Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership & Measurement of Flare/Vent Volumes. World Bank Francisco J. Sucre

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1 Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership & Measurement of Flare/Vent Volumes World Bank Francisco J. Sucre

2 Content Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) Gas Flaring in Mexico Global Voluntary Flaring Reduction Standard GGFR Measurement Guidelines Final remarks

3 Global Gas Flaring Reduction partnership (GGFR) Public-private partnership led by the World Bank Formed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 Main double fold objective: avoiding unnecessary waste of non-renewable cleaner energy resource reduction of carbon emissions and other negative environmental impact of flaring and venting of associated gas in upstream oil and gas operations Includes 27 members: governments from oil-producing countries, state-owned and international oil companies, European Union and the World Bank Group Mission Statement GGFR is a catalyst for reducing wasteful and undesirable practices of gas flaring and venting through policy change, stakeholder facilitation and project implementation 3

4 Flaring in Mexico E&P flaring down from 2001 to 2005, but jumped until 2008 Dropping in last 4 years (w 2011) Largest volumes from offshore operations Highest rate of utilization of 94% in 2005 (average of 85%) Important source of GHG: at peak, flaring represented aprox 2% of national emissions (not accounting for venting and flare efficiencies) México Source: Pemex financial 2012 reports & EIA Statistics:

5 Gas Flaring vis-a-vis Gas Imports Significant comparative value of flare gas when compared with imports from US Known barriers to flare reduction in Mexico Insufficient gas infrastructure (gathering, processing and compression) Operational conditions (e.g. nitrogen in AG, compression, etc.) Focus on oil production maximization Prior to CNH, fiscal regime neutral to flaring and venting reduction Limited allocation of CAPEX for lower IRR projects México Source: Pemex financial 2012 reports & EIA Statistics:

6 CNH Guidelines on Flare/Vent volumes Article 48. Sizing of flare and vent gas meters. The continuous flow rate capacity of the meters shall be dimensioned in accordance to the expected gas flow volumes. Article 49. Measurement uncertainty for flare and vent gas. The maximum allowable measurement uncertainty for gas flare and vent measurement systems shall be +/-3%. Article 50. Flare and vent gas meter installation. The installation of the meter must be executed in compliance with the manufacturer s specifications. Article 51. Flare and vent gas composition measurement. Monitoring of the flare and vent gas composition shall be carried out, either by sampling for lab analysis, or by continuous analyzers. Article 52. Liquid measurement in flare and vent. If there is a considerable amount of liquid in the system, a separator shall be installed, along with a (liquid) meter. Article 53. Indirect estimation of flare and vent gas volumes. Indirect estimation shall be made by way of GOR accounting or through system balance or simulators. The Commission shall be informed as to how said accounting was made.

7 GGFR s Voluntary Flaring Reduction Standard Global Voluntary Standard Sets out approach to overcome barriers to reduce flaring & venting Guidance on how to achieve reductions Emphasize key role of accurate monitoring of flare/vent volumes to achieve reductions Existing facilities should, at a minimum, estimate volume applying sound engineering mass and energy balance New projects and large flaring facilities should measure through metering

8 GGFR s Voluntary Flaring Reduction Standard Global Voluntary Standard Best practice on measurement: Total volume of gas sent to the flare(s) should be continuously metered either at each of the sources or at the flare headers, to determine the annual volumetric flow to the flare. At a minimum, flow measurement devices used to determine flare gas volumes should have an accuracy of +/- 5 percent over the anticipated range of flow rates

9 GGFR s Voluntary Flaring Reduction Standard Global Voluntary Standard Highlight the importance of estimating GHG using API Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry Volume and emissions data reporting To monitor performance gas flare and vent should be publicly reported Governments have an important role in facilitating and gathering information on gas flared and vented Government are encouraged to implement a reporting tool

10 Standard Defined Sources of flares/vents Flaring Continuous (routine) Surplus gas for lack of facilities and/or market outlets Non-continuous, which may be: Temporary (planned non-routine) or Compressor start up/shut down Well completion, treatment, stimulation, workovers Early production facilities Gas migration Production storage tanks working/flashing losses Emergency (unplanned) Venting Continuous (routine) Non safety vent of surplus gas due to lack of flaring facilities Production storage tank losses (flashing, working and breathing) Gas-driven pneumatic devices, chemical injection pumps Gas treatment vents Locally vented low preassure systems Non-continuous Catalyst Well completion, treatment, stimulation, workovers, and testing Surface casing gas (oil wells) Gas migration (oil wells( Operational venting to reduce equipment pressure

