1 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances
2 2 Contents Boost Introduction your cash flow Background Check it s on the Energy Technology List 03 Setting 2. Complete the scene your business tax return Benefits Start saving of purchasing from day ETL one listed products What HVAC technologies equipment eligible qualify? 07 under the ECA scheme 05 Find out more about ECAs and the ETL 07 HVAC zone controls 06 Close control air conditioning equipment 09 Further information 11
3 3 Introduction Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a business to improve its cash flow through accelerated tax relief. The scheme encourages businesses to invest in energy saving plant or machinery specified in the Energy Technology List (ETL) to help reduce carbon emissions, which contribute to climate change. The ETL is a register of products that may be eligible for 100% tax relief under the ECA scheme for energy saving technologies 1. The Carbon Trust manages the list and promotes the ECA scheme on behalf of government. This leaflet gives an overview of equipment specified in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning category on the ETL and illustrates the reductions in energy bills that can be realised by investing in qualifying ETL energy saving equipment over non-qualifying equipment. Background The ETL comprises two lists: the Energy Technology Criteria List (ETCL) and the Energy Technology Product List (ETPL). The ETCL defines the performance criteria that equipment must meet to qualify for ECA scheme support; the ETPL is the list of products that have been assessed as being compliant with ETCL criteria. Further information For more information on HVAC, visit technology-and-energy-management-publications or download the Carbon Trust s Heating, ventilation and air conditioning overview (CTV046) Setting the scene Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment can be used for a range of environmental conditioning and control applications in buildings. It includes equipment that provides heating, cooling and ventilation and equipment that allows the environmental conditions in a zone (specific controlled area) to be independently controlled to meet the desired conditions. This allows environmental parameters such as internal air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation to be controlled in relation to thermal heat gains and losses and occupancy patterns. Close control air conditioning equipment is used to control the temperature (and relative humidity where necessary) in rooms and enclosures containing heat generating equipment, such as servers, computers or telecommunications devices, and in some types of manufacturing process (e.g. clean rooms). Other applications include: rooms or buildings that contain temperature and humidity sensitive equipment such as calibration and test areas. processes which require clean environments, for example electronics and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Close control air conditioning equipment is often used in areas that require constant high levels of cooling and therefore use large amounts of energy. The use of energy efficient close control air conditioning equipment, such as that listed on the ETL, can result in significant energy savings and, therefore, reduced energy bills. In buildings without individual zone control, levels of heating and/or cooling can be the same throughout the building. This can result in large amounts of energy wastage and associated high CO 2 emissions. Splitting the building into a number of separate zones can provide control that more closely matches the desired conditions and actual occupancy patterns. The selection of control zones will be influenced by the following: Internal heating/cooling requirements based on the number of occupants, amount of office/it equipment and other sources of heat in different areas of the building. Occupancy patterns whether separate parts of the building are occupied for different time periods, for example, a single area with 24-hour occupancy or evening work. 1 Eligibility for ECAs is based on a number of factors. Visit to find out more.
