The CO2 Geological Storage: how it works

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1 The CO2 Geological Storage: how it works Salvatore Lombardi Carbonia, Centro Ricerche Sotacarbo, 27 novembre 2014

2 Contents of the presentation Notes on CO2 Geological Storage (CGS) How it works How we may monitor the stored CO2 migration Site characterization and monitoring at Sulcis area Comments Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

3 CO 2 geological storage options!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

4 What is stored CO 2 like? gas or liquid? Answer: gas for the viscosity liquid for the density T=100 C, P=280bar (2800m) density (kg/m3) viscosity (cp) supercritical CO 2 water gas (methane) !"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

5 Permeable rocks (reservoir) 500 µm!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

6 Impermeable rocks (overburden) Clay At Italian suitable sites for CGS clay thiknes range from few hundreds metres up to 2000 metres Geol. Uni Köln!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

7 The outcropping anticlines in the Cellino Formation (Lower Pliocene) SW NE N!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

8 A seismic image of thrust-related fold typical trap example in the Periadriatic basin Lower Pliocene Quaternary Lower Pliocene Quaternary Lower Pliocene (G. Margaritae zone) Adriatic plate carbonate succession (Trias- Miocene) Top Gessoso Solfifera Formation (Messinian)!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

9 How we know it works By geological evidences. For example: From the studies of natural CO2 and CH4 fields where gases are trapped for millions of years From the studies on gas migration mechanisms By experience, such as: Man made gas storage (CH4, 4He, etc.) Injection tests Injection of gases for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery)!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

10 Oil and methane fields In Italy We learn by nature The age of methane fields range from 1 up to 5 M years while the age of oil field range from 20 up to 50M years!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

11 Fluids may migrate to the surface? No, if the site selected is an appropriate one. So site selection is of paramount importance Migration may occur through: Wells Faults if recent and/or seismogenic!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

12 Natural Open Lab: Geological and gas migration modellling trrough faults Fault analysis - Fault zone architecture reflects the degree to which the processes of strain localization vs. strain distribution compete in time and in space along the fault trace. - This relationship control the fault permeability and therefore gas migration Rome University: ENI, Schlumberger contracts Controlling factors of K: Lithology Fault scale and type Deformation style and history P & T history Component percentage, of K, and anisotropy Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014 Fossen, 2010 K ma Kx mi n

13 Gas migration trough faults A,%<*B)C)*D+*&;'E*) +*-+%&'-;) Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

14 Radon in soil gas during 1997 Umbria earthquake September 1998 September 1997 Data from the first two campaigns reveal relatively low Rn values (>100 Bq/l) h o m o g e n o u s l y distributed September 1999 October km Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014 linear anomaly

15 How we may monitor gas migration toward surface? Many geophysical, geological an geochemical methods exist already Several of them may be used for studying precursor signal!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

16 Examples of monitoring Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

17 Sleipner CO 2 injection Monitoring at reservoir level Time-lapse seismic data 1994 Utsira Fm. CO 2 well 2001 CO 2 plume in map view Courtesy Statoil/CO2STORE project

18 Soil gas survey as precursor signal fo gas migration toward surface CH4 = 900 ppm CO2 = 7% He = 5ppm sinkholes recent sinkhole sept 03 CO up to 70% CH4 0.2 up to 19396ppm Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

19 New sinkhole 4m Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

20 Gas composition: CO2 97% CH4 230 ppm He 15 ppm Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

21 Research activity at Sulcis area (Sardinia) Funded by: Sardinia Region and Ministero Attività Produttive Research Institutions: Sotacarbo, Enea, Cagliari University, Sapienza Rome University, INGV, OGS, RSE!"#$%&'"()!*&+#%),'-*#-.*)/012!2,30() )

22 Summary of the Present Research activities (2014) in the Sulcis area: site selection and monitoring Activities Revision of the available geological and structural data Soil gas survey to define the baseline Soil gas profile across faults Geochemical Continuous monitoring (5 sites) Seismic monitoring (INGV) Reinterpretation of 100 km of seismic lines Acquisition and analyses of core samples from 2 wells (450 m of depth m depth) Fracture modeling for the seal and the reservoir rock volumes 3D geological model Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

23 Sulcis area: geological modeling and faults/fracture analysis Magmatic intrusion reworking as fault Frequency analysis of fractures Coal Mine field Well Top reservoir Cluster analysis of fault population available for storage - deeper than 900 m FAULT Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

24 Research activities 2014 in Sulcis area: soil gas profile across faults Soil gas profiles allow : detecting leakage along faults constructing conceptual models of fluid migration along fault Provides experimental parameters USA - Italy CCS meeting, Washington, DC, September 30 for numerical modeling Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

25 Research activities 2014 in Sulcis area: Continuous monitoring (6 sites) Recording CO2 variability through time Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

26 activities in the Sulcis basin Acquisition of: More seismic lines Better definition of geological model Gas migration model through faults Injection tests at shallow depths (about 300m) through faults 2 wells at depths ranging from 1500 to 2000m Extension of the network of monitoring station to the fault systems Extension of the researches offshore where the reservoir is deepening Public awareness: starting a dialogue with stakeholders on Sulcis perspective and CCS Building infrastructures to use Sulcis area as an international open lab (ECCEL EC project) Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

27 Sulcis area as an international Open Lab Infrastructure open to international researchers open as demonstrative site to general public Multiple CO2 Injection tests through faults at shallow depth To study CO2 migration trough faults To test geochemical (in house made and low cost CO2 sensors)l and geophysical monitoring tools USA - Italy CCS meeting, Washington, DC, September 30 To study water-gas-rock interactions To study boundary conditions for a controlled and safe CO2 storage Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

28 Final remarks CO2 geological storage mimics natural gas reservoirs In a well selected storage site leakage is not expected to occur In case of gas migration toward the surface through faults generally anomalies are spot type and quite small in dimension (i.e. little impact on the shallow environments) Leakage through wells: experience for managing eventual leaks already exist in the oil and gas industry Monitoring tools A wide range of monitoring tools are available. The fate of injected gas can be traced from the reservoir up to the surface with enough accuracy and

29 Thanks for your attention Carbonia, Centro Ricerche SOTACARBO, 27/11/2014

The CO2 Geological Storage: how it works Salvatore Lombardi

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