11 Relevance of flare measurement Why quantify flares and vent volumes? Justification of conservation costs Prioritize and optimize efforts Reservoir engineering: better understand the adverse impact to reservoirs Effectiveness of regulatory regime on flare/vent depend on accurate measuring and reporting To provide accurate information and data that helps the regulator evaluate compliance and evaluate progress Public safety and environment: understand and monitor emissions To determine GHG baseline, assess abatement costs of mitigation, leverage carbon credits and make pledges in international agreements

12 Considerations about flare measurement Reiterated massages by experts during GGFR sponsored workshops Flare measurement is extremely challenging Generally requires a combination of methods to achieve best results (measurement & estimation) Measurement uncertainty analysis of full measurement chain essential Normally approached in stages to minimize disruption/cost Many considerations are needed when selecting the best measurement approach 12

13 GGFR Flaring Measurement Guidelines INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY REVIEW: o Technology specifications o Accuracy requirements o Control requirements DELINEATION OF MEASUREMENT OPTIONS: o Continuous flow measurement systems. o Flow test methods. o Estimation methods: o Mass balance. o Use of GOR data. o Process simulations.

14 GGFR Flaring Measurement Guidelines Methods for measuring flare volumes 1. Metering a. Direct b. Distributed meters 2. Estimation a. Gas balance b. Control valve data c. Process data

15 Characteristics of meters for flare gas volume measurement Technical Economic 13 February

16 Issues for flare meter selection Accuracy Operability (range, calibration requirements, flow regime dependence..) Sensitivity to contaminants (liquids, particles) Restriction for gas flow Availability Ease and cost - of installation Ease of maintenance, calibration and verification Cost

17 Gas flow : Production, usage and flared volume Usage Gas produced GAS EXPORT GAS INJECTION FUEL GAS GAS LIFT OTHER GAS USES LOSSES Flare Volume Gas produced minus Export equals Flare Volume Injection Fuel Gas lift Other uses Losses Most widely used estimation method by industry Accurate during emergency blowdowns where flowmeters struggle to cope Unsuitable for normal flaring (majority of the year) = excessive measurement uncertainty

18 By-difference method Measurement Uncertainty when estimating: using simple root-sum-square method %U flare 2 U 2 prod 2 U export 2 2 Q m,flare U 2 fuel 2 U 2 lift Emergency Blow-down: <1% time, 20% gas flared Normal Flaring: >90% time, 40% gas flared Gas stream Proportion of Total (%) Measurement Uncertainty (%) Exported Gas 0 n/a Fuel Gas 5 ± 3 Lift Gas 4 ± 3 Flared Gas 91 ± 0.2 Gas stream Proportion of Total (%) Measurement Uncertainty (%) Exported Gas 90 ± 1 Fuel Gas 5 ± 3 Lift Gas 4 ± 3 Flared Gas 1 ± 92 BEST PRACTICE: dedicated flare gas meter for normal flaring & By-difference for blow-down Source: NEL TUV SUD

19 Key points from GGFR guidelines There are a variety of options available for measurement of flare gas volumes, metering or estimation, each with its own positive and negative aspects Selection of the most appropriate method will usually depend on: the accuracy required the volume of flared gas to be measured and the degree of variability the liquid content of the gas availability of a specific meter type and the required support (calibration facilities, maintenance,...) Measurement generally requires a combination of methods to achieve best results (measurement & estimation) Measurement uncertainty analysis of full measurement chain essential Normally approached in stages to minimize disruption/cost Measurement is fundamental for regulatory and process purposes

20 Lessons from recent analysis of flaring regulatory regimes International Best Practice International Best Practice Evolving Framework Formal developed framework mixed results Formal developed framework mixed results No formal framework No formal framework 20

21 Lessons from recent analysis of flaring regulatory regimes Data is fundamental Regulation of flaring is critically dependent on access to reliable and consistent data. Data allows to: identify need for intervention monitor achievements and trends rapidly identify and respond to large increases in flaring Publication of data on company performance and field-by-field flaring volumes can support flaring reduction creates public pressure to improve, even where monetary penalties may be limited helps interested parties identify flared gas volumes which may be utilised 21

22 Final consideration Measurement is also important as Mexico uses data to assess options and commitments in international climate change negotiations (e.g. Copenhagen Accord, future post Kyoto agreements) Source: National Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), UNFCCC site 22

23 GGFR s Vision is Gracias por su atención Preguntas? Francisco Sucre Phone:

24 Back up slides

25 Mexico: Flares from the sky 25

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