Albeit it is commonly acknowledged that freedom, in contrast to other political concepts such as

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Albeit it is commonly acknowledged that freedom, in contrast to other political concepts such as"

Transcription

1 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 1 What's wrong with negative liberty? Albeit it is commonly acknowledged that freedom, in contrast to other political concepts such as equality, is almost universally valued, the question what social freedom actually is, remains difficult to answer. 1 Philosophers over time have tried to tackle the question and have come up with a variety of answers. One of the most famous and important attempts to define political freedom, is Sir Isaiah Berlin's essay Two Concepts of Liberty, delivered as his Inaugural Address to Oxford University in In this essay he distinguishes two different conceptions of freedom, positive and negative liberty. Even though his views are shared by other thinkers, there are as many others who disagree with the notion that the concept of negative liberty is the best way of discussing freedom. According to Berlin, the two notions of positive and negative freedom or liberty 2 are the answers to two different sets of questions. Negative liberty is connected to the response of the question 'What is the area within which the subject a person or group of persons is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without other interference by other persons?', while positive liberty answers the question 'What, or who, is the source of control or interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather than that'. 3 Thus negative liberty extends over the area in which a person can act unobstructed by others, in which coercion does not prevent a person from either satisfying its desires, attaining its goals and fulfilling its wishes. Or, in Warburton's words, 'you restrict my negative freedom when you restrict the number of choices I can make about my life'. 4 Whether a person actually takes the opportunity of doing or becoming what it is free to, is not important for rendering the person actually free. In other words, if a person who does not make 1 Other terms for 'social freedom' used in this essay are 'political' and 'individual freedom'. 2 Most literature uses the terms 'freedom' and 'liberty' interchangeably, therefore I will do the same. 3 Isaiah Berlin, 'Two Concepts of Liberty' (1958), in Four Essays on Liberty, Isaiah Berlin (Oxford, 1969), pp (pp ). 4 Nigel Warburton, Freedom: An Introduc t ion with Readings (London, 2001), p.5.

2 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 2 use of his or her freedom of speech, this person still is free to speak. After all, negative liberty is 'opportunity for action, rather than action itself'. 5 Furthermore, negative liberty logically and conceptually has nothing to do with capability. The fact that a human being is not able to fly like a bird does not render this person unfree, even if flying like a bird would be that person's deepest wish. After facing criticism about some of the points made in Two Concepts of Liberty, Berlin later clarified his definitions. Negative liberty had been criticised for implying that decreasing the number of a person's wants would eventually enhance its freedom. This would lead to the, as Berlin himself admits, absurd argument of a slave being able to become freer if he would have no desires beyond what he already has. The concept of negative liberty has been prominent with many English philosophers and other Western thinkers of the last few centuries, including Thomas Hobbes or J.S. Mill. Positive liberty deals with another scope of ideas. It is concerned with a person's wish to be its own master and has become associated with doctrines of self-realisation. This concept implies a dualistic nature of a person: the higher self, which is reasonable and should be in control, in contrast to the lower, irrational, impulsive self. 6 For it is assumed that a person is only really itself and in control of its life and consequently positively free, when the higher self controls the lower one. So to speak, it should be a person's only goal to become this higher, rational self. Proponents of positive liberty regard the coercion of forcing lower selves into the higher state as a liberation and therefore justified. 7 They argue that it would be their own wish if they already had reached that higher rational level. 5 Berlin (1969), p.xlii. 6 William A. Parent, 'Some Recent Work on the Concept of Liberty' (1973), in American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1974), pp (p.150). 7 Berlin (1958), p.134.

3 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 3 J.S. Mill regards negative liberty as the best way to maximise utility, i.e. happiness. 8 Berlin prefers negative liberty for it is both truer and more humane than its positive counterpart. Truer for human goals are numerous and diverse, and human aspirations can indeed clash with one another. More humane since it does not coerce others under the guise of freedom. This leads to one of the major problems of positive liberty: it is always in danger of being abused by authoritarian or totalitarian attempts to constrain certain people. Still, he maintains that both concepts are part of all of us and necessary for a decent existence. 9 While Berlin s objections to positive liberty might sound reasonable and just, Berlin and the concept of negative freedom itself have been critically scrutinised over time. And even though some of its problems have been corrected by Berlin, some still remain unsettled. One point of criticism of negative freedom, especially of Berlin's concept, claims that the notion is not so much concerned with actual non-interference but rather with its results. William A. Parent describes this as 'an area of personal life entirely immune from outside intrusion', something which comes close to the notion of privacy. 10 However, freedom and privacy should never be used interchangeably since a person under house arrest is certainly deprived of the freedom to pursue every-day activities yet still has privacy. Another point of criticism by Parent is his objection to the opportunity-concept underlying negative liberty. He argues that the terms 'opportunity' and 'liberty' differ in meaning. Illness, poverty or bias don't interfere to make someone unfree, they rather curtail his opportunities. He illustrates his point by the example of a young man who might have the social freedom to attend a concert, might still not have the opportunity to do so because he has to work or could not get any tickets. Therefore 'the problem of increasing and distributing freedom cannot be reduced to a question about the maximization of opportunity' 11, as Berlin implies Warburton (2001), p Ibid., p Parent (1973), p Ibid., p Berlin (1969), p.xlviii.

