The reversible geological storage of CO 2, chimera or desirable goal

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1 The reversible geological storage of CO 2, chimera or desirable goal Didier Bonijoly Directeur adjoint Direction des GéoRessources BRGM mercredi 11 juin 14

2 > The reversible geological storage of CO 2, chimera or desirable goal Regulatory aspect Why consider the reversibility - Risk Management - Resource recovery Theoritical aspect Simulation for an existing storage : ie. Sleipner Conclusion mercredi 11 juin 14 > 2

3 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > A regulatory nonsense? European Directive on CCS operations (April 2008), Chapter 1, Article 1 "Purpose and scope" "The purpose of CO 2 geological storage, safe for the environment is permanent containment of CO 2 to prevent and, where possible, eliminate as far as possible negative effects and any risk to the environment and human health. " Transcription in French law (July 2010) - Environment Code, Title II, Chapter IX, Section 5 Article L : The underground formations are suitable for geological storage of carbon dioxide if they have the qualities required for the safe and permanent containment of carbon dioxide > Containment and reversibility are not a priori antagonistic mercredi 11 juin 14 > 3

4 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > Reversibility is also an option for the management of risks associated with storage In case of storage failure Upon injection, some CO 2 is irreversibly trapped in the pores of the reservoir partial reversibility The concept of reversibility does not constrain the design of the storage site (without excluding any future recovery of CO 2 ) partial reversibility decreases over time depending on the form of CO 2, going into the sense of security (IPCC, 2005) Purpose of CCS: storage ensuring permanent containment, but "when it is impossible, to remove as much as possible the negative effects and any risk to the environment and human health. "(EU CCS Directive, April 08) Vision of reversibility as a measure of risk management in case of malfunction (Benson and Hepple, 2005) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 4

5 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > A new reason to consider reversibility: the use of CO 2 as a resource EOR/EGR Mineralisation (including carbonate mineralisation, concrete curing, bauxite residue processing) CO 2 as a feedstock in urea yield boosting Enhanced geothermal systems (using CO 2 as a working fluid) CO 2 as a feedstock in polymer processing Algae production Liquid fuels (including renewable methanol, formic acid) Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery Global CCS Institute & Parson et Brinckerhoff report, march 2011 mercredi 11 juin 14 > 5

6 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > Industrial demand quantification Global CCS Institute & Parson et Brinckerhoff report, march 2011 mercredi 11 juin 14 > 6

7 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > Industrial demand quantification Global CCS Institute & Parson et Brinckerhoff report, march 2011 mercredi 11 juin 14 > 7

8 Reversible CO 2 geological storage > Significant difference between the volumes of stored CO 2 to meet the urgency of climate change and the use A unit of 300 MW (demonstration project) 2.5 MtCO 2 /year The equivalent of the current consumption of Japan, South Korea and Australia! Storing remains the solution > But the use of CO 2 is a means of reducing the costs of CCS mercredi 11 juin 14 > 8

9 Theoritical principe of CO2 storage reversibility Cap rock Level of mobility Structural and stratigraphic trapping Level of reversibility Aquifer Evolution of the different trapping processes of CO2 in the Sleipner reservoir (from Audigane et al., 2007) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 9

10 Theoritical principe of CO2 storage reversibility Cap rock Level of mobility Structural and stratigraphic trapping Residual saturation trapping Level of reversibility Aquifer Evolution of the different trapping processes of CO2 in the Sleipner reservoir (from Audigane et al., 2007) > 10 mercredi 11 juin 14

11 Theoritical principe of CO2 storage reversibility Cap rock Level of mobility Structural and stratigraphic trapping Residual saturation trapping Trapping by dissolution in water Level of reversibility Aquifer Evolution of the different trapping processes of CO2 in the Sleipner reservoir (from Audigane et al., 2007) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 11

12 Theoritical principe of CO2 storage reversibility Cap rock Level of mobility Structural and stratigraphic trapping Residual saturation trapping Trapping by dissolution in water Mineral trapping by chemical process Level of reversibility Aquifer Evolution of the different trapping processes of CO2 in the Sleipner reservoir (from Audigane et al., 2007) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 12

13 Reversibility: a simulation of the CO2 recovery > A simulation applied to the Sleipner case Factors limiting the recovery in the process of reproduction of CO 2 : Imbibition process of water in the reservoir decreases the saturation of CO 2 around the production well An important part of CO2 is trapped by capillary when the water-gas interface removing In total, 35-47% of the injected CO2 may be reproduced The recovery percentages vary are depending on the flow and water saturation mercredi 11 juin 14 > 13

14 Reversibility: a simulation of the CO2 recovery Case of the Sleipner storage (STATOIL) From Akervoll I, Lindeberg E., Lackner A. (2009) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 14

15 Reversibility: a simulation of the CO2 recovery Case of the Sleipner storage (STATOIL) From Akervoll I, Lindeberg E., Lackner A. (2009) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 15

16 Reversibility: a simulation of the CO2 recovery Case of the Sleipner storage (STATOIL) > Learning from the simulation applied to the Sleipner case Recovery of 5 to 7 MtCO2 compared to the 16 Mt injected Water breakthrough and recovery are depending on gas flowback for a production flow of 0,6 MtCO 2 /y for a production flow of 1,4 MtCO 2 /y From Akervoll I, Lindeberg E., Lackner A. (2009) mercredi 11 juin 14 > 16

17 Conclusion: the reversible CO 2 storage - chimera or desirable goal > From a regulatory point of view, the storage must be designed for a permanent and safe containment of CO 2 > Reproduction of CO 2 is first seen as a means of risk management in case of abnormal behavior of the storage > Based on physico-chemical processes involved, the reproduction of CO 2 is possible but the reversibility will be partial (in the ideal case of Sleipner: 35 to 45%) > Such a solution seems attractive in the short term only for EOR (demand of an order of 300 Mt / year) > For other present uses, the required volumes are so low that partial removal of CO 2 from the CO 2 flow issued from capture processes seems to be sufficient > But for emerging uses (algae cultivation, fuels, mineralisation), reversibility will offer a way to manage the development of new utilizations and a way to regulate supply and demand mercredi 11 juin 14 > 17

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