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1 Basic Concepts Databases and Database Users Introduction An Example Characteristics of the Database Approach Actors on the Scene Workers Behind the Scene Advantages of Using a DBMS Implications of the Database Approach When Not to Use a DBMS Database System Concepts and Architecture Data Models, Schemas, and Instances DBMS Architecture and Data Independence Database Languages and Interfaces The Database System Environment Classification of Database Management Systems Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship Model Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design An Example Database Application Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys Relationships, Relationship Types, Roles, and Structural Constraints Weak Entity Types Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues Enhanced Entity-Relationship Modeling and Object Modeling Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance Specialization and Generalization Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories An Example UNIVERSITY EER Schema and Formal Definitions for the EER Model Conceptual Object Modeling Using UML Class Diagrams Relationship Types of Degree Higher Than Two Data Abstraction and Knowledge Representation Concepts Record Storage and Primary File Organizations Introduction Secondary Storage Devices Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology Buffering of Blocks Placing File Records on Disk Operations on Files Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files)

2 Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) Hashing Techniques Other Primary File Organizations Index Structures for Files Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes Multilevel Indexes Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+Trees Indexes on Multiple Keys Other Types of Indexes Relational Model, Languages, and Systems The Relational Data Model, Constraints, and Relational Algebra Relational Model Concepts Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas Update Operations on Relations and Dealing with Constraint Violations Basic Relational Algebra Operations Additional Relational Operations Examples of Queries in the Relational Algebra SQL-The Relational Database Standard Data Definition, Constraints, and Schema Changes in SQL2 Basic Queries in SQL More Complex SQL Queries Insert, Delete, and Update Statements in SQL Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL Specifying General Constraints as Assertions Additional Features of SQL ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping, and Other Relational Languages Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping Mapping EER Model Concepts to Relations The Tuple Relational Calculus The Domain Relational Calculus Overview of the QBE Language Examples of Relational Database Management Systems: Oracle and Microsoft Access Relational Database Management Systems: A Historical Perspective The Basic Structure of the Oracle System Database Structure and Its Manipulation in Oracle Storage Organization in Oracle Programming Oracle Applications Oracle Tools An Overview of Microsoft Access Features and Functionality of Access Object-Oriented and Extended Relational Database Technology

3 Concepts for Object-Oriented Databases Overview of Object-Oriented Concepts Object Identity, Object Structure, and Type Constructors Encapsulation of Operations, Methods, and Persistence Type Hierarchies and Inheritance Complex Objects Other Object-Oriented Concepts Object Database Languages, Standards, Languages, and Design Overview of the Object Model of ODMG The Object Definition Language The Object Query Language Overview of the C Language Binding Object Database Conceptual Design Example of ODBMSs Overview of the CORBA Standard for Distributed Objects Overview of the O2 System Overview of the ObjectStore System Object Relational and Extended Relational Databases Evolution and Current Trends of Database Technology The Informix Universal Server Object-Relational Features of Oracle 8 An Overview of SQL3 Implementation and Related Issues for Extended Type Systems The Nested Relational Data Model Database Design, Theory, and Methodology Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas Functional Dependencies Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms Boyce-Codd Normal Form Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form Inclusion Dependencies Other Dependencies and Normal Forms Practice of Database Design and Tuning The Role of Information Systems in Organizations The Database Design Process Physical Database Design and its Tuning in Relational Databases

4 An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems Automated Design Tools System Implementation Techniques Database System Architecture and the System Catalog System Architectures for DBMSs Catalogs for Relational DBMSs System Catalog Information in ORACLE Other Catalog Information Accessed by DBMS Software Modules Data Dictionary and Data Repository Systems Query Processing and Optimization Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra Basic Algorithms for Executing Query Operations Using Heuristics in Query Optimization Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization Overview of Query Optimization in ORACLE Semantic Query Optimization Transaction Processing Concepts Introduction to Transaction Processing Transaction and System Concepts Desirable Properties of Transactions Schedules and Recoverability Serializability of Schedules Transaction Support in SQL Concurrency Control Techniques Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes Some Other Concurrency Control Issues Database Recovery Techniques Recovery Concepts Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update Shadow Paging The ARIES Recovery Algorithm Recovery in Multidatabase Systems Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failure Database Security and Authorization Introduction to Database Security Issues

5 Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting/Revoking of Privileges Mandatory Access Control for Multilevel Security Introduction to Statistical Database Security Advanced Database Concepts and Emerging Applications Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications Active Database Concepts Temporal Database Concepts Spatial and Multimedia Databases Distributed Databases and Client-Server Architecture Distributed Database Concepts Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design Types of Distributed Database Systems Query Processing in Distributed Databases Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases An Overview of Client-Server Architecture and Its Relationship to Distributed Databases Distributed Databases in Oracle Future Prospects of Client-Server Technology Deductive Databases Introduction to Deductive Databases Prolog/Datalog Notation Interpretation of Rules Basic Inference Mechanisms for Logic Programs Datalog Programs and Their Evaluation Deductive Database Systems Deductive Object-Oriented Databases Applications of Commercial Deductive Database Systems Data Warehousing and Data Mining Data Warehousing Data Mining Emerging Database Technologies and Applications Databases on the World Wide Web Multimedia Databases Mobile Databases Geographic Information Systems Genome Database Management Digital Libraries Appendices Alternative Diagrammatic Notations Parameters of Disks An Overview of the Network Data Method

6 An Overview of the Hierarchical Data Model Table of Contents provided by Blackwell's Book Services and R.R. Bowker. Used with permission.

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