4 4 External heat gains increased solar gain on southerly facing areas of the building. The technologies specified in the HVAC category are: HVAC zone controls. Close Control Air Conditioning Equipment. The functionality of an HVAC zone controller will depend on the specific intended application; however, an example zone controller is shown below. Figure 1 Schematic of a zone controller Other HVAC technologies, such as boilers, optimising controls, heat pumps and chillers, are described in other technology areas of the ETL. Analogue input(s) from sensors Control strategy Analogue output to value(s) The level of energy savings resulting from the use of zone controls will depend on the specific application, however, properly installed and commissioned controls typically provide energy savings of around 20% 2 over systems without this level of control. In recognition of this, The Building Regulations Approved Document L2A (ADL2A). Conservation of fuel and power in new buildings other than dwellings (2010) advises that, in order to achieve compliance, HVAC systems should be sub-divided into separate control zones to correspond to each area of the building that has a significantly different solar exposure or pattern or type of use. Each separate control zone should be capable of independent timing and temperature control and, where appropriate, ventilation and air circulation rate. Also if heating and cooling are provided in the same zone, they should be controlled so as not to operate simultaneously. In addition, they should also meet the specific control and efficiency standards are laid out in the 2010 Non-Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide (NDBSGC). For existing buildings, Approved Document L2B (ADL2B) Conservation of fuel and power in existing buildings other than dwellings requires this level of zone control where work involves the provision or extension of controlled services (i.e. HVAC systems). Binary input(s) Operational parameters Binary output to switch equipment on/off The HVAC zone controller will have a factory-set control strategy for each function. There will also be manual settings for variable operational parameters, which are initially set during the commissioning stage. Examples include zone occupation times, desired internal temperatures and levels of ventilation. The zone controller will have one or more control inputs such as that from an internal air temperature sensor (analogue input) and/or binary inputs, for example from an occupancy presence detector. Control outputs can include analogue outputs (for example, a control signal to adjust the position of a valve) or binary outputs to switch an item of equipment on or off. Some zone controllers can be connected together using a communications network, to an overall controller. This allows the sharing of data, for example, readings of external air temperature can be shared between individual zone controllers on a network. It should be remembered that the control specifications in the ADLs and NDBSGC are minimum standards and those listed in the ETL have far more functionality. HVAC zone controls can also help optimise occupant comfort, health and productivity. In a building with a single control zone, areas within the building may be either over-heated or under-cooled. This will cause occupants discomfort and have a detrimental impact on their productivity. By splitting the building into an appropriate number of control zones, the comfort of the occupants can be improved, which normally results in increased productivity.
5 5 Benefits of purchasing ETL listed products Close control air conditioning products listed on the ETL can use significantly less energy than non-etl listed products. ETL listed products achieve a higher overall energy efficiency by using more efficient components such as compressors, heat exchangers and controls, and may also incorporate free cooling coils. HVAC zone control products listed on the ETL are those that facilitate a more efficient operation of HVAC systems to ensure that energy is consumed only when required, reducing energy waste and CO 2 emissions. An average site can potentially achieve energy savings of between 8% and 30% 2,3 through correct application of ETL listed HVAC zone controls. When replacing equipment, businesses are often tempted to opt for that with the lowest capital cost; however, such immediate cost savings can prove to be a false economy. Considering the life cycle cost before investing in equipment can help reduce costs and improve cash flow in the longer term. The ECA scheme provides businesses with 100% first year tax relief on their qualifying capital expenditure. This means that businesses can write off the whole cost of the equipment against taxable profits in the year of purchase. This can provide a cash flow boost and an incentive to invest in energy saving equipment which normally carries a price premium when compared to less efficient alternatives. This leaflet also illustrates the reductions in energy consumption, carbon emissions and energy bills that can be realised by investing in qualifying ETL energy saving equipment over non-qualifying equipment. Important Businesses purchasing equipment must check the ETPL at the time of purchase in order to verify that the named product they intend to purchase is designated as energy saving equipment. HVAC zone control equipment that meets the ETL eligibility criteria but is not listed on the Energy Technology Product List (ETPL) at the time of purchase is not eligible for an ECA. HVAC equipment eligible under the ECA scheme HVAC equipment eligible under the ECA scheme includes the following two categories; HVAC zone control equipment and close control air conditioning equipment. These are described below. HVAC zone controls 4 The ECA Scheme covers HVAC zone controls that are specifically designed to automatically control in an energy efficient manner, the amount of heating, cooling, ventilation or air conditioning that is applied to individual rooms or defined areas within a building, known as zones. In general, these controls are applied to five types of HVAC equipment: Wet (hydronic) heating systems. Underfloor or storage heating wet systems and electric heating. Ventilation. Air conditioning and comfort cooling. Chilled water systems. NOTE: In practice many zone controls may regulate more than one system within the zone, i.e. both the heating and ventilation; however, this will depend on the specific application. Wet heating system The use of zone controls for hydronic heating systems is important to ensure that overheating is avoided. ETL compliant zone controls can be applied to constant and variable flow approaches to wet heating system control. The schematic diagram below illustrates the use of a zone controller applied to a constant volume/variable temperature zone heating circuit. 2 CTL025 How to implement electric heater controls, Carbon Trust, 3 CTV032 Building controls - Realising savings through the use of controls, Carbon Trust, August 2007, 4 The descriptions of the HVAC zone controls given in this leaflet are examples only and do not constitute ECA eligibility. The formal criteria and details governing the ECA scheme can be found at
6 6 Figure 2 Constant volume/variable temperature zone heating circuit Common header Primary inlet Pump Flow temp. sensor Zone controller require visually unobtrusive heat emitters. Figure 3 shows a simplified two-zone underfloor hydronic heating system. Each heating zone has its own controller that allows for the independent regulation of the heated water in response to the internal air temperature and a defined occupancy time schedule. Secondary return Mixing inlet Load Zone air temp. sensor Outside air temp. sensor Figure 3 Hydronic underfloor heating Flow Flow bar Return With this approach, the zone controller will activate the heating circuit based on the set time schedule for the zone. This allows different time schedules for different zones. The temperature of the water flowing through the heat emitters (e.g. radiators) is regulated by the zone controller based on the internal air temperature and an outside air temperature sensor. This type of weather compensation is a requirement for ETL compliant products. Other features of ETL compliant products include optimum start. This activates the heating circuit at an early enough time in the morning to ensure that the zone air temperature reaches the desired set-point by the beginning of occupancy and not several hours earlier. ETL compliant zone controls can also control non-hydronic heating systems including electric storage heating, gasfired convection heaters and gas-fired radiant heaters. For the installation of wet heating zone controls where none previously existed within a typical 1,000m 2 naturally ventilated cellular office building, using 151kWh/m2/year for space heating, the potential annual savings at 20% are calculated as: ,200kWh. 5.5 tonnes CO 2. Underfloor heating Underfloor heating systems can be used in buildings where there is a danger of people injuring themselves, where there is a risk of vandalism, and in areas that Zone controller Heating circuit 1 Outside air temp. Floor surface temp. Zone air temp. Zone controller Mixer manifold Heating circuit 2 Electrothermic head Zone controller The alternative to hydronic underfloor heating is electric underfloor heating, provided by coils buried in the floor. This can either be controlled by the zone temperature or by varying the current supplied to the underfloor heating circuit. A zone high-temperature override disables the electrical control signal when the air temperature in the zone rises above a certain temperature. In order to avoid damaging the floor surface a high-temperature override disables the electrical current when the floor temperature rises above a temperature set-point. For the installation of electric underfloor heating zone controls where none previously existed within a typical 1,000m 2 naturally ventilated cellular office building, using 151kWh/m2/year on heating, the potential annual savings at 20% are calculated as: 2, ,200kWh tonnes CO 2.
7 7 Ventilation With improvements in building fabric insulation and levels of air-tightness (reduced air infiltration), the relative contribution that ventilation makes to a building s energy consumption is increasing. The ventilation to a zone can be controlled by the following means: Time schedules this is the most basic level of automatic control and allows for automatic switch on/ off in relation to set occupancy patterns. This form of control is suitable where the level of occupancy is fairly consistent and/or predictable. Where this is not the case, ventilation control can be improved by using zone controls that allow the occupants to alter the fan speed and hence vary the ventilation rate. Occupancy detection this allows for the automatic switch on/off of the ventilation system if occupancy is detected in the zone. This helps to reduce energy consumption by ensuring that the ventilation system only operates when the zone is occupied. There is a range of occupancy detection products, the most common being passive infrared (PIR). Occupancy detection can be suitable for zones that are intermittently occupied. Examples include conference facilities and storage areas. Figure 4 Demand-controlled ventilation Air supply CO2 sensor Ventilation zone Signal from CO2 sensor Zone controller Air handling unit Fan speed control signal For installation of ventilation zone controls where none previously existed within a typical 5,000m 2 air-conditioned office building, using 109kWh/m2/ year electricity and 178kWh/m2/kWh of gas for space heating and cooling, the potential annual savings at 20% are calculated as: 3, ,400kWh tonnes CO 2. Demand-controlled ventilation this approach allows for the optimisation of energy consumption and indoor air quality. Typically, levels of metabolic CO 2 are measured and used as a control input (the greater the occupancy density, the higher the level of CO 2 ). The speed of the ventilation fan is controlled to give a desired level of CO 2. Demand-controlled ventilation is suitable when levels of occupancy within the zone are highly variable and where good indoor air quality is important (for example in a conference room). Figure 4 illustrates the control of a demand-controlled ventilation system.