4 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 4 Charles Taylor also criticises the pure, the opportunity concept of liberty which especially Hobbes advocates. In his article What's wrong with Negative Liberty he argues that 'even the simplest theory of negative freedom must discriminate between different sorts of obstacles to different sorts of activities'. 13 It has to be acknowledged that certain goals or wants are more important and significant than others. Taylor gives the example of the difference between a traffic light and laws restricting the way of practising religion. While the former certainly prevents one from driving on and violates the freedom of movement, no one would reasonably argue that it curtails the driver's social freedom. The latter meanwhile is probably by most seen as an infringement of freedom. Taylor consider a person to have the capacity of 'strong evaluation', which allows the person to judge which desires are more significant than others on respect to various freedoms. 14 It helps the person to distinguish between desires which are perhaps the strongest, but not automatically the most significant ones. Sometimes these strong, yet less significant desires, might prevent a person from doing what the person really wants, e.g. the irrational fear of flying might prevent one from taking up a job one really desires. In other words, freedom can either be restricted by external obstacles or internal, psychological ones, something which the classic concept of negative liberty does not consider. Taylor concludes his argument as follows: 'I must be actually exercising self-understanding to be truly or fully free. I can no longer understand freedom just as an opportunity concept'. 15 Consequently, negative liberty will disintegrate into positive liberty. The problem of the conception of coercion goes even deeper. One not only must make a distinction between internal and external coercion, also between certain notions of external coercion. A person's view of negative liberty always depends on that person's idea of the range of coercion. F.A. Hayek defines coercion as an instance 'when one man's actions are made to serve another 13 Warburton (2001), p Charles Taylor, 'What's wrong with Negative Liberty' (1979), in Liberty, ed. David Miller (Oxford, 1991), pp (p.153). 15 Ibid., p.162.

5 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 5 man's will, not for his own, but for the others purpose'. 16 Hillel Steiner states that one is only unfree when physically prevented from action, a quite a rigorous account what freedom is. 17 This notion however, does not imply anything about non-physical restrictions such as threats. These are incorporated in a larger and more common sensual view, which identifies state intervention, laws and threats as coercion. Still, there are critics who think this concept does not go far enough. They question why the concept only included threats or laws, but not things like poverty or hunger. A possible explanation might say that threats make actions almost impossible because of the penalties connected with it, but that someone working in a job he does not like for it has unpleasant consequences is not unfree. At least as long as there are other occupational opportunities he could take up in order not to starve. Another potential remedy to this dilemma is a concept which defines coercion as always being intentional, based on the fact that sometimes unpleasantness is automatically there and not meant or controlled by someone. Berlin, for example, originally defined coercion as deliberate interference and the same argument is used by defenders of the free market. Evidently though, this concept is far from perfect. A person's freedom definitely can be unintentionally coerced: locking someone without purpose up still restricts that person's freedom. Is intention really of importance in this context? People suffering from poverty and starving in the streets is itself bad, no matter if intended or not. While Hayek contends that one can be both free and suffer from hunger or bad living conditions at the same time, Berlin changed his view into this direction, saying if hunger is caused by certain policies, which even not deliberately aiming at impoverishing certain people might have been changed or re-thought, count as coercion. 18 Where as poverty as a result of a drought or a flood will not be regarded as infringement of one's negative liberty. Hence this concept is not as much about actual intention as about the power of intervention and the knowledge about the outcome. The dilemma does not end here, since it 16 F.A. Hayek, 'Freedom and Coercion' (1960), in: Miller (1991), pp (p.89). 17 Hillel Steiner, 'Individual Liberty' (1974-5), in: Miller (1991), pp (p.138). 18 F.A. Hayek (1960), p.87; Berlin (1969), pp.xlvii-xlviii.

