2 INTRODUCTION Ethics refers to accepted principles of right or wrong that govern the conduct of a person, the members of a profession, or the actions of an organization. Business ethics are the accepted principles of right or wrong governing the conduct of business people. Ethical strategy is a strategy, or course of action, that does not violate these accepted principles.
3 ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS The most common ethical issues in business involve employment practices, human rights, environmental regulations, corruption, and the moral obligation of multinational companies.
4 CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Under what conditions is it ethically defensible to outsource production to producers in the developing world who have much lower labor costs when such actions also involve laying off long term employees in the firm s home country?
5 Employment Practices When work conditions in a host nation are clearly inferior to those in a multinational s home nation, companies must decide which standards should be applied, those of the home nation, those of the host nation, or something in between
6 Human Rights Basic human rights taken for granted in the developed world such as freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of movement, and so on, are by no means universally accepted
7 Environmental Pollution When environmental regulations in host nations are far inferior to those in the home nation, ethical issues arise The tragedy of the commons occurs when a resource held in common by all, but owned by no one, is overused by individuals resulting in its degradation
8 Corruption In the United States, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act outlawed the practice of paying bribes to foreign government officials in order to gain business The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted a Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions in 1997 which obliges member states to make the bribery of foreign public officials a criminal offense
9 Some economists suggest that the practice of giving bribes might be the price that must be paid to do a greater good These economists believe that in a country where preexisting political structures distort or limit the workings of the market mechanism, corruption in the form of black-marketeering, smuggling, and side payments to government bureaucrats to speed up approval for business investments may actually enhance welfare Other economists have argued that corruption reduces the returns on business investment and leads to low economic growth
10 Moral Obligations The concept of social responsibility refers to the idea that business people should take the social consequences of economic actions into account when making business decisions, and that there should be a presumption in favor of decisions that have both good economic and good social consequences In its purest form, social responsibility can be supported for its own sake simply because it is the right way for a business to behave Advocates of this approach argue that businesses need to recognize their noblesse oblige (honorable and benevolent behavior that is the responsibility of successful companies) and give something back to the societies that have made their success possible
11 ETHICAL DILEMMAS Ethical dilemmas are situations in which none of the available alternatives seems ethically acceptable.
12 CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS A visiting American executive finds that a foreign subsidiary in a poor nation has hired a 12-year old girl to work on a factory floor, in violation of the company s prohibition on child labor. He tells the local manager to replace the child and tell her to go back to school. The local manager tells the American executive that the child is an orphan with no other means of support, and she will probably become a street child if she is denied work. What should the American executive do?
13 CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS A visiting American executive finds that a foreign subsidiary in a poor nation has hired a 12-year old girl to work on a factory floor, in violation of the company s prohibition on child labor. He tells the local manager to replace the child and tell her to go back to school. The local manager tells the American executive that the child is an orphan with no other means of support, and she will probably become a street child if she is denied work. What should the American executive do?
14 Ethics in international Business The causes of unethical behavior
15 THE ROOTS OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR Personal Ethics Business ethics reflect personal ethics (the generally accepted principles of right and wrong governing the conduct of individuals) Expatriates may face pressure to violate their personal ethics because they are away from their ordinary social context and supporting culture, and they are psychologically and geographically distant from the parent company
16 Decision Making Processes Studies show that business people may behave unethically because they fail to ask the relevant question is this decision or action ethical?
17 Organization Culture In firms with an organization culture (the values and norms that are shared among employees of an organization) that does not emphasize business culture, unethical behavior may exist
18 Unrealistic Performance Expectations Pressure from the parent company to meet performance goals that are unrealistic, and can only be attained by cutting corners or acting in an unethical manner can cause unethical behavior Leadership If leaders are not acting ethically, other employees may not act ethically
19 PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TO ETHICS Straw Men Straw men approaches to business ethics are approaches that are raised by business ethics scholars primarily for the purpose of demonstrating that they offer inappropriate guidelines for ethical decision making in a multinational enterprise. Four such approaches are the Friedman doctrine, cultural relativism, the righteous moralist, and the naïve immoralist.
20 The Friedman Doctrine Economist s Milton Friedman s position is that the only social responsibility of business is to increase profits, so long as the company stays within the rules of law Cultural Relativism Cultural relativism is the belief that ethics are culturally determined and that firms should adopt the ethics of the cultures in which they operate, or in other words, when in Rome, do as the Romans do
21 The Righteous Moralist The righteous moralist approach claims that a multinational s home country standards of ethics are the appropriate ones for companies to follow in foreign countries The Naïve Immoralist The naïve immoralist asserts that if a manager of a multinational sees that firms from other nations are not following ethical norms in a host nation, that manager should not either
22 Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics Utilitarian approaches to ethics hold that the moral worth of actions or practices is determined by their consequences An action is judged to be desirable if it leads to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad consequences
23 Problems with the approach is measuring the benefits, costs, and risks of a course of action, and the fact that philosophy fails to consider justice Kantian ethics are based on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant who argued that people should be treated as ends and never purely as means to the ends of others
24 Rights Theories Rights theories recognize that human beings have fundamental rights and privileges that transcend national boundaries and culture Moral theorists argue that fundamental human rights form the basis for the moral compass that managers should navigate by when making decisions that have an ethical component The idea that some fundamental rights transcend national borders and cultures was the underlying motivation for the UN s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (specifies the basic principles that should always be adhered to irrespective of the culture in which one is doing business)
25 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests Article 29. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
26 Justice Theories Justice theories focus on the attainment of a just distribution of economic goods and services A just distribution is one that is considered fair and equitable
27 One theory of justice was set forth by John Rawls who argued that all economic goods and services should be distributed equally except when an unequal distribution would work to everyone s advantage Impartiality is guaranteed by the veil of ignorance (everyone is imagined to be ignorant of all his or her particular characteristics) where people would agree that each person is permitted the maximum amount of basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others, and that once equal basic liberty is assured, inequality in basic goods social goods are to be allowed only if they benefit everyone Rawls formulates the difference principle, which is that inequalities are justified if they benefit the position of the least advantaged person
28 IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS Firms that ensure ethical issues are considered in business decisions: favor hiring and promoting people with a well grounded sense of personal ethics build an organizational culture that places a high value on ethical behavior makes sure that leaders within the business not only articulate the rhetoric of ethical behavior, but also act in manner that is consistent with that rhetoric put decision making processes in place that require people to consider the ethical dimension of business decisions develop moral courage
29 Hiring and Promotion Businesses should strive to identify and hire people with a strong sense of personal ethics Prospective employees should find out as much as they can about the ethical climate in an organization
30 Organization Culture and Leadership Businesses need to build an organization culture that places a high value on ethical behavior: the business must explicitly articulate values that place a strong emphasis on ethical behavior, perhaps using a code of ethics (a formal statement of the ethical priorities a business adheres to) leaders in the business should give life and meaning to the code of ethics by repeatedly emphasizing their importance, and then acting on them the business should put in place a system of incentives and rewards that recognize people who engage in ethical behavior and sanction those who do not
31 Decision Making Processes A moral compass can help determine whether a decision is ethical. If a manager can answer yes to the following questions, the decision is ethically acceptable. does my decision fall within the accepted values of standards that typically apply in the organizational environment? am I willing to see the decision communicated to all stakeholders affected by it? would the people with whom I have significant personal relationships approve of the decision?
32 A five step process can also help managers think through ethical problems: 1. business people should identify which stakeholders a decision would affect and in what ways 2. managers need to determine whether a proposed decision would violate the fundamental rights of any stakeholders 3. managers need to establish moral intent (the business must resolve to place moral concerns ahead of other concerns in cases where either the fundamental rights of stakeholders or key moral principles have been violated) 4. the company should then engage in ethical behavior 5. the business must audit its decisions, reviewing them to make sure that they were consistent with ethical principles
33 Ethics Officers To ensure ethical behavior in a business, a number of firms now have ethics officers Moral Courage It is important to recognize that employees in an international business may need significant moral courage that enables them to walk away from a decision that is profitable, but unethical.
34 Summary of Managerial Actions In the end, there are clearly things that an international business should do, and there are things that an international business should not do, but there are also actions that present managers with true dilemmas
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