# Power factor correction. An introduction to technology and techniques

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Power factor correction An introduction to technology and techniques

2 2 Contents Understanding power factor 03 Power factor correction 05 Implementing power factor correction techniques 06 Glossary 07 Further services 08

4 4 How is poor power factor caused? Figure 1 shows the relationship between useful and total power. The length of the heavy black line represents the useful power consumed by a 100kW machine, while the red line shows the power taken from the electrical system. The angle in the diagram ( ) shows the extent of the difference. In this diagram, significantly more power is needed to deliver 100kW of useful power 1. Figure 1 Relationship between total power and useful power kva Useful power kw 100 kw Power factor = Useful power = cos Reactive power kvar Reducing the effects of reactive power will cause the angle to get closer to 0º, meaning the power factor will get closer to unity. Power factor correction techniques can achieve this. Poor power factor has negative implications for businesses because it: Draws more current from the network costing more to achieve the same tasks. Can incur a poor power factor penalty from the supplier, sometimes called a reactive power charge. Reduces the effective capacity of the electrical supply, the more reactive power that is carried, the less useful power can be carried. Causes losses at transformers and other devices, leading to inefficiency and unwanted heat gains. Can cause excessive voltage drops in the supply network. Can reduce the life expectancy of electrical equipment in extreme cases. Which devices could have poor power factor? Reactive power will be consumed by all uncorrected reactive devices it is just a part of how they work. Commonly-used inductive devices include motors, welding sets, induction heaters and fluorescent lights. Inductive loads are not always easily identifiable, and the most certain way of identifying them is through a power factor survey. 1 here calculated as 100 cos.

7 7 Glossary Active power Apparent power Capacitor Harmonics Line filter Power factor Power factor correction (PFC) Reactive load Reactive power Resistive loads See useful power. See total power. An electrical device which can compensate for the effect of reactive power caused by inductive loads. Troublesome voltages at multiples of the mains frequency (50Hz) that can be introduced into an electricity supply by the presence of certain equipment, including inappropriately specified PFC equipment. A device that smooths the mains voltage to reduce the prominence of harmonics. A line filter is sometimes used in conjunction with PFC equipment to ensure there are no harmonic generation issues. The ratio of useful power to total power as drawn from an AC supply by an electrical device or installation. Power factor can also be expressed as the cosine of the angle that exists between total power and useful power vectors. A technique to compensate for poor power factor and thereby optimise the transfer of useful power into electrical equipment. A load characterised by the presence of an inductance or capacitance, such as is present in induction heaters, motors, fluorescent lights and welding sets. It consumes reactive power as well as useful power. Power that is consumed by the reactive nature of a device yet produces no useful work; can be either inductive or capacitive and is measured in kvar. A purely resistive load possesses no reactance, that is, it draws no reactive power and therefore has a power factor of 1.0 (or unity). Examples of resistive loads are incandescent lighting and resistive heating elements. The total power drawn by a device or installation including that consumed by its reactive nature; units in kva (thousands of Volt Amps). Also known as apparent power. Unity A term sometimes used to describe ideal power factor ratio, that is 1.0. Useful power Power that is consumed by a device when doing useful work. Note that, depending on the efficiency of the device itself, not all of the useful power is actually converted to work. Also known as active power.

8 8 Further services from the Carbon Trust The Carbon Trust advises businesses and public sector organisations on their opportunities in a sustainable, low carbon world. We offer a range of information, tools and services including: Website Visit us at for our full range of advice and services. Publications We have a library of publications detailing energy saving techniques for a range of sectors and technologies. Case Studies Our case studies show that it s often easier and less expensive than you might think to bring about real change. Carbon Trust Advisory Delivers strategic and operational advice on sustainable business value to large organisations. Carbon Trust Certification Delivers certification and verification services to companies and runs the Carbon Trust Standard and Carbon Reduction Label. Carbon Trust Implementation Delivers services to business in support of implementation of energy efficient equipment and energy efficiency financing.

### ECA272. The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies

ECA272 The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a

### The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies. A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances

The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances 2 Contents Boost your cash flow 03 1. Check it s on the Energy Technology

### Energy Efficiency Financing Unlock opportunities for additional sales. Supplier benefits. Financial Services provided by

Energy Efficiency Financing Unlock opportunities for additional sales Supplier benefits Financial Services provided by For your customers, investing in energy efficient equipment makes sound business and

### Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007

Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007 by Pamela Ackerman Prepared to partially fulfill the requirements for EE401 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

### Fact sheet. Conversion factors. Energy and carbon conversions 2011 update

Fact sheet Conversion factors Energy and carbon conversions 2011 update 1 Introduction This leaflet provides a number of useful conversion factors to help you calculate energy consumption in common units

### ECA272. The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies

ECA272 The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a

### Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements

Advanced metering for SMEs Carbon and cost savings Executive Summary The Carbon Trust would like to thank everyone who has contributed to this report, either through direct involvement in the trial, general

### The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies

The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a business to improve its cash flow through accelerated

### It doesn t take much energy to get a tax break

It doesn t take much energy to get a tax break Understanding the benefits of the Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme for Energy-Saving Investments Working together to save your business energy and money

### POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

[CATALOGUE PFC-SFC] POWER FACTOR CORRECTION INDUSTRIAL SWITCHGEAR & AUTOMATION SPECIALISTS A component of nhp s green star solution... www.nhp.com.au Power Factor - What does it mean? Where open electricity

### Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment. A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances 2 Contents Introduction 03 Background 03 Setting the scene 03 Benefits of purchasing ETL

### HOW HARMONICS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO MANY POWER FACTOR MISCONCEPTIONS

White Paper: MIRUS-TP003-A January 15, 2014 HOW HARMONICS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO MANY POWER FACTOR MISCONCEPTIONS Prepared by: Anthony (Tony) Hoevenaars, P. Eng President and CEO Mirus International Inc.

### Heating, ventilation and air conditioning zone controls

Technology information leaflet ECA762 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning zone controls A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances Contents Introduction 01 Background 01 Setting

### Power Factor The Basics

Power Factor The Basics OK. I ve heard a lot about this power factor stuff. What exactly is it? We hope to give you an easy explanation of what power factor is, and to answer the following most asked questions:

### How to monitor your energy use

How to monitor your energy use Why monitor energy? You can t manage what you don t measure. Good energy monitoring allows you to: Understand where and how energy is being used Identify areas where you

### Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

### 7. Reactive energy compensation

593 7. Reactive energy compensation 594 7. REACTIVE ENERGY COMPENSATION Reactive energy compensation is an important element for reducing the electricity bill and improving the quality of the electrical

### HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM

Technical Note No.3 March 2000 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM This Technical Note discusses harmonic distortion, its causes and adverse effects, what levels are unacceptable and how

### Electricity Terminology. Simplifying energy management

Simplifying energy management AMR Automated Meter Reading - automatic collection of data from meters which is transferred to a central database for billing and/or analysis. Balancing Mechanism The mechanism

### Motor Efficiency and Power Factor ME 416/516

Motor Efficiency and Power Factor Motivation More than half of all electric energy generated goes to power electric motors. Electric motor converts electric power into shaft power. In thermodynamics terms,

### factor max Delivering Electrical Efficiency INFORMATION PACK factor max

INFORMATION PACK Delivering Electrical Efficiency Where innovation leads the way is a Canadian company that distributes efficient energy saving devices for commercial and industrial customers. The solutions

### Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1

Experiment no 1 Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits Let v = m cos(ωt) = cos(ωt) is the voltage applied to a R-L circuit and i =

### Application Guide. Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics

Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics Introduction Power Factor, in simple terms, is a number between zero and one that represents the ratio of the real power to apparent power. Real power (P), measured

### A guide to reactive power

e-guide A guide to reactive power For large business customers 2/5 Changing energy prices explained What is reactive power and how is it measured? Reactive Power (kvarh) is the difference between working

### Power Factor in Electrical Energy Management

PDHonline Course E144 (4 PDH) Power Factor in Electrical Energy Management Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

### 2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

### UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES WHITE PAPER: TW0062 36 Newburgh Road Hackettstown, NJ 07840 Feb 2009 Alan Gobbi About the Author Alan Gobbi Alan Gobbi

### Module Title: Electrotechnology for Mech L7

CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITIÚID TEICNEOLAÍOCHTA CHORCAÍ Autumn Examinations 2012 Module Title: Electrotechnology for Mech L7 Module Code: ELEC7007 School: School of Mechanical, Electrical and Process

### Critical thin-film processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum

WHITEPAPER INTRODUCING POWER SUPPLIES AND PLASMA Critical thin-film processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum SYSTEMS chamber in the presence of a plasma. A plasma is an electrically

white paper Energy Cost Reduction through Load Balancing & Load Shedding SCR controllers firing in phase angle degrade the power factor while increasing harmonics and electrical noise. A poor power factor

### Energy Saving Fact Sheet Energy Management

Energy Saving Fact Sheet Energy Management Energy it s much more manageable than you think Energy is not an unmanageable overhead it is one of the largest controllable costs in most organisations. Cutting

### ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. I - Direct Current and Alternating Current Systems - N. Rajkumar DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS

DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS N. Rajkumar, Research Fellow, Energy Systems Group, City University Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK Keywords: Electrical energy, direct current, alternating

### Improvement of Power Factor for Industrial Plant with Automatic Capacitor Bank

Improvement of Power Factor for Industrial Plant with Automatic Capacitor Bank Marlar Thein Oo, Ei Ei Cho Abstract-This paper is intended to uplift the technological standard of industrial plants. The

### VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by

### RLC Resonant Circuits

C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document

### Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.

By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400-volt system, a 4160-volt

### Inverter technology. bulletin

Inverter technology application bulletin What is the inverter component? The inverter is an electronic power component that continuously varies the electricity supply frequency of an electric motor. The

### Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been

### The Quest for Energy Efficiency. A White Paper from the experts in Business-Critical Continuity

The Quest for Energy Efficiency A White Paper from the experts in Business-Critical Continuity Abstract One of the most widely discussed issues throughout the world today is the rapidly increasing price

### Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances 2 Contents Boost Introduction your cash flow 03 1. Background Check it s on the

### SECTION 26 09 13 - POWER MONITOR FOR ELECTRICAL, STEAM CONDENSATE, AND WATER PART I - GENERAL

SECTION 26 09 13 - POWER MONITOR FOR ELECTRICAL, STEAM CONDENSATE, AND WATER PART I - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. This section describes the requirements for the installation of Power Monitors and associated

### Rotary Phase Converters

FACTS from Ronk Electrical Industries, Inc. Bulletin 11981 Rotary Phase Converters ROTOVERTER Pat. No. 3,670,238 ROTO-CON Pat. No. 4,158,225 What are the ROTO-CON and ROTOVERTER power converters? The ROTO-CON

### 11. Assessment of service 12. S-phase supply 13. Water heaters NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA ELECTRICITY BY-LAWS T ABLE OF PROVISIONS

NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA ELECTRICITY BY-LAWS T ABLE OF PROVISIONS By-law PART I - PRELIMINARY 1. Citation 2. Repeal 3. Interpretation 4. Qualifications of inspector PART II - INSPECTORS PART III

### Managing new connections for your business. A guide to establishing a new electricity supply

Managing new connections for your business A guide to establishing a new electricity supply 1 of 6 Co-ordinating your new connections effectively Progressing from your first supply request to finally receiving

### SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

### Explaining How Voltage Optimisation Can Save Energy and Protect Your Site

Explaining How Voltage Optimisation Can Save Energy and Protect Your Site Introduction Voltage optimisation (VO) is a proven and effective technology that has been saving industry millions of pounds in

### PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDS-ON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER - BPA

PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDS-ON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER - BPA What are phasors??? In normal practice, the phasor represents the rms maximum value of the positive half cycle of the sinusoid

### Lecture Notes ELE A6

ecture Notes EE A6 Ramadan El-Shatshat Three Phase circuits 9/12/2006 EE A6 Three-phase Circuits 1 Three-phase Circuits 9/12/2006 EE A6 Three-phase Circuits 2 Advantages of Three-phase Circuits Smooth

Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 3, Number 6 (2013), pp. 765-770 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/aeee.htm Simulation of Cable Overloading

### ROYAL MAIL GROUP ADDRESS MANAGEMENT UNIT PAF DIRECT END USER LICENCE

ROYAL MAIL GROUP ADDRESS MANAGEMENT UNIT PAF DIRECT END USER LICENCE Introduction This licence permits the use of PAF Data by an end user. Details of other licences available for the use of PAF Data can

### Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19

Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms

### Impedance Matching. Using transformers Using matching networks

Impedance Matching The plasma industry uses process power over a wide range of frequencies: from DC to several gigahertz. A variety of methods are used to couple the process power into the plasma load,

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel. A series arrangement of components is where they are inline with each other, i.e. connected end-to-end. A parallel

### Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. White Paper #17

Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor White Paper #17 Executive Summary This paper explains the technical terms of Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. The use of these terms

### Fig.1 block of PFC using PIC. Index Terms:-power factor, PIC, Hardware

Power Factor Correction Using PIC Microcontroller Pranjali Sonje, Pursuing MTech, Bharati Vidyapeeth University college of Engineering, Pune Anagha Soman, Assistant Professor, Bharati Vidyapeeth University