6 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 6 leads to a further question, namely if unwillingness to act is an act of coercion. As this discussion shows the definition of coercion is evidently one of the biggest dilemma proponents of negative liberty face. Either they can take the narrow route, only counting physical coercion and getting criticised for being too unspecific or the adopt a broader notion which will be hard to define properly. Furthermore, classic negative liberty prides itself as being value-free, as being descriptive rather than normative. The idea of negative liberty is only concerned about what freedom actually is, not if it is a good thing or not. This seems to be a problematic view, since freedom will never be entirely value-free, e.g. in the comparison A is freer than B. When defining freedom it is of importance of which value freedom has in comparison to other values, e.g. equality or justice. As mentioned above, Hayek and Mill both disagree with this view and claim that freedom is necessarily shaped by values and ideas. Therefore Mill, albeit defending negative liberty basically, places autonomy at the centre of freedom, going into the direction of self-realisation and consequently positive liberty. 19 Gerald MacCallum even takes criticism of negative liberty even a step further than Taylor and Mill. While both Taylor and Mill acknowledge the existence of two concepts of freedom, MacCallum introduces the idea that there is just one idea of freedom. In his article Negative and Positive Freedom' he views the idea and discussion of negative liberty as being unnecessary, for there are not two concepts of freedom but just one which is a continuation of thought. He argues 'that the distinction between them [the two concepts of freedom] has never been made sufficiently clear'. 20 According to MacCallum's concept freedom is always based on a triadic structure: x is (is not) free from y to do/become (not do/become) z Warburton (2001), pp Gerald C. MacCallum, Jr., 'Negative and Positive Freedom' (1967), in: Miller (1991), pp (p.100). 21 MacCallum (1967), p.102.

7 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 7 This notion incorporates elements of both negative and positive liberty into one single concept, being more simplistic for not being concerned with distinctions which are difficult to define. Hence, MacCallum's criticism is not just interested in a certain aspect of negative liberty, it goes even further by stating that it does not even exist. 22 The concept of negative liberty is a good example of how difficult a definition of liberty is. Like most political ideas, the concept of negative liberty has its ardent proponents, who are able to stress its positive sides, and its challengers and critics who do not fail to point out its shortcomings. Nevertheless, the lively discussion of the concept of negative freedom is a clear indicator of the importance freedom has in the mind's of not only most philosophers, but most people. 22 Berlin responded to MacCallum's criticism and triadic structure concept by presenting cases in which the triadic structure does, in his opinion, not apply. See: Berlin (1969), footnote, p.xliii.

8 U What's wrong with negative liberty? 8 Bibliography Berlin, I. (1969), Four Essays on Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Berlin, I. (1958), 'Two Concepts of Liberty', in I. Berlin (1969), Fou r Essays on Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp Hayek, F.A. (1960), 'Freedom and Coercion', in D. Miller (ed.) (1991), Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp MacCallum, G.C. (1967), 'Negative and Positive Freedom', in D. Miller (ed.) (1991), Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp Miller, D. (ed.) (1991), Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parent, W.S. (1973), 'Some Recent Work on the Concept of Liberty', American Philosophical Quarterly 11, 1974, pp Pettit, P. (1989), 'A Definition of Negative Liberty', Ratio 2, 1989, pp Steiner, H. (1974/5), 'Individual Liberty', in D. Miller (ed.) (1991), Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp Taylor, C. (1979), 'What's wrong with Negative Liberty', in D. Miller (ed.) (1991), Liberty, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp Warburton, N. (2001), Freedom, London: Routledge.

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions

More information

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas 1/9 Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas This week we are going to begin looking at a new area by turning our attention to the work of John Locke, who is probably the most famous English philosopher of all

More information

Killing And Letting Die

Killing And Letting Die [This essay originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edition, ed. Lawrence Becker and Charlotte Becker (New York: Routledge, 2001), vol. 2, pp. 947-50.] Killing And Letting Die Is it worse

More information

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow?

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow? Moral Theory What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow? What principles determine how we ought to interact with other people? Social Justice: What makes for a just society? John

More information

THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL MODELS OF DISABILITY

THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL MODELS OF DISABILITY THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL MODELS OF DISABILITY MIKE OLIVER BA PhD READER IN DISABILITY STUDIES THAMES POLYTECHNIC Paper presented at Joint Workshop of the Living Options Group and the Research Unit of

More information

How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm?

How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? Eli Bjørhusdal After having published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, Kuhn was much criticised for the use

More information

ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS AND GOVERNMENT MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS.

ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS AND GOVERNMENT MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS. ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS AND GOVERNMENT MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS. Relevant Questions: Are people born good or bad? Are all people born equal? What is government? Why do societies have

More information

DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY

DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY SAMPLE SYLLABUS YASCHA MOUNK Description: The citizens of democracies take pride in their countries, believing them to be beacons of liberty. In other parts of the world, activists,

More information

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Fourth Quarter, 2006 Vol. 29, No. 4 Editor s Watch Sandel and Nagel on Abortion Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Public Philosophy in The New York Review of Books.

More information

Justice and Ethics. Jimmy Rising. October 18, 2002

Justice and Ethics. Jimmy Rising. October 18, 2002 Justice and Ethics Jimmy Rising October 18, 2002 1 Introduction Utilitarianism is an ethical system. John Stuart Mill s use of Utilitarianism to determine what is just and what is injustice may seem natural,

More information

Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics

Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics artificialhorizon.org Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics RALPH HARRINGTON Aristotle s Politics is an investigation of how people live in political communities.

More information

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong?

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? Moral Theory What makes things right or wrong? Consider: Moral Disagreement We have disagreements about right and wrong, about how people ought or ought not act. When we do, we (sometimes!) reason with

More information

The Cosmological Argument

The Cosmological Argument Cosmological Argument Page 1 of 5 The Cosmological Argument (A) Discuss the key features of the Cosmological Argument. The Cosmological Argument has several forms, but is fundamentally a proof for the

More information

Locke s psychological theory of personal identity

Locke s psychological theory of personal identity Locke s psychological theory of personal identity phil 20208 Jeff Speaks October 3, 2006 1 Identity, diversity, and kinds............................. 1 2 Personal identity...................................

More information

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW Michael Lacewing Substance dualism A substance is traditionally understood as an entity, a thing, that does not depend on another entity in order to exist. Substance dualism holds that there are two fundamentally

More information

Arguments and Dialogues

Arguments and Dialogues ONE Arguments and Dialogues The three goals of critical argumentation are to identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments. The term argument is used in a special sense, referring to the giving of reasons

More information

Kant s deontological ethics

Kant s deontological ethics Michael Lacewing Kant s deontological ethics DEONTOLOGY Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things

More information

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness.

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. MILL The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. Mill s principle of utility Mill s principle combines theories of the right

More information

The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas

The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas René Descartes and John Locke, two of the principal philosophers who shaped modern philosophy, disagree on several topics; one of them concerns

More information

1 Annex 11: Market failure in broadcasting

1 Annex 11: Market failure in broadcasting 1 Annex 11: Market failure in broadcasting 1.1 This annex builds on work done by Ofcom regarding market failure in a number of previous projects. In particular, we discussed the types of market failure

More information

Social Contract Theory. What's the Key to Understanding Ethics?

Social Contract Theory. What's the Key to Understanding Ethics? Social Contract Theory 1 What's the Key to Understanding? Some say ethics found in an appeal to God ethics found in altruistic behavior and seeking the good of humankind overall ethics found in laws of

More information

Honours programme in Philosophy

Honours programme in Philosophy Honours programme in Philosophy Honours Programme in Philosophy The Honours Programme in Philosophy offers students a broad and in-depth introduction to the main areas of Western philosophy and the philosophy

More information

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Winter, 2015/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into

More information

Building of a social contract

Building of a social contract Building of a social contract Duration: 1.5 hours Prerequisites: Modules 2, 3 Key questions: 1. What is a social contract? 2. Why is there a need for a contract? 3. What is the origin of the social contract?

More information

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke [Modified Fall 2009] 1. Large class of arguments. Sometimes they get very complex, as in Clarke s argument, but the basic idea is simple. Lets

More information

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University The Kantian Paradox Raivydas Simenas Creighton University a) Introduction The success of Western cultural, political and especially economical development during the last two centuries not surprisingly

More information

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects.

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects. UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects

More information

Chapter Four. Ethics in International Business. Introduction. Ethical Issues in International Business

Chapter Four. Ethics in International Business. Introduction. Ethical Issues in International Business Chapter Four Ethics in International Business 4-2 Introduction Business ethics are the accepted principles of right or wrong governing the conduct of business people An ethical strategy is a strategy or

More information

The psychological theory of persons

The psychological theory of persons The psychological theory of persons Last week were discussing dualist views of persons, according to which human beings are immaterial things distinct from their bodies. We closed by discussing some problems

More information

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government

Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action 20:2 Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should

More information

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory University of California, Berkeley In this paper, I will argue that Kant provides us with a plausible account of morality. To show that, I will first offer a major criticism

More information

The Proper Basis for Society: John Locke (1632-1704)

