technology Science is not the same as technology The goal of science

More information

One natural response would be to cite evidence of past mornings, and give something like the following argument:

One natural response would be to cite evidence of past mornings, and give something like the following argument: Hume on induction Suppose you were asked to give your reasons for believing that the sun will come up tomorrow, in the form of an argument for the claim that the sun will come up tomorrow. One natural

More information

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once.

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING PHIL 2020 Maymester Term, 2010 Daily, 9:30-12:15 Peabody Hall, room 105 Text: LOGIC AND RATIONAL THOUGHT by Frank R. Harrison, III Professor: Frank R. Harrison, III Office:

More information

Name Date Period CHAPTER 14. g. a neutral audience. i. qualifications. j. a hostile audience. l. a friendly audience. o.

Name Date Period CHAPTER 14. g. a neutral audience. i. qualifications. j. a hostile audience. l. a friendly audience. o. Speech Vocabulary DIRECTIONS: In the blank to the left, write the letter of the definition for each word. 1. logos a. the quality of being skilled or experienced 2. disclaimer 3. persuasive speaking 4.

More information

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION Peter K. Bol Charles H. Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations I was asked to set forth some personal reflections rather than to summarize

More information

What was the impact for you? For the patient? How did it turn out? How has this helped you in your job? What was the result?

What was the impact for you? For the patient? How did it turn out? How has this helped you in your job? What was the result? EXAMPLE VALUE BASED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS VALUE LEADING QUESTION FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS KEY CRITERIA Compassion Give me an example of a time when you were particularly perceptive regarding a Describe what you

More information

Divine command theory

Divine command theory Today we will be discussing divine command theory. But first I will give a (very) brief overview of the semester, and the discipline of philosophy. Why do this? One of the functions of an introductory

More information

Kant s deontological ethics

Kant s deontological ethics Michael Lacewing Kant s deontological ethics DEONTOLOGY Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things

More information

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is

More information

Philosophical argument

Philosophical argument Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons.

More information

CRITICAL THINKING. Induction v Deduction. Enumerative Induction and Inductive Generalization Sample Size Representativeness Mean, Median, Mode,

CRITICAL THINKING. Induction v Deduction. Enumerative Induction and Inductive Generalization Sample Size Representativeness Mean, Median, Mode, CRITICAL THINKING INDUCTIVE REASONING LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Induction v Deduction Enumerative Induction and Inductive Generalization Sample Size Representativeness Mean, Median, Mode, Analogical

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

The Mental Capacity Act and Decision Making

The Mental Capacity Act and Decision Making The Mental Capacity Act and Decision Making Mental Capacity Act and Decision Making Background to this document The Mental Capacity Act safeguards the rights of people who have an impairment or disturbance

More information

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories I. Introduction In this ethics course, we are going to avoid divine command theory and various appeals to authority and put our trust in critical

More information

Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques. What is it? What does it do?

Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques. What is it? What does it do? Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques What is it? What does it do? What is propaganda? The process of spreading ideas, information, or rumor to help or hurt a known cause, political system, or view Ideas,

More information

Perception and Memory. Critical Thinking

Perception and Memory. Critical Thinking Perception and Memory Critical Thinking Sources of Belief Other people (parents, friends, media, teachers, experts, authority) Reasoning Observation (perception and memory) Perception How reliable is perception?

More information

CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE. Mark Montgomery

CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE. Mark Montgomery CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 mark.montgomery@mindspring.com Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social

More information

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015 Chapter 5: Fallacies 23 February 2015 Plan for today Talk a bit more about arguments notice that the function of arguments explains why there are lots of bad arguments Turn to the concept of fallacy and

More information

What is a Problem? Types of Problems. EXP Dr. Stanny Spring Problem Solving, Reasoning, & Decision Making

What is a Problem? Types of Problems. EXP Dr. Stanny Spring Problem Solving, Reasoning, & Decision Making Problem Solving, Reasoning, & Decision Making Dr. Director Center for University Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Associate Professor School of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences EXP 4507 Spring 2012

More information

SYLLABUS. Prerequisites: Completion of GE Analytical Reading/Expository Writing; either GE Mathematics or MATH 210.

