STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER NINE THE ANCIENT ROMANS. What civilization on the Italian peninsula came before the Roman Republic?

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1 Know the map information for the exam. Retell the legend of Rome's beginning STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER NINE THE ANCIENT ROMANS What civilization on the Italian peninsula came before the Roman Republic? The book describes this civilization as a collection of city-states, like those in Greece, organized in a confederation. Define confederation By what date does the textbook say the Etruscans had control of Rome? What is a republic? Describe the following in regards to Rome: Consul- Dictator- Senate- Patrician- Plebeian- How long did a consul generally serve? In an emergency, how long was someone named to serve as dictator?

2 How long did members of the Roman senate serve? Were women allowed to participate in Roman government? On what continent was the city of Carthage? Who founded Carthage? Who fought in the Punic Wars? Why would Carthage and Rome have seen themselves as enemies (what were they fighting for/about)? First Punic War Dates- Winner- Lands conquered by Rome- Second Punic War Dates- Winner- Describe Carthaginian general Hannibal's plan to win the war- Third Punic War How did Roman general Scipio finally save Rome from invasion- Dates- Winner-

3 Lands gained as a result of Third Punic War- By the end of the Punic Wars, the Roman Empire was mostly centered on what body of water? What impact did acquiring all this land have on the Roman economy? What year was Julius Caesar elected to serve as one of the two consuls? After his victory in Gaul, Caesar returned to Rome and was chosen by the Senate to lead Rome as a dictator for how long? This unprecedented power worried some in the Senate. What happened to Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. because of the fear some had about his power? After Julius Caesar's death, the Republic went through a period of unrest. It was decided that three individuals would share leadership of Rome. They were: A B C The term used to describe this three-headed leadership was Instead of working well together, these three began to struggle for ultimate control of Rome. Soon, Egypt, one of Rome's provinces, got involved. Who was Cleopatra? Describe her alliance with Julius Caesar and later Marc Antony? Describe the battle near Actium, Greece, in 31 B.C.

4 In 27 B.C., Octavian was given the title, Caesar Augustus. His reign marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. How did Caesar Augustus come to play a part in the birth of Jesus? Governing such a large area was challenging to Caesar Augustus. In order to ensure that all living within the Empire were taxed, Augustus established a census. What is a census? Why were Roman roads so important in the Empire? A B C What civilization was a large influence on Roman architecture? What was the Colosseum? What is an aqueduct? To boost patriotism among Roman citizens, Caesar Augustus asked to write a story detailing Rome's history. The book became a part of the schooling for every child in the Roman Empire. What was the name of the story? Who was the hero of this story? Who did the author say the book's hero was an ancestor of?

5 Because Jesus claimed to be the son of God and the messiah, Christianity is the fulfillment of what ancient religion? What does A.D. stand for? Why did Jesus come to be referred to as Christ? (i.e.,what does it mean?) What are the names of the two apostles that were critical to the early spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire? Why did some Christians, even if they were Roman citizens, come to be persecuted by the Roman Empire? The New Testament consists of written accounts of Jesus' life as well as letters that were written by Paul and others to churches throughout the Roman Empire. What are the four accounts referred to as? What are the letters referred to as? Who was Constantine? Describe the story of how he came to have a change of heart about Christianity What was the Edict of Milan? What action did emperor Theodosius I take in 392 A.D. that changed the course of world history?

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