The Proper Basis for Society: John Locke (1632-1704) The Proper Basis for Society: John Locke (1632-1704) Why John Locke? His influence on political and philosophical ideas of the Second Europe. His idea of the contract fired the imagination like Newton

More information

DEVELOPMENT JOURNALISM

DEVELOPMENT JOURNALISM DEVELOPMENT JOURNALISM Development journalism basically centres around how much freedom the media should have i.e. should they be able to publish whatever they wish to publish, at any time, or should there

More information

The Social Contract Hobbes (1651)

The Social Contract Hobbes (1651) The Social Contract Hobbes (1651) 1. Hypothesis: The State of Nature: Thomas Hobbes begins by noting four features about human nature, and the state of the world: Equality of Power: All people are roughly

More information

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions :

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions : Chapter 15 Social Contract 15.1 Homework Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15 Study Questions : 1. What would be our lives in a state of nature according to Hobbes? 2. What are the four basic facts about the

More information

Aquinas on Essence, Existence, and Divine Simplicity Strange but Consistent. In the third question of the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas is concerned with

Aquinas on Essence, Existence, and Divine Simplicity Strange but Consistent. In the third question of the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas is concerned with Aquinas on Essence, Existence, and Divine Simplicity Strange but Consistent In the third question of the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas is concerned with divine simplicity. This is important for him both theologically

More information

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes begins the fourth Meditation with a review of what he has learned so far. He began his search for certainty by questioning the veracity of his own senses.

More information

By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence

By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence Directed Studies: Philosophy Professor Jonathan Gilmore By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence The Cost Of Duty-Free

More information

Free Will. Freedom: To possess freedom of choice is to possess the ability to do otherwise.

Free Will. Freedom: To possess freedom of choice is to possess the ability to do otherwise. Free Will Freedom: To possess freedom of choice is to possess the ability to do otherwise. Furthermore, if one is NOT able to do otherwise (i.e., if one is not free), then one is not responsible for their

More information

The Logical Limitations of Target Marketing

The Logical Limitations of Target Marketing The Logical Limitations of Target Marketing Malcolm Wright and Don Esslemont Smith's idea of segmentation has been steadily refined into Kotler's target marketing, and widely adopted by academics and practitioners.

More information

Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil

Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil Responding to Arguments against the Existence of God Based on Evil By INTRODUCTION Throughout the history of western thought, numerous philosophers and great thinkers have struggled with what is known

More information

A. What is Virtue Ethics?

A. What is Virtue Ethics? A. What is Virtue Ethics? 1. Can be described as another part of normative ethics: - axiology studies what makes things (e.g. pleasure or knowledge) good or bad - normative ethics of behavior studies what

More information

Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education

Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education Taylor Wisneski, Kansas State University Abstract This paper examines methods provided by both John Dewey and Amy Gutmann.

More information

Unit 3 Handout 1: DesJardin s Environmental Ethics. Chapter 6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life

Unit 3 Handout 1: DesJardin s Environmental Ethics. Chapter 6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life Philosophy 160C Fall 2008 jayme johnson Unit 3 Handout 1: DesJardin s Environmental Ethics Chapter 6 Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life Introduction So far we have focused on attempts to

More information

John Stuart Mill. A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty

John Stuart Mill. A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty John Stuart Mill A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty I. Overview: What is the right way for humans to treat each other? Individual and Collective Rationality Put the Community first! What is freedom when

More information

There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012)

There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012) Valparaiso University ValpoScholar The Valpo Core Reader 10-25-2012 There Is No Commandment Greater Than These (2012) David Rutkowski Valparaiso University Follow this and additional works at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/core_reader

More information

Planning and Writing Essays

Planning and Writing Essays Planning and Writing Essays Many of your coursework assignments will take the form of an essay. This leaflet will give you an overview of the basic stages of planning and writing an academic essay but

More information

Philosophers in Review

Philosophers in Review Philosophers in Review UTILITARIANISM: Utilitarianism focuses on the effects of an action. The moral action is that which produces the greatest good for the greatest number. In other words, the happiness

More information

An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership Though Ayn Rand s The Virtues of Selfishness (1964)

An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership Though Ayn Rand s The Virtues of Selfishness (1964) 1 The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research Spring 2007 An Analysis of the Objectivist Ethics in Educational Leadership Though Ayn Rand s The Virtues of Selfishness (1964) Karen Dupre

More information

Title: Duty Derives from Telos: The Teleology behind Kant s Categorical Imperative. Author: Micah Tillman