SYLLABUS. Prerequisites: Completion of GE Analytical Reading/Expository Writing; either GE Mathematics or MATH 210. SYLLABUS Course Title: Critical Reasoning Course Number: PHIL 200 Online (Spring 2011) Ticket Number: 12950 Prerequisites: Completion of GE Analytical Reading/Expository Writing; either GE Mathematics

More information

Diagrams Helpful for Understanding Critical Thinking and Its Relationship with Teaching and Learning

Diagrams Helpful for Understanding Critical Thinking and Its Relationship with Teaching and Learning 9 Diagrams Helpful for Understanding Critical Thinking and Its Relationship with Teaching and Learning This section entails diagrams which can help you: 1. make connections between the critical thinking

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR: IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND

ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR: IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR: IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND 1) Assertive behavior is often confused with aggressive behavior; however, assertion does not involve hurting the other person physically or emotionally. 2) Assertive

More information

Introduction... 3. Secrets to Winning A Disability Case... 4-7. Contact Us... 8. Additional Notes... 9

Introduction... 3. Secrets to Winning A Disability Case... 4-7. Contact Us... 8. Additional Notes... 9 Introduction... 3 Secrets to Winning A Disability Case... 4-7 Contact Us... 8 Additional Notes... 9 2 At Liner Legal the focus is on our clients needs. The most important way we are different from other

More information

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII. J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII. J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII August 8, 2011 J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge GENERAL FEDERAL JURY INSTRUCTIONS IN CIVIL CASES INDEX 1 DUTY OF JUDGE 2

More information

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects.

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects. UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects

More information

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Theodore Sider Utilitas 7 (1995): 273 9 1. Access principles Vagueness in the phrase can know aside, the principle of Access An act is obligatory only if its agent can

More information

AP Psychology 2006 Scoring Guidelines

AP Psychology 2006 Scoring Guidelines AP Psychology 2006 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college

More information

Philosophy of Religion

Philosophy of Religion 1 Philosophy of Religion EDExcel A2 Philosophy of Religion Unit 4: Implications [Textual Source 3 of 3] R.I. Kueh richard.i.kueh@gmail.com rik20@cam.ac.uk 2 Donovan, Can we know God by experience? IN A

More information

Critical Evaluation in Psychology: A Guide for Students

Critical Evaluation in Psychology: A Guide for Students Critical Evaluation in Psychology: A Guide for Students Author: Julie Hulme 1. Introduction This guide has been written by Dr. Julie Hulme (j.a.hulme@staffs.ac.uk; tel 4674). A modified version of this

More information

Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos

Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos ARISTOTLE was a Greek philosopher who lived in the th century BCE. He was an influential thinker and wrote on many subjects from logic and ethics,

More information

Chapter 3.3. Trading Psychology

Chapter 3.3. Trading Psychology 1 Chapter 3.3 Trading Psychology 0 Contents TRADING PSYCHOLOGY Forex traders have to not only compete with other traders in the forex market but also with themselves. Oftentimes as a Forex trader, you

More information

Excerpts from Debating 101 Logic Fallacies

Excerpts from Debating 101 Logic Fallacies Excerpts from Debating 101 Logic Fallacies The following definition of a fallacy and all the other materials in this document are excerpts from the notes for a course entitled Debating 101 Logic Fallacies.

More information

Cultural Relativism. 1. What is Cultural Relativism? 2. Is Cultural Relativism true? 3. What can we learn from Cultural Relativism?

