1 Bridgewater State University Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University Watershed Access Lab Projects Watershed Access Lab 2010 Santuit Pond - An Environmental Analysis Recommended Citation Mashpee High School, Mashpee, Massachusetts (2010). Santuit Pond - An Environmental Analysis. In Watershed Access Lab Projects. Project 91. Available at: This item is available as part of Virtual Commons, the open-access institutional repository of Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts.
2 Santuit Pond
3 General Knowledge Santuit pond is considered a Kettle-hole pond that lies in Mashpee, on the Barnstable border. You can find Santuit Pond about a mile north of Route 28 and east of Route 130. Santuit Pond is a warm water pond, an estimated 172 acres spread across Mashpee. It has a maximum depth of 9 feet and has an average depth of 5 feet. The pond is fed by groundwater and forms the headwaters of Santuit River.
4 Type of pond? The Kettle-hole pond located in Mashpee, MA has a bottom of sand overlain with muck, including some areas of gravel and rubble. Much of the aquatic vegetation is submerged. The generally steep and developed shoreline is covered by tree life, homes and summer rentals.
5 There have been many contributing factors to the ponds pollution, such as: road runoff, septic systems and nearby cranberry bogs. Environment Issