Technical Support Bulletin Nr.18 Modbus Tips

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1 Technical Support Bulletin Nr.18 Modbus Tips Contents! Definitions! Implemented commands! Examples of commands or frames! Calculating the logical area! Reading a signed variable! Example of commands supported by Ech200B controllers! Example of commands supported by Ert400B controllers Definitions The section that follows provides a description of the main terms used in this document in order to enable readers to fully understand and follow the text of this bulletin. Binary number: a binary number is a quantity expressed in a base 2 notation, which substantially means that the number is represented by using two characters only (0, 1). This numerical system is generally used by processors that interpret numbers using a logical signal (on, off) [Fig1]. Decimal number: the decimal system is simply the metrical system. It expresses a quantity using 10 characters or a base 10 notation (0,1,2.8,9 ). This system is designed to simplify mathematical calculations. Hexadecimal number: in this system quantities are expressed using 16 characters or a base 16 notation, which can be particularly useful to handle very large numbers. This system is generally used for programming applications. Its format is (0,1,2,.,9,A,B,C,D,E,F ). Hexadecimal numbers are generally preceded by H (for example HFF ) or 0x (for example OxFF). Bit: is the abbreviation of binary digit and is used to define an amount of information. A bit represents the minimum amount that can be identified by a processor and a logical state (True\False; On\Off, etc) [Fig1]. Most/least significant bit: the most significant bit or MBS is the first item on the left of a number. It represents the item that has more "weight" in terms of absolute value. The least significant bit is instead the first bit on the right and represents the items that has less "weight" in terms of absolute value. Byte: a byte represents the number of bits required to define an alphanumerical character. Each character is represented by a sequence of 8 bits [Fig1]. Nibble: this unit of measurement is used to express a group of 4 bits, that is half a byte. It is generally used to describe single hex digit. The values ranging from 0000 to 1111 can therefore be expressed using the range of units from H0 to HF [Fig1]. Word: unit of measurement with a length of 16 bits or 2 bytes. On controllers that use the ModBus-RTU protocol, every piece of information requested or transmitted is expressed with a length in words or multiples of this unit [Fig1]. Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 1/11

3 Thus, timeout must always be set taking into account the following: Time required to send the request + Time required to process the request + Time required to receive a reply + Waiting time The timeout of Eliwell controllers is generally 200mS. ModBus-RTU: in RTU transfer mode, data is exchanged in binary format, which means that each data byte contains a coded communication byte. The start of the message is preceded by a pause of 3.5 bits. When the client detects a pause of 1.5 bits, it assumes that a new message is being received and therefore deletes the reception buffer. This means that the message needs to be transmitted in continuous mode. ModBus-ASCII:, in ASCII transfer mode, all messages are coded with hex values, which in turn represent a readable ASCII character. The characters used range from 0 to 9 and from A to F. 2 bytes of each data byte are used for transfer purposes because each character can only define 4 communication bits in the hex system. In this type of transfer mode, it is necessary to send specific characters to mark the start and end of the frame: ASCII character : is used as start character, while Cr LF" is used to end the message. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that it enables to extend the intervals between the transfer of single bytes to a maximum of 1 second. Physical area: the RAM memory is divided into several sectors called areas that have a real index. However, users do not need this information to access single resources. Logical area: the firmware manages the reallocation of the RAM's physical sectors in order to optimize the processing tasks. Logical addresses are used by users to access the desired resources. (fig1) Example of binary number: Most significant bit MSB Least significant bit LSB Implemented commands Eliwell controllers only use some of the ModBus protocol commands, that is commands 3 and 16 expressed in decimal format or 0x03 and 0x10 in hexadecimal format. Commands 3 and 16 have been implemented in all models of Eliwell controllers that use the ModBus-RTU protocol. Some controllers also support commands 43 and 4, or 0x2B and 0x04 Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 3/11

6 [2 ⁿ ¹], while negative ones can be expressed in the range from [-2ⁿ ¹] to [-1]. Thus, the full range is from [2ⁿ ¹] to [2ⁿ ¹ -1]. If we have 3 bits and the most significant one is reserved for the sign, it shall be possible to represent only decimal values ranging from -4 to 3. When using the two's complement format, the most significant bit is generally referred to as sign bit. Let's now look at a signed value like the one measured for probe St1. We know that its value is defined by a word, that is 16 bits. This means that integers can be represented in the range from to In the example shown in the figure above, the value of probe St1 is 0x FEF2, which is equivalent to The most significant bit corresponds to the upper value (1), which means that the value is negative. If we convert the binary number with the one's complement method (NOT logical function) and add 1: One's complement : The resulting absolute value in decimal format is 270. In this case we know that the value should be interpreted as a negative value. Therefore, the value of probe St1 is C. The same result can be obtained by subtracting from value FFFF, that is , FEF2 (see above) and adding Thus, it is generally easier to use the following formula: (FFFF- Value ) +1 Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 6/11

8 The image on the left shows that the address contains no alarm. The controller replies in fact with a word with value 0x In the image on the right, the regulator replies with a word with value 0x In binary format, this word is equivalent to The bit with index 1 (bit_1) corresponds to a high logical value, which means that the high digital pressure alarm is active. 3. Reading the status of a digital input The status of digital inputs is stored in the RAM (area 8). This area contains the status of the 5 available inputs along with the status of probes, if these have been configured as digital. Now, let's look at digital input 5 with logical address 0x4014. From the left image we see that the controller replies to the command with a word that has a value of 0x 0000, which means that the corresponding binary value is The status of digital input 5 can be found in index 5 (bit_5), as explained in the manual. In this case, the logical value of bit 5 is low, which means that the input is open. Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 8/11

9 In the example on the left, the device replies with a word that has a value of 0x 0020 that is equivalent to the binary value Examples of commands supported by Ert400B controllers 1. Reading the probe Let's now suppose we need to read the regulation probe and that, for the purposes of this example, its value is negative. The ERT 400 manual provides the logical addresses of resources and in this case the area offset is irrelevant. In the example above, the logical address of the regulation probe St1 is 4097, that is 0x The whole probe value set on this controller has the length of a word, but its bytes are contiguous. This means that it is not necessary to read two words and group the least significant bytes. The controller replies with value 0xFF A6 that is equivalent to decimal value As explained above, to obtain the probe value, it is necessary to use the two's complement method, that is (FF FF FF A6) +1 = 5A The absolute value of the probe is 90 C\10. Thus, the regulation temperature is -9.0 C. Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 9/11

10 2. Writing a variable The example below explains how to write a variable using the set point. Let's suppose we wish to change the cooling set point and set it to 20.0 C. The logical address of the Set cooling variable is 2049, that is 0x Thus, we need to use the write command 0x10. The structure of the frame shall be the following: 01: client network address 10: write command 0801: logical area where the cooling set point is located 0001: number of variables that have to be written 02: number of bytes to write 00C8: hex value to write, that is 200 (20.0 C) Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 10/11

11 DISCLAIMER This document is the exclusive property of Eliwell and may not be reproduced or circulated unless expressly authorized by Eliwell. Although Eliwell has done everything possible to guarantee the accuracy of this document, it declines any responsibility for damage arising from its use. The same applies to any person or company involved in preparing and writing this document. Eliwell reserves the right to make changes or improvements at any time without notice. Technical Support Bulletin Nr. 18 Modbus Tips ENG 11/11

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