Cultural Relativism. 1. What is Cultural Relativism? 2. Is Cultural Relativism true? 3. What can we learn from Cultural Relativism? 1. What is Cultural Relativism? 2. Is Cultural Relativism true? 3. What can we learn from Cultural Relativism? What is it? Rough idea: There is no universal truth in ethics. There are only customary practices

More information

Chapter 3.4. Trading Psychology

Chapter 3.4. Trading Psychology 1 Chapter 3.4 Trading Psychology 0 Contents TRADING PSYCHOLOGY Stock and CFD traders have to not only compete with other traders in the stock and CFD markets but also with themselves. Often as a stock

More information

Modern Science vs. Ancient Philosophy. Daniel Gilbert s theory of happiness as presented in his book, Stumbling on Happiness,

Modern Science vs. Ancient Philosophy. Daniel Gilbert s theory of happiness as presented in his book, Stumbling on Happiness, Laura Katharine Norwood Freshman Seminar Dr. Golden 10/21/10 Modern Science vs. Ancient Philosophy Daniel Gilbert s theory of happiness as presented in his book, Stumbling on Happiness, has many similarities

More information

Quick Preview PROPERTY DAMAGE

Quick Preview PROPERTY DAMAGE Quick Preview PROPERTY DAMAGE You are you first priority, take care of you first Understand rental insurance, towing and storage costs Figure out what kind of insurance coverage you have Choose a reputable

More information

Mgmt 301 Managers as Decision Makers. Exploring Management. [Nathan Neale]

Mgmt 301 Managers as Decision Makers. Exploring Management. [Nathan Neale] Mgmt 301 Managers as Decision Makers Exploring Management [Nathan Neale] Slide # 1 Slide Title: WSU Online Title Slide [piano introduction] Slide #2 Slide Title: Chapter 4 Managers as Decisions Makers

More information

Theories of Personality Psyc 314-001, Fall 2014

Theories of Personality Psyc 314-001, Fall 2014 Theories of Personality Psyc 314-001, Fall 2014 Dr. Mary E. McKemy (pronounced Mc-KAY-me) Kinard 123 (down the hall from the Psychology Office) 323-2643 (Office) and 328-9978 (Home -- please call before

More information

Thinking about College? A Student Preparation Toolkit

Thinking about College? A Student Preparation Toolkit Thinking about College? A Student Preparation Toolkit Think Differently About College Seeking Success If you are like the millions of other people who are thinking about entering college you are probably

More information

Philosophy 145, Critical Thinking

Philosophy 145, Critical Thinking Philosophy 145, Critical Thinking Professor Nicholas Ray E-mail: nmray@uwaterloo.ca Lecture: Tuesdays, 7:00-9:50 (HH 1104) Office: HH 326 Office Hours: Thursdays, 10:00 12:00 DESCRIPTION Whether we are

More information

A Guide for Using Primary Source or Original Source Documents. OPVL Origins, Purpose, Values, Limitations

A Guide for Using Primary Source or Original Source Documents. OPVL Origins, Purpose, Values, Limitations A Guide for Using Primary Source or Original Source Documents OPVL Origins, Purpose, Values, Limitations Origin, Purpose, Value and Limitation (OPVL) is a technique for analyzing historical documents.

More information

Critical Thinking. I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate

Critical Thinking. I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate 1 Critical Thinking Typical Comments I m not sure what they expect when they ask us to critically evaluate The word critical sounds so negative, as though you have to undermine everything The word analysis

More information

Planning a Class Session

Planning a Class Session Planning a Class Session A Guide for New Teachers by Diane M. Enerson Kathryn M. Plank R. Neill Johnson The Pennsylvania State University 301 Rider Building II University Park, PA 16802 www.schreyerinstitute.psu.edu

More information

Honesty, Integrity and Ethics in Public Relations. In the quote above, Mitchell Friedman (n.d.), identifies a core principle of public

Honesty, Integrity and Ethics in Public Relations. In the quote above, Mitchell Friedman (n.d.), identifies a core principle of public Honesty, Integrity and Ethics in Public Relations Success in public relations demands strict intellectual honesty and integrity in all aspects of one s professional demeanor. Introduction In the quote

More information

Quality Meets the CEO

Quality Meets the CEO Quality Meets the CEO Jeffery E. Payne jepayn@rstcorp.com Reliable Software Technologies Corporate management does not care about quality. This is the cold, hard reality of the software world. Management

More information

Module - 6 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Module - 6 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Module - 6 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Sangeeta Sahney Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India Email. sahney@vgsom.iitkgp.emit.in Joint Initiative IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD - 1 -

More information

Guidelines for the Development of a Communication Strategy

Guidelines for the Development of a Communication Strategy Guidelines for the Development of a Communication Strategy Matthew Cook Caitlin Lally Matthew McCarthy Kristine Mischler About the Guidelines This guide has been created by the students from Worcester

More information

Persuasion: What the Research Tells Us

Persuasion: What the Research Tells Us : What the Research Tells Us J o A n n e Y a t e s We have seen that in all communication, whether persuasive or not, you should consider the audience, your credibility, your purpose, and the context of

More information

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes begins the fourth Meditation with a review of what he has learned so far. He began his search for certainty by questioning the veracity of his own senses.

More information

Tool 3 - Thought Challenging

Tool 3 - Thought Challenging Tool 3 - Thought Challenging Learning how to manage negative thoughts can also help to manage your anxiety and low mood. When people are feeling low or anxious, their thoughts can often be extreme or unrealistic.

More information

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris

More information

Using Critical Thinking to Survive in an Increasingly Complex World

Using Critical Thinking to Survive in an Increasingly Complex World Using Critical Thinking to Survive in an Increasingly Complex World By the end of this workshop you will be able to: 1. Define critical thinking and its importance 2. Describe the importance of careful

More information

10 things to NOT do when selling a vehicle on ebay

10 things to NOT do when selling a vehicle on ebay 10 things to NOT do when selling a vehicle on ebay Copyright 2011 Jason Hedjazi. Please do not duplicate or distribute this. I happen to be a lawyer as well as a car dealer, so I take copyright infringement

More information

Webelos to Boy Scouts Test

Webelos to Boy Scouts Test Webelos to Boy Scouts Test Return Demonstrate your knowledge of the requirements to join Boy Scouts by completing this test. Click the small dot by the answer you choose. When you finish, you can print

More information

CHAPTER 3 HOW TO WRITE THE JOB AD EMPLOYMENT OFFICE EVERYTHING ELSE LOOKS PREHISTORIC

CHAPTER 3 HOW TO WRITE THE JOB AD EMPLOYMENT OFFICE EVERYTHING ELSE LOOKS PREHISTORIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICE EVERYTHING ELSE LOOKS PREHISTORIC CHAPTER 3 HOW TO WRITE THE JOB AD Screening products - Recruitment Marketing & Branding - E-recruitment Chapter 3: How to Write the Job Ad Create the

More information

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke [Modified Fall 2009] 1. Large class of arguments. Sometimes they get very complex, as in Clarke s argument, but the basic idea is simple. Lets

More information

Module Five Critical Thinking

Module Five Critical Thinking Module Five Critical Thinking Introduction Critical thinking is often perceived as a difficult skill separate from the thinking process as a whole. In fact, it is the essence of thinking. It is not enough

More information

Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Resource Report David R. Caruso, portions adapted with permission from Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso (2002) Personal Summary Report. Toronto, ON: MHS. Copyright

More information

Historical method. Any given source may be forged or corrupted. Strong indications of the originality of the source increase its reliability.

Historical method. Any given source may be forged or corrupted. Strong indications of the originality of the source increase its reliability. Historical method The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts

More information

Cash Flow Exclusive / September 2015

Cash Flow Exclusive / September 2015 Ralf Bieler Co-Founder, President, CEO Cash Flow Exclusive, LLC My 2 Cents on The Best Zero-Cost Strategy to Improve Your Business To achieve better business results you don t necessarily need to have

More information

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements?

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements? Critical Thinking University of St Andrews March 2007 Bullet point material is not on the students copies. Feel free to use the material as you see fit, depending on timing, ability, enthusiasm etc. Good

More information

Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych

Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych Epilepsy and Neuropsychology Dr. Sare Akdag, RPsych Most people living with epilepsy do not experience serious problems with their thinking. However, there are aspects of thinking that can be affected

More information

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions :

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions : Chapter 15 Social Contract 15.1 Homework Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15 Study Questions : 1. What would be our lives in a state of nature according to Hobbes? 2. What are the four basic facts about the

More information

LOGICAL FALLACIES. Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments

LOGICAL FALLACIES. Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments LOGICAL FALLACIES Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments Definition Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that lead to faulty, illogical statements. They are unreasonable argumentative tactics named for

More information

Do information tools need adapting for an effective communication in healthcare?

Do information tools need adapting for an effective communication in healthcare? Do information tools need adapting for an effective communication in healthcare? Ass. Prof. Sara Rubinelli Università di Lucerna and Swiss Paraplegic Research Switzerland London, 8 th March 2016 Objective

More information

Negative Automatic Thoughts

Negative Automatic Thoughts The Problem Negative Automatic Thoughts People who are depressed tend to think about themselves, the world and the future in a negative way. These negative thoughts are: AUTOMATIC DISTORTED UNHELPFUL PLAUSIBLE

More information

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Fourth Quarter, 2006 Vol. 29, No. 4 Editor s Watch Sandel and Nagel on Abortion Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Public Philosophy in The New York Review of Books.

More information

The Psychology of Voting

The Psychology of Voting The Psychology of Voting by Jon A. Krosnick Professor of Psychology and Political Science Ohio State University Screen 1: Choosing a President is Like Choosing a Movie Chooser Imagine that this coming

More information

The following are examples of questions Tell me about a difficult decision that you have made. Tell me about an unpopular decision you have made.

The following are examples of questions Tell me about a difficult decision that you have made. Tell me about an unpopular decision you have made. The best way to answer these questions is to provide a truthful and factual answer to the query. This answer normally depends on whether or not you have faced any experiences that have been challenging

More information

Epilepsy in Children. Learning and School Performance

Epilepsy in Children. Learning and School Performance Epilepsy in Children Learning and School Performance About the Epilepsy Foundation The Epilepsy Foundation is the national voluntary agency solely dedicated to the welfare of the more than three million

More information

SHOULD DRUG COMPANIES BE ALLOWED TO ADVERTISE PRESCRIPTION DRUGS ON TV?

SHOULD DRUG COMPANIES BE ALLOWED TO ADVERTISE PRESCRIPTION DRUGS ON TV? Focus Words disclaimer prescribe potential assume rely!! Join the national conversation! SHOULD DRUG COMPANIES BE ALLOWED TO ADVERTISE Word Generation - Unit 2.18 PRESCRIPTION DRUGS ON TV? Weekly Passage

More information

TRUTH AND FALLIBILITY

TRUTH AND FALLIBILITY Michael Lacewing Mill on freedom of thought and expression In On Liberty, the first liberties that Mill identifies the Harm Principle protecting is freedom of thought and freedom of expression. These freedoms

More information

Choosing a divorce lawyer

Choosing a divorce lawyer Choosing a divorce lawyer By Bruce Matez, Esq. Divorce is a life altering event for both spouses and their children. How the issues in a divorce are handled, and ultimately resolved, will have a significant

More information

Test 1: Inference. Directions

Test 1: Inference. Directions Test 1: Inference An inference is a conclusion a person can draw from certain observed or supposed facts. For example, if the lights are on in a house and voices can be heard coming from the house, a person

More information

Secrets of the Psychics: An Analysis. Critical Thinking

Secrets of the Psychics: An Analysis. Critical Thinking Secrets of the Psychics: An Analysis Critical Thinking The Point of this Video I did not show this video: To beat up on psychics or psychic claims To say Science Yay! Non-science Boo! I did show this video:

More information

The Ultimate Guide to Creating Successful Sports Betting Systems from SportsBettingChamp.com

The Ultimate Guide to Creating Successful Sports Betting Systems from SportsBettingChamp.com The Ultimate Guide to Creating Successful Sports Betting Systems from SportsBettingChamp.com Here s my definitive guide on how YOU can create your own successful sports betting systems! What sport? Before

More information

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions

More information

EMPOWERING YOURSELF AS A COMMITTEE MEMBER

EMPOWERING YOURSELF AS A COMMITTEE MEMBER 1 EMPOWERING YOURSELF AS A COMMITTEE MEMBER Bernice R. Sandler Senior Scholar Women s Research and Education Institute www.bernicesandler.com 202 833-3331 On virtually all campuses, committees are the

More information

Reading and Taking Notes on Scholarly Journal Articles

Reading and Taking Notes on Scholarly Journal Articles Reading and Taking Notes on Scholarly Journal Articles Set aside enough time in your schedule to read material thoroughly and repeatedly, until you understand what the author is studying, arguing, or discussing.

More information

CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT

CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT Sloan Communication Program Teaching Note CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT The purpose of most business writing is to recommend some course of action ("we should open a branch office in Duluth"; "management

More information

Through Faith. Lesson Text: Ephesians 2:8-10

Through Faith. Lesson Text: Ephesians 2:8-10 Ephesians 2:8-10 Through Faith 1 Through Faith Lesson Text: Ephesians 2:8-10 INTRODUCTION: A. When faith is mentioned have you ever noticed your own reactions? 1. When the term believe is used in conversation,

More information

LP 12A cog dis 1 03/23/09

LP 12A cog dis 1 03/23/09 LP 12A cog dis 1 Attitudes An attitude is a relatively stable evaluation of a person, object, situation or issue. This evaluation can be positive, negative, or ambivalent. Most attitudes have three s:

More information

Ronald Dworkin, Religion without God, Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 192, 16.50, ISBN 9780674726826

Ronald Dworkin, Religion without God, Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 192, 16.50, ISBN 9780674726826 Ronald Dworkin, Religion without God, Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 192, 16.50, ISBN 9780674726826 Simone Grigoletto, Università degli Studi di Padova In 2009, Thomas Nagel, to whom Dworkin s book

More information

Table of Contents. Introduction Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5

Table of Contents. Introduction Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5 1 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5 Increases Brand Awareness and Positive Online Visibility... 7 If You Don t Control Your Online Brand, Someone

More information

Message: Faith & Science - Part 1

Message: Faith & Science - Part 1 The Light Shines Outside the Box www.jesusfamilies.org Message: Faith & Science - Part 1 This message is not for people who believe that God exists. Most people on the earth believe that some God exists,

More information

OTTAWA ONLINE REL/LAS Issues in Science and Religion

OTTAWA ONLINE REL/LAS Issues in Science and Religion OTTAWA ONLINE REL/LAS 41523 Issues in Science and Religion Course Description Explores scientific methodology, religious methodology and the relationship between these domains of inquiry. Brief survey

More information

PROBLEMS WITH. Ayaan Hirsi Ali s. Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now (Penguin Random House, 2015) Reviewed by: Shabir Ally.

PROBLEMS WITH. Ayaan Hirsi Ali s. Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now (Penguin Random House, 2015) Reviewed by: Shabir Ally. PROBLEMS WITH Ayaan Hirsi Ali s Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now (Penguin Random House, 2015) Reviewed by: Shabir Ally June 11, 2015 The book is not only a criticism of Islam but of religion

More information

Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most

Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most A High-Level Summary of the Book by Stone, Patton and Heen Office of Human Resources The Ohio State University 1590 N. High St. Suite 300 Columbus,

More information

Science and Religion

Science and Religion 1 Science and Religion Scripture: Colossians 1:15-20 By Pastor John H. Noordhof Williamsburg Christian Reformed Church October 21, 2012 Morning Service People of God: Today we will deal with the troubling

More information

Assessing Core Competencies: Results of Critical Thinking Skills Testing

Assessing Core Competencies: Results of Critical Thinking Skills Testing Assessing Core Competencies: Results of Critical Thinking Skills Testing Graduating Seniors, 2015 Spring University of Guam Academic and Student Affairs Office of Academic Assessment and Institutional

More information

Skills of a change maker

Skills of a change maker Which of these come easily to you now, and which do you need to work on? Helping others to rise to the challenge I do these aspects easily and well WORKSHEET 1 (page 10 of Practitioner) Skills of a change

More information

Science, Religion and the Limits of Knowledge

Science, Religion and the Limits of Knowledge Santa Clara University Department of Electrical Engineering Dr. Aleksandar I. Zecevic Winter 2015 ENGR 343 Science, Religion and the Limits of Knowledge REQUIRED TEXT Aleksandar I. Zecevic, Truth, Beauty

More information