Title: Duty Derives from Telos: The Teleology behind Kant s Categorical Imperative. Author: Micah Tillman Title: Duty Derives from Telos: The Teleology behind Kant s Categorical Imperative Author: Micah Tillman Word Count: 3,358 (3,448, including content notes) Abstract: This paper argues that Kant s view

More information

Health and Social Care Level 3. Unit 6 Sociological perspectives for health and social care

Health and Social Care Level 3. Unit 6 Sociological perspectives for health and social care Unit 6 Sociological perspectives for health and social care Definitions of Health Instructions and answers for Teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource Definitions of Health, which

More information

They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing

They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein ENTERING THE CONVERSATION Many Americans assume that Others more complicated: On the one hand,. On the other

More information

Divine command theory

Divine command theory Today we will be discussing divine command theory. But first I will give a (very) brief overview of the semester, and the discipline of philosophy. Why do this? One of the functions of an introductory

More information

Locating Rousseau s Legislator in The Social Contract

Locating Rousseau s Legislator in The Social Contract Locating Rousseau s Legislator in The Social Contract Unlike other noteworthy political philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes or John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau is the only political philosopher to include

More information

CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE

CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE 87 CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE BY MARK COLYVAN Mathematical statements such as There are infinitely many prime numbers and 2 ℵ 0 > ℵ 0 are usually thought to be necessarily true. Not

More information

ON THE NECESSARY EXISTENCE OF GOD-MINUS

ON THE NECESSARY EXISTENCE OF GOD-MINUS Faraci and Linford 1 ON THE NECESSARY EXISTENCE OF GOD-MINUS David Faraci and Daniel Linford Abstract In this paper, we offer a novel reductio of Anselm s (in)famous Ontological Argument for the existence

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty

Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty 1 Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty Introduction In this essay, I will summarise Singer's solution to world poverty, and then consider some of the objections that may

More information

. new ideas are made use of, or used, in a. . solutions are extensive in their. . the impact of solutions extends to

. new ideas are made use of, or used, in a. . solutions are extensive in their. . the impact of solutions extends to Can we agree on innovation and creativity? The author is based at Smart Process International PL, Singapore Keywords Innovation, Creativity Abstract Discusses the nature of innovation and creativity, with

More information

June 4, 2012. Ms. Jan Munro Deputy Director International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants 545 Fifth Avenue, 14 th Floor New York 10017 USA

June 4, 2012. Ms. Jan Munro Deputy Director International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants 545 Fifth Avenue, 14 th Floor New York 10017 USA June 4, 2012 Ms. Jan Munro Deputy Director International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants 545 Fifth Avenue, 14 th Floor New York 10017 USA By E-mail: janmunro@ethicsboard.org Dear Jan, Re: International

More information

Introduction to Equality and Justice: Social Contract and the Currency of Justice, Peter. Vallentyne, ed., Routledge, 2003.

Introduction to Equality and Justice: Social Contract and the Currency of Justice, Peter. Vallentyne, ed., Routledge, 2003. Introduction to Equality and Justice: Social Contract and the Currency of Justice, Peter Vallentyne, ed., Routledge, 2003. Social Contract and the Currency of Justice: An Introduction Peter Vallentyne

More information

QUESTION 60. An Angel's Love or Affection

QUESTION 60. An Angel's Love or Affection QUESTION 60 An Angel's Love or Affection We next have to consider the act of the will, which is love, i.e., affection (amor sive dilectio). For every act of an appetitive power stems from love, i.e., affection.

More information

Th e ontological argument distinguishes itself from the cosmological

Th e ontological argument distinguishes itself from the cosmological Aporia vol. 18 no. 1 2008 Charles Hartshorne and the Ontological Argument Joshua Ernst Th e ontological argument distinguishes itself from the cosmological and teleological arguments for God s existence

More information

On Mack on Locke on Property. more than almost any contemporary writer to develop the philosophical foundations of

On Mack on Locke on Property. more than almost any contemporary writer to develop the philosophical foundations of On Mack on Locke on Property It s a pleasure and an honor to comment on Eric Mack s superb piece on Locke. Mack has done more than almost any contemporary writer to develop the philosophical foundations

More information

AQA PHILOSOPHY SYLLABUS: USEFUL WEB LINKS

AQA PHILOSOPHY SYLLABUS: USEFUL WEB LINKS AQA PHILOSOPHY SYLLABUS: USEFUL WEB LINKS These web links could be used by you as teachers to help deepen your knowledge of the various topics on the A level syllabus. Many of them are too detailed to

More information

In an article titled Ethical Absolutism and the

In an article titled Ethical Absolutism and the Stance Volume 3 April 2010 A Substantive Revision to Firth's Ideal Observer Theory ABSTRACT: This paper examines Ideal Observer Theory and uses criticisms of it to lay the foundation for a revised theory

More information

Plantinga and the Problem of Evil

Plantinga and the Problem of Evil Plantinga and the Problem of Evil Heimir Geirsson, Iowa State University Michael Losonsky, Colorado State University The logical problem of evil centers on the apparent inconsistency of the following two

More information

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds

More information

God and Reality. Arman Hovhannisyan

God and Reality. Arman Hovhannisyan God and Reality Arman Hovhannisyan Metaphysics has done everything to involve God in the world of being. However, in case of considering Reality as being and nothingness, naturally, the metaphysical approach

More information

TRUTH AND FALLIBILITY

TRUTH AND FALLIBILITY Michael Lacewing Mill on freedom of thought and expression In On Liberty, the first liberties that Mill identifies the Harm Principle protecting is freedom of thought and freedom of expression. These freedoms

More information

Writing an essay. This seems obvious - but it is surprising how many people don't really do this.

Writing an essay. This seems obvious - but it is surprising how many people don't really do this. Writing an essay Look back If this is not your first essay, take a look at your previous one. Did your tutor make any suggestions that you need to bear in mind for this essay? Did you learn anything else

More information

Information about INTERVENTION ORDERS

Information about INTERVENTION ORDERS Information about INTERVENTION ORDERS This publication has been prepared as a public service initiated by South Australia Police and, while every care has been taken in its preparation, no warranty is

More information

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION Peter K. Bol Charles H. Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations I was asked to set forth some personal reflections rather than to summarize

More information

PAUL TILLICH S THEOLOGICAL METHOD: A SUMMARY EVALUATION. holding several academic posts in Germany, he and his family moved to the United States in

PAUL TILLICH S THEOLOGICAL METHOD: A SUMMARY EVALUATION. holding several academic posts in Germany, he and his family moved to the United States in PAUL TILLICH S THEOLOGICAL METHOD: A SUMMARY EVALUATION Paul Tillich (1886-1965) was a major figure in twentieth-century theology. After holding several academic posts in Germany, he and his family moved

More information

Writing Thesis Defense Papers

Writing Thesis Defense Papers Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers

More information

SCDHSC0332 Promote positive self esteem and identity

SCDHSC0332 Promote positive self esteem and identity Promote positive self esteem and identity Overview This standard outlines the requirements when promoting individuals self esteem and sense of identity. This includes working with individuals to identify

More information

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

When fraudulent data are published, it is eventually discovered because others try to replicate the results.

When fraudulent data are published, it is eventually discovered because others try to replicate the results. Ethics in Psychological Research As behavioral scientists, there are two domains of ethical responsibility: 1. Truthfulness, integrity, etc. in the collection, interpretation and dissemination of data

More information

Seven Deadly Sins of Work-Life Balance Programs Page 1

Seven Deadly Sins of Work-Life Balance Programs Page 1 Seven Deadly Sins of Work-Life Balance Programs Page 1 ARE YOU FOCUSING ON BOTH EMPLOYEE AND ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES? M A T T H E W J. G R A W I T C H A N D L A R I S S A K. B A R B E R Jan uary 2009 Organizational

More information

THEY SAY: Discussing what the sources are saying

THEY SAY: Discussing what the sources are saying School of Liberal Arts University Writing Center Because writers need readers Cavanaugh Hall 008H University Library 2125 (317)274-2049 (317)278-8171 www.iupui.edu/~uwc Academic Conversation Templates:

More information

Competition Policy International

Competition Policy International VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 SPRING 2008 Competition Policy International How Should Competition Law Be Taught? Einer Elhauge Copyright 2008 Competition Policy International, Inc. Published in Competition Policy

More information

THE MORAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANIMAL PAIN AND ANIMAL DEATH

THE MORAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANIMAL PAIN AND ANIMAL DEATH c h a p t e r 2 6 THE MORAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANIMAL PAIN AND ANIMAL DEATH e lizabeth h arman 1. Animal Cruelty and Animal Killing In this paper, I will be concerned with this question: what follows from

More information

A review on Daniel Hausman (2012): Preference, value, choice, and welfare, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Aki Lehtinen

A review on Daniel Hausman (2012): Preference, value, choice, and welfare, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Aki Lehtinen A review on Daniel Hausman (2012): Preference, value, choice, and welfare, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Aki Lehtinen Preferences as total subjective comparative evaluations I always look forward

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I This is a draft syllabus. The finalized syllabus will be available one week before the beginning of Summer Session I. Kiran Bhardwaj kbhardwa@live.unc.edu

More information

MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I

MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I 1. Define Ethics? MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I * Study of right or wrong. * Good and evil. * Obligations & rights. * Justice. * Social & Political deals.

More information

Primary and Secondary Qualities Charles Kaijo

Primary and Secondary Qualities Charles Kaijo Primary and Secondary Qualities Charles Kaijo From examining John Locke s distinction between primary and secondary qualities in an object and Bishop George Berkeley s refutation to Locke s argument, it

More information

Debating Beauty. The ideas in this pack are only suggestions! You may have your own idea for a debate. A few things to remember when debating

Debating Beauty. The ideas in this pack are only suggestions! You may have your own idea for a debate. A few things to remember when debating Debating Beauty This pack includes some ideas of topics that you might like to debate. All the debates are about issues that are relevant to the Beauty Myth display. Each debate has a card with arguments

More information

Principles and standards in Independent Advocacy organisations and groups

Principles and standards in Independent Advocacy organisations and groups advocacy 2 0 0 0 Principles and standards in Independent Advocacy organisations and groups Advocacy 2000 January 2002 We would like to acknowledge that the Scottish Executive partly funded the editing

More information

THE AFRICAN COMMISSION HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS INFORMATION SHEET NO.2 GUIDELINES FOR THE SUBMISSION OF COMMUNICATIONS ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY

THE AFRICAN COMMISSION HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS INFORMATION SHEET NO.2 GUIDELINES FOR THE SUBMISSION OF COMMUNICATIONS ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY THE AFRICAN COMMISSION HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS INFORMATION SHEET NO.2 GUIDELINES FOR THE SUBMISSION OF COMMUNICATIONS ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY This Information Sheet is published by the Secretariat

More information

Consent, Obligation, and the Social Contract: John Locke

Consent, Obligation, and the Social Contract: John Locke Consent, Obligation, and the Social Contract: John Locke John Locke (1632-1704) Major English philosopher of the early modern period. Exponent of empiricism (later given its perhaps most radical formulation

More information

The Purpose of General Education. Speech at South China Normal University Guangzhou, China December 14, 2010. Sean D. Kelly

The Purpose of General Education. Speech at South China Normal University Guangzhou, China December 14, 2010. Sean D. Kelly The Purpose of General Education Speech at South China Normal University Guangzhou, China December 14, 2010 Sean D. Kelly 1. Introduction I would like to begin by talking about General Education in America.

More information

Writing Political Theory Papers

Writing Political Theory Papers Writing Political Theory Papers Political theory is a little bit different than political science. Here are some important differences. 1) It s more like philosophy than social science: it is more concerned

More information

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is

More information

How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence?

How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence? Subject: Title: Word count: Epistemology How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence? 2,707 1 How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it

More information

2. Argument Structure & Standardization

2. Argument Structure & Standardization 2. Argument Structure & Standardization 1 Some Review So, we have been looking at arguments: What is and is not an argument. The main parts of an argument. How to identify one when you see it. In the exercises

More information

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once.

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING PHIL 2020 Maymester Term, 2010 Daily, 9:30-12:15 Peabody Hall, room 105 Text: LOGIC AND RATIONAL THOUGHT by Frank R. Harrison, III Professor: Frank R. Harrison, III Office:

More information

Number 12/March 1993 CAPITAL BUDGETING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: LESSONS FROM ALBERTA'S HISTORY. Paul Boothe Department of Economics University of Alberta

Number 12/March 1993 CAPITAL BUDGETING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: LESSONS FROM ALBERTA'S HISTORY. Paul Boothe Department of Economics University of Alberta Number 12/March 1993 CAPITAL BUDGETING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: LESSONS FROM ALBERTA'S HISTORY Paul Boothe Department of Economics University of Alberta INTRODUCTION Large and persistent government deficits

More information

ARE DEPRIVATION OF LIBERTY SAFEGUARDS PROTECTING VULBERABLE ADULTS? THE CASE FOR REFORM

ARE DEPRIVATION OF LIBERTY SAFEGUARDS PROTECTING VULBERABLE ADULTS? THE CASE FOR REFORM ARE DEPRIVATION OF LIBERTY SAFEGUARDS PROTECTING VULBERABLE ADULTS? THE CASE FOR REFORM INTRODUCTION No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or

More information

Why economics needs ethical theory by John Broome, University of Oxford

Why economics needs ethical theory by John Broome, University of Oxford Why economics needs ethical theory by John Broome, University of Oxford For the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, London, 2000. Economics is a branch of ethics. Well, that

More information