8 8 Air conditioning and comfort cooling There are a wide range of air conditioning and comfort cooling systems, including constant air volume systems, variable air volume systems (VAV), fan coils and heat pumps. As with hydronic heating systems, zone controls can play an important role in ensuring that air conditioning and comfort cooling systems maintain desired internal conditions without wasting energy. The schematic diagram below illustrates the control of a fan coil unit (waterside control). For the installation of cooling system zone controls where none previously existed within a typical 1,000m 2 air-conditioned office building, using 109kWh/m2/year electricity for space cooling, the potential annual savings at 20% are calculated as: 1, ,800kWh tonnes CO 2. Figure 5 Fan coil unit (waterside control) Zone air temp. Heating Cooling Air from AHU or zone + Fan coil controller Fan operation Fan speed Cooling value Heating value Fan Supply air to zone Chilled water systems Chilled water systems comprise chillers that generate chilled water and their associated equipment such as heat rejection units and pumps. By their nature, chilled water systems are centralised and usually located in a plant room. The generated chilled water is distributed to items of equipment such as fan coil units, close control air conditioning equipment and chilled ceilings/beams located throughout a building. Chillers are normally supplied with controls already installed and configured by the manufacturer. It is the supply of chilled water produced by a chiller that is controlled at the zone level by zone controllers. Information for purchasers A fan coil unit provides heating and cooling to the surrounding zone, whilst aiding zone air distribution. Outside air can be supplied to the unit or the zone either directly from outside, or from an air handling unit. The unit incorporates a fan, a heating coil and a chilled water-cooling coil, and also induces air from the surrounding zone. The coils are controlled to achieve the required supply air temperature to the zone; if supplied with water they utilise three-port mixing valves in a diverting application to obtain the required heating/ cooling effect. The operation of the coils is sequenced so that heating and cooling are never provided at the same time. The fan can either be: For further information about the ECA scheme, the Energy Technology List (ETL) and other Technology Information Leaflets in the series please visit or contact the Carbon Trust on +44 (0) or constant speed; two-speed; or variable speed. Variable speed control can be achieved with the use of DC electric motors to drive the fan.
9 9 Close control air conditioning equipment Close control air conditioning equipment is designed to control the temperature in rooms and enclosures containing heat-generating equipment, or processes with high sensible heat loads. It also offers the option to control relative humidity. ETL listed close control air conditioning products must have a sensible cooling capacity to total cooling capacity ratio of at least 90%. Close control air conditioning units are typically used: in rooms containing servers or other computer, electronic and telecommunications related equipment; or where temperature sensitive industrial or laboratory processes are carried out. This equipment often operates continuously and has a much higher sensible cooling load requirement per unit floor area than conventional air conditioning applications. Close control air conditioning accounts for around 40% of all UK packaged air conditioning energy consumption and around 20% of the entire air conditioning sector 5. Energy savings may be delivered by selecting more energy efficient close control air conditioning products. Manufacturers can make more energy efficient products by using more efficient components such as fans and fan motors, compressors, electronic expansion valves and larger heat exchangers, and by incorporating free cooling coils. Close control air conditioning products may either consist of a single-packaged unit, or two or more factory built subassemblies that are designed to be connected together during installation. A unit may contain an electrically powered compressor(s) and/or incorporate a chilled water cooling coil for connection to an external chilled water (CHW) circuit. Close control air conditioners containing an electrically powered compressor The diagrams below show a number of potential different configurations for close control air conditioning equipment that incorporates an electrically powered compressor. Figure 6 Direct expansion system (DX) air cooled (without free cooling) close control air conditioning units Indoor unit Evaporator Compressor Heat in Indoor unit Refrigerant pipes Outdoor unit Condenser Heat out Figure 7 DX air cooled with integral chilled water free cooling coil(s) close control air conditioning units Evaporator & free cooling coil Compressor Indoor unit Heat in Outdoor unit Heat Refrigerant pipes out Chilled water pipes Figure 8 DX water cooled (without free cooling) close control air conditioning units CHW/free cooling system Evaporator Heat in Compressor Condenser CHW system 5 DEFRA market Transformation Programme Air Conditioning Sector Model.
10 10 The following assumptions have been made in these scenarios: Electricity price 9p/kWh. Electricity CO 2 emission factor: CO 2 /kwh. Annual savings do not degrade. Chilled water (CHW) close control air conditioners Chilled water (CHW) close control air conditioning units contain a chilled water cooling coil for connection to an external chilled water (CHW) circuit. Indoor unit Figure 9 DX water cooled with integral chilled water free cooling coil(s) close control air conditioning units CHW cooling coil Heat in Indoor unit Evaporator & free cooling coil Compressor Heat in Condenser Based on the following scenario: CHW/free cooling system For the installation of an ETL listed 60 kw DX aircooled close control air conditioning unit in place of an existing non ECA-listed unit, the potential annual savings are calculated as: 1, ,250kWh. 9.6 tonnes CO 2. Installation of one 60kW DX air-cooled close control air conditioning unit with an average EER of 2.7. Based on the following scenario: CHW system For the installation of an ETL listed 80kW chilled water close control air conditioning unit in place of an existing non ECA-listed unit, the potential annual savings are calculated as: 1, ,087kWh. 11 tonnes CO 2. Installation of one 80kW chilled water close control air conditioning unit with an average EER of Replacement of a 80kW chilled water close control air conditioning unit with an average EER of The close control air conditioning unit operates for 365 days a year at an average load of 75%. Replacement of a 60kW DX air-cooled close control air conditioning unit with an average EER of 2.4. The close control air conditioning unit operates for 365 days a year at an average load of 75%.
11 11 Go online to get more The Carbon Trust provides a range of tools, services and information to help you implement energy and carbon saving measures, no matter what your level of experience. Empower Savings Calculator Calculate your organisation s potential carbon savings with our online calculator. Empower has been configured entirely around the employee, to help them see that through simple behavioural changes, their individual efforts add up to make a bigger difference. Carbon Surveys We provide surveys to organisations in Scotland and Wales with annual energy bills of more than 30,000*. Our carbon experts will visit your premises to identify energy saving opportunities and offer practical advice on how to achieve them. Events and Workshops The Carbon Trust offers a variety of events and workshops ranging from introductions to our services, to technical energy efficiency training, most of which are free in Scotland and Wales. about-us/events Publications We have a library of free publications detailing energy saving techniques for a range of sectors and technologies. SME Network An online community for SMEs with the aim of increasing the sharing of best practice between SMEs looking to reduce carbon emissions from their estate and operations. * Subject to terms and conditions.
12 ECA762 The Carbon Trust is an independent, expert partner of leading organisations around the world, helping them contribute to and benefit from a more sustainable world. Advice We advise businesses, governments and the public sector on their opportunities in a sustainable low carbon world Footprinting We measure and certify the environmental footprint of organisations, products and services Technology We help develop and deploy low carbon technologies and solutions, from energy efficiency to renewable power (0) The Carbon Trust receives funds from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government. The Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme for energy saving equipment is run by the Carbon Trust on behalf of Government. Whilst reasonable steps have been taken to ensure that the information contained within this publication is correct, the authors, the Carbon Trust, its agents, contractors and sub-contractors give no warranty and make no representation as to its accuracy and accept no liability for any errors or omissions. Any trademarks, service marks or logos used in this publication, and copyright in it, are the property of the Carbon Trust. Nothing in this publication shall be construed as granting any licence or right to use or reproduce any of the trademarks, service marks, logos, copyright or any proprietary information in any way without the Carbon Trust s prior written permission. The Carbon Trust enforces infringements of its intellectual property rights to the full extent permitted by law The Carbon Trust is a company limited by guarantee and registered in England and Wales under Company Number with its Registered Office at: 4th Floor, Dorset House, Stamford Street, London SE1 9NT. Published in the UK: October The Carbon Trust All rights reserved. ECA762
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances 2 Contents Introduction 03 Background 03 Setting the scene 03 Benefits of purchasing ETL
Technology information leaflet ECA762 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning zone controls A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances Contents Introduction 01 Background 01 Setting
The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies A guide to equipment eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances 2 Contents Boost your cash flow 03 1. Check it s on the Energy Technology
ECA272 The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a
ECA272 The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a
The Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme for energy-saving technologies Boost your cash flow Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECAs) are a straightforward way for a business to improve its cash flow through accelerated
North Lanarkshire Council The Business Case Annual fuel cost savings of 26% worth more than 28,000 The Sir Matt Busby Sports Complex is an important local facility for the people of Bellshill, North Lanarkshire.
HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING as part of the Energy Efficiency Information Grants Program Heating and cooling can account for approximately 23 % of energy use in pubs and hotels 1. Reducing heating
Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same
your comfort. our world. DNSS EcoSave A/C remote monitoring and malfunction prediction What is DNSS EcoSave? The Daikin Network Service System (DNSS EcoSave) is a Daikin developed internet based remote
International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES
Power factor correction An introduction to technology and techniques 2 Contents Understanding power factor 03 Power factor correction 05 Implementing power factor correction techniques 06 Glossary 07 Further
Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,
Fact sheet Conversion factors Energy and carbon conversions 2011 update 1 Introduction This leaflet provides a number of useful conversion factors to help you calculate energy consumption in common units
AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries Hot tips and cool ideas to save energy and money! Air conditioning units or systems are often used by foundries
Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) A. General Information Climate Zone: Building Type: Conditioned Area (sf): Reviewer's Name: Reviewer's Agency: Note: Design Review for each system/subsystem
Advanced metering for SMEs Carbon and cost savings Executive Summary The Carbon Trust would like to thank everyone who has contributed to this report, either through direct involvement in the trial, general
ENERGY SAVING STUDY IN A HOTEL HVAC SYSTEM J.S. Hu, Philip C.W. Kwong, and Christopher Y.H. Chao Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay,
Energy Efficiency Financing Unlock opportunities for additional sales Supplier benefits Financial Services provided by For your customers, investing in energy efficient equipment makes sound business and
HVAC Processes Lecture 7 Targets of Lecture General understanding about HVAC systems: Typical HVAC processes Air handling units, fan coil units, exhaust fans Typical plumbing systems Transfer pumps, sump
Condensing Boiler Efficiency Date: July 17, 2012 PRES E NT ED BY DO N L E O NA RDI LE O N A RD I I NC. HV AC T RAI N I N G & C ON SU LT IN G Concepts 1 The current state of evolution in boiler design 2
Information Guide Domestic Air Source Heat Pumps Issue 41 Domestic Air Source Heat Pumps This is an independent guide produced by Mitsubishi Electric to enhance the knowledge of its customers and provide
Is an air source heat pump the right choice for my home? Important information and key things to consider before installing an air source heat pump The basics... This guide can help you make an informed
Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Introduction to thermal distribution systems and their functions (Section
Optimization of Water - Cooled Chiller Cooling Tower Combinations by: James W. Furlong & Frank T. Morrison Baltimore Aircoil Company The warm water leaving the chilled water coils is pumped to the evaporator
Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics A Presentation of Work in Progress 4 October 2006 in the Intelligent
HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY Benson Kwong, CVS, PE, CEM, LEED AP, CCE envergie consulting, LLC Biography Benson Kwong is an independent consultant providing
INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS AND HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT SECTION O HVAC systems or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning systems control the environment for people and equipment in our facilities.
HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct
Energy Saving Fact Sheet Boilers Turn a burning issue into real energy savings You need a boiler to heat your premises and provide hot water or to generate steam for use in industrial processes. Unfortunately,
- White Paper - State of the Art Energy Efficient Data Centre Air Conditioning - Dynamic Free Cooling - Release 2, April 2008 Contents ABSTRACT... 3 1. WHY DO I NEED AN ENERGY EFFICIENT COOLING SYSTEM...
OEH Energy Efficient HVAC for Business Training Course www.environment.nsw.gov.au/training Presenter: Chris Warris, BCW Carbon and Energy Agenda for Today Overview of OEH Energy Efficiency Training Program
Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA s Environmental Security Computing Center in Fairmont, West Virginia Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program
DAikin Altherma low temperature heat pump HEATING, COOLING & DOMESTIC HOT WATER end user leaflet 2 The natural choice D 3 in1: heating, cooling and hot water Daikin Altherma is a total heating and domestic
Heat Recovery Dehumidification (HRD) system Designed for municipal swimming pools A dehumidification and ventilation system with dynamic heat pump heat recovery to swimming pool water and air ENVIRONMENTAL
LBNL-6129E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues Liping Wang, Tianzhen Hong Environmental
www.lgeaircon.com New concept Ecofriendly Highefficiency Heating solution Total heating & Hot water Solution for MULTI V LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning 2 Yeouidodong, Yeongdeungpogu,
Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment
HVAC Simplified Approach Option Part I Project Address: City: HVAC System Designer of Record: Date: Zip: Qualification The building is 2 stories or less in height and has a gross floor area is less than
1 1. What percent of a commercial business s energy usage comes from their HVAC system? A. 13% B. 23% C. 33% D. 43% E. 53% 2. How much money do commercial facilities spend per square foot on energy costs
The natural ombination DAikin Altherma Hybrid heat pump system The future is now The new hybrid system Heat pump solution for gas boiler replacement market Daikin Altherma hybrid combines heat pump technology
Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision Air Conditioning Today s technology rooms require precise, stable environments in order for sensitive electronics to operate optimally. Standard comfort air
Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical
Building HVAC Load Profiling Using EnergyPlus Dong Wang School of EEE Nanyang Technological University Singapore Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abhisek Ukil, Senior Member, IEEE School of EEE Nanyang Technological
Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools and High Performance Buildings Today s Presenters Stephen Koontz, LEED AP Energy Services Leader Tampa Bay Trane Allen Irvine General Sales Manager
Domestic Heating s with Better Controls Martin O Hara Danfoss Randall Limited, Ampthill Road, Bedford, MK42 9ER, England Abstract: This paper presents results of system testing with 3 different domestic
Hybrid heat pumps saving energy and reducing carbon emissions Bart Aspeslagh Product planning and new technology manager, Daikin Europe NV. email@example.com Stefanie Debaets Design engineer,
Draft UCL Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Policy Page 1 of 7 UCL Estates UCL Heating, Cooling & UCL Heating, Cooling and Document Owner UCL Estates Leadership Team is the Owner of this document. Distribution
Non-Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide 2013 edition for use in England* * Note: Any reference to the Building Regulations in this guide is to the Building Regulations 2010 in England (as amended).
Ener.co & Viridian Energy & Env. Using Data Loggers to Improve Chilled Water Plant Efficiency Randy Mead, C.E.M, CMVP Introduction Chilled water plant efficiency refers to the total electrical energy it
Proceedings of Building Simulation 211: ENERGY SAVING BY COOPERATIVE OPERATION BETWEEN DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING PLANT AND BUILDING HVAC SYSTEM Yoshitaka Uno 1, Shinya Nagae 1, Yoshiyuki Shimoda 1 1
APPLICATION GUIDE Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application Section Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Introduction Most commercial HVAC systems
Feed in Tariffs for Microgeneration Jos Mister Energy Saving Trust Funding and Finance Feed in Tariffs Clean Energy Cashback April 2010 Renewable Heat Incentive April 2011 Business support Enhanced Capital
Guidelines for energy efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems If you're a designer or a BCA, this guidance on the energy efficiency of HVAC systems in commercial buildings may
FinAnswer Express Utah Incentive Catalog Effective as of May 19, 2012 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy-efficient technologies.
your comfort. our world. Daikin Altherma Hybrid Heat Pump Smart heating technology for the best of both worlds Heating Integrated Solutions Ventilation Air Conditioning Refrigeration Forward thinking About
Opening Throttled Discharge Valves This 21-story building, constructed in 1997, is located in Oregon and contains 589,000 gross square feet of mostly office occupancy. The HVAC system includes six large
Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration
Data Center Energy Profiler Questions Checklist Step 1 Case Name Date Center Company State/Region County Floor Area Data Center Space Floor Area Non Data Center Space Floor Area Data Center Support Space
Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water An independently produced White Paper for Rinnai UK 2013 www.rinnaiuk.com In the 35 years since direct hot water systems entered the UK commercial
Life Cycle Costing Analysis of Water-cooled Chillers Chillventa Nuremburg, Germany Spring 2012 Description Life Cycle Cost Analysis is a method of determining and comparing the total costs of investment
Daikin Altherma Hybrid Heat Pump Smart technology for the best of both worlds NATIONAL HEAT PUMP 19 JUNE 2014 ICC BIRMINGHAM WINNER Forward thinking Now is the time to rethink the way we heat our homes
GENERAL: This section provides general standards for overall sizing and design of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Other sections contain specific standards for each system per
Drives and motors A guide to using variable-speed drives and motors in retail environments Improving energy efficiency and lowering the carbon footprint Retailers across the UK take their corporate responsibility
Section 2: Estimating Energy Savings and Incentives 2.1 Estimating Energy Savings and Incentives... 2 2.2 Customized Measures - Estimation Software... 2 2.2.1 AC&R I - High Efficiency Chiller... 3 2.2.2
Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings J A NUARY 2015 INTRODUCTION This Research Report explores best practices and approaches for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)
HVAC for Schools A Comprehensive Look at Products for a Clean, Comfortable Learning Environment Why Schools Choose Lennox Even as resources for schools continue to be constrained, education leaders and
Recommissioning Application Business Customer Information Company name Date submitted Building address City State ZIP Mailing address (if different) City State ZIP Contact person (print) Phone Fax E-mail*
Failure code manual content 一 wall split AC series 2 二 floor standing AC series. 4 三 portable AC series.. 5 四 dehumidifer 6 五 DC inverter single split series...7 六 DC inverter multi-split series 10 1 一
Nordic Heat Pump Product Guide About Maritime Geothermal Maritime Geothermal is a privately owned, Canadian based manufacturer of geothermal heat pumps. We began manufacturing the Nordic line of heat pumps
SUMMARY REPORT MAY 2008 SIMULATION OF RADIANT COOLING PERFORMANCE WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING SOURCES Timothy Moore Center for the Built Environment (CBE) University of California, Berkeley May 2008 EXECUTIVE
A PRIMER Educational HVAC For Schools How to purchase an HVAC system that meets your school s unique requirements and stays within your budget Contents: Introduction: The best HVAC system is durable, reliable
Heating / Ventilation / Air Conditioning Room Climate Control with ABB i-bus KNX Content Heating / Ventilation / Air Conditioning 3 The Right Room Climate 4 Optimised Energy Efficiency and well-being Room
Overview This Unit covers the competences required to inspect complex/central air conditioning systems as defined by the CIBSE TM 44 Figure 1.1: Summary of system types and their component parts. The air
COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT Air-Cooled Chillers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They
QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN REPLACING YOUR HVAC TOGETHERWESAVE.COM TOGETHERWESAVE.COM IS IT TIME TO REPLACE YOUR HVAC SYSTEM? If your heating and cooling system is 15 to 20 years old and is experiencing problems,
Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2006 Study on Performance Evaluation of a Split Air Conditioning System Under
Florida Power & Light Company Business Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) Program Standards Effective: November 9, 2015 Table of Contents Eligibility Requirements - Chiller... 2 Rebate Amount
PROTOCOL FOR BUILDING ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE For Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings Version 2006.1 AUSTRALIAN BUILDING CODES BOARD JANUARY 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 1. Scope 2. Purpose and context
A buyer s guide to heat pumps To find out more about installing a heat pump call 0300 123 1234 or visit energysavingtrust.org.uk What are heat pumps? Heat pumps extract available heat from a natural source
Par Hill Research Reducing air pollution from your building - a series of manuals for operators, designers & developers Manual A - Minimising air pollution during building use Factsheet A1 - Laws & Regulations
ROTEX gas hybrid heat pump A strong team. The new ROTEX HPU hybrid gas hybrid heat pump always selects the most favourable heating mode automatically. For a long time the general opinion was that a heat
Objectives Increase awareness of the types of economizers currently used for data centers Provide designers/owners with an overview of the benefits and challenges associated with each type Outline some
Integrated Solar Radiant Systems William Shady PE President Topics Radiant heating Indoor air quality Radiant Cooling Project Photos Questions and answers The goal for our clients Healthy Comfort Why Radiant
SASO XXXX:2016 (Including the modifications approved in Saudi Council Board No. XXX/2016) LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS OF TESTING 1 LARGE CAPACITY AIR CONDITIONERS
VE 220.127.116.11: Thermal / Systems Pack 1. Tabular Room Data editing for thermal properties There is a new button in Apache, UK Part L2, and PRM Tabular Room Data. This tool represents a real productivity enhancement
The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, May 29. Copyright 29 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes only.