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand single-phase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC

### Calculating Total Power Requirements for Data Centers

Calculating Total Power Requirements for Data Centers By Richard Sawyer White Paper #3 Executive Summary Part of data center planning and design is to align the power and cooling requirements of the IT

### Product Data Bulletin

Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Transformer (8341), Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321), Variable capacitance (8331)

Lab 5: Single-phase transformer operations. Objective: to examine the design of single-phase transformers; to study the voltage and current ratios of transformers; to study the voltage regulation of the

### (3 )Three Phase Alternating Voltage and Current

EEE 2015 EECTRCS (3) Monophase 1 Three phase Three phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. t is a type of polyphase system

### The Different Types of UPS Systems

The Different Types of UPS Systems By Neil Rasmussen White Paper #1 Revision 5 Executive Summary There is much confusion in the marketplace about the different types of UPS systems and their characteristics.

### AC Power. by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department

by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 1 Voltage Waveform Consider the

### Prepared By: Sheilani Binti Shaari Department of Electrical Engineering/PKB

Prepared By: Sheilani Binti Shaari Department of Electrical Engineering/ Course Learning Outcome (CLO) Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: Apply the principles of three phase systems,

### Effective: September 10, 2006 Vermont Attachment 1 to Rule 5.500 Public Service Board Page 1 of 6

Public Service Board Page 1 of 6 STANDARD APPLICATION FOR INTERCONNECTION OF GENERATION RESOURCES IN PARALLEL TO THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OF: (Interconnecting Utility) Preamble and Instructions: An owner of

### Analysis of Energy Consumption. ACME Limited

Analysis of Energy Consumption at ACME Limited by A.N. Energy Consultancy A report written using the BizEE Benchmark energy auditing software package developed by BizEE Software Ltd www.bizeesoftware.com

### Power surges can also be generated by equipment in your facility such as:

Power Quality Surge Suppressors What is Surge Protection A surge suppressor can be the first and best defense against the instant or gradual destruction of electrical equipment. Compared to the replacement

### Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka S S B Udugampala, V Vijayarajah, N T L W Vithanawasam, W M S C Weerasinghe, Supervised by: Eng J Karunanayake, Dr. K T M U Hemapala

### Chapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee

Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive

### Variable Frequency Drives - a Comparison of VSI versus LCI Systems

Variable Frequency Drives - a Comparison of VSI versus LCI Systems Introduction TMEIC is a leader in the innovative design and manufacture of large ac variable f requency drive systems. TMEIC has been

### High Voltage Power Supplies for Analytical Instrumentation

ABSTRACT High Voltage Power Supplies for Analytical Instrumentation by Cliff Scapellati Power supply requirements for Analytical Instrumentation are as varied as the applications themselves. Power supply

### Diode Applications. As we have already seen the diode can act as a switch Forward biased or reverse biased - On or Off.

Diode Applications Diode Switching As we have already seen the diode can act as a switch Forward biased or reverse biased - On or Off. Voltage Rectifier A voltage rectifier is a circuit that converts an

### Reactive Power and Importance to Bulk Power System OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ENGINEERING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

Reactive Power and Importance to Bulk Power System OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ENGINEERING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION Outline What is Reactive Power and where does it come from? Why is it important?

### Statement Of Work Professional Services

Statement Of Work Professional Services Data Center Electrical Efficiency Assessment Data Center Electrical Efficiency Assessment Service 1.0 Executive Summary Table of Contents 1.0 Executive Summary 2.0

### A Low Cost Power Quality and Energy Savings Laboratory for Undergraduate Education and Research

Session #3133 A Low Cost Power Quality and Energy Savings Laboratory for Undergraduate Education and Research Abdullatif Bagegni, Vance Poteat Merrimack College Abstract This paper describes the design

### 2 Wire Electronic Time Delay Switch. 2 Wire Slave Switch. 3 Wire Electronic Time Delay Switch

2 Wire Electronic Time Delay Switch Cat No. DS1 2 Wire Slave Switch Cat No. DSS 3 Wire Electronic Time Delay Switch Cat No. DS2 Installation & Operating Instructions DS1/DSS Instructions for Installation

### Design a Phase Interleaving PFC Buck Boost Converter to Improve the Power Factor

International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research ISSN 2351-8014 Vol. 11 No. 2 Nov. 2014, pp. 445-449 2014 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals http://www.ijisr.issr-journals.org/

### MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD

MOBILE SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS OF HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES (132KV/220KV) VLF-200 HVCD VERY LOW FREQUENCY (VLF) - PARTIAL DISCHARGES AND TANGENT DELTA HV/EHV POWER CABLES DIAGNOSTIC AND ON-SITE FIELD TESTING WITH

### Energy Saving Fact Sheet Boilers

Energy Saving Fact Sheet Boilers Turn a burning issue into real energy savings You need a boiler to heat your premises and provide hot water or to generate steam for use in industrial processes. Unfortunately,

### Managing bills and bank accounts

Managing bills and bank accounts This information is an extract from the booklet Managing your money day to day, which is part of our Financial guidance series. You may find the full booklet helpful. We

### POWER SUPPLY MODEL XP-15. Instruction Manual ELENCO

POWER SUPPLY MODEL XP-15 Instruction Manual ELENCO Copyright 2013 by Elenco Electronics, Inc. REV-A 753020 All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying,

### Inductors & Inductance. Electronic Components

Electronic Components Induction In 1824, Oersted discovered that current passing though a coil created a magnetic field capable of shifting a compass needle. Seven years later, Faraday and Henry discovered

### UPS Applications and VRLA Battery Sizing

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 41-7334 UPS Applications and VRLA Battery Sizing 41-7334/0213/CD www.cdtechno.com The uninterruptable power system (UPS) is used to protect critical equipment and processes from the

### Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321)

Lab 4: 3-phase circuits. Objective: to study voltage-current relationships in 3-phase circuits; to learn to make delta and Y connections; to calculate and measure real, apparent, and reactive powers. Equipment:

### Saving Energy For Your Organisation. Top 10 energy saving tips

Saving Energy For Your Organisation Top 10 energy saving tips How can you increase efficiency, reduce costs and cut your carbon emissions? The UK s Climate Change Act (2008) sets a legally-binding target

### GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta

GENERATOR SELECTION Generators must be sized to handle their load based on the continuous KW, kilowatt load, and KVA, kilovoltamp load, and the worst case starting load KW + KVA. They must be derated for

### The Case for Renewables in UK Business

The Case for Renewables in UK Business New incentives, energy market trends and building regulations have transformed the returns available to UK businesses from generating their own renewable energy Between

### Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module

Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working

### NATIONAL CERTIFICATE (VOCATIONAL)

NATIONAL CERTIFICATE (VOCATIONAL) SUBJECT GUIDELINES ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE NQF Level 4 September 2007 ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE LEVEL 4 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 DURATION AND TUITION

### ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only

ATTACHMENT F CATEGORY 2 GENERATOR INTERCONNECTION APPLICATION FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH AGGREGATE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF MORE THAN 20 KW BUT LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 150 KW Also Serves as Application for Category

ALL ABOUT LOAD SERVICE APPLICATION HOW-TO QUICK GUIDE New or expanded electrical connections: Getting power when and where you need it. To expedite your electricity service request, FortisAlberta has published

### INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION EQUIPMENT EDITION 2016. www.elipse-automation.eu

INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION EQUIPMENT EDITION 2016 Your partner in an automated industry Our combination of technical know-how, product responsibility and on-time deliveries guarantees you the best WHY CHOOSE

### Standard Electricity Prices and Charges *

Standard Electricity Prices and Charges * South West Interconnected System Effective *All prices quoted include GST and are subject to change. IMPORTANT: Customers need to assess each tariff and any associated

### Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

### Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Test (CTT) Study Guide

Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Test (CTT) Study Guide 1 05/2014 Study Guide for Pacific Gas & Electric Company Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Qualifying Test (CTT) About the Test The

### Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings

WHITE PAPER Cooling Capacity Factor (CCF) Reveals Stranded Capacity and Data Center Cost Savings By Lars Strong, P.E., Upsite Technologies, Inc. Kenneth G. Brill, Upsite Technologies, Inc. 505.798.0200

### LOW COST MOTOR PROTECTION FILTERS FOR PWM DRIVE APPLICATIONS STOPS MOTOR DAMAGE

LOW COST MOTOR PROTECTION FILTERS FOR PWM DRIVE APPLICATIONS STOPS MOTOR DAMAGE Karl M. Hink, Executive Vice President Originally presented at the Power Quality 99 Conference ABSTRACT Motor protection

### Energy Saving Fact Sheet Air Conditioning

Energy Saving Fact Sheet Air Conditioning Get your air conditioning into better shape Everyone wants air conditioning. But don t let your existing system, or one that you re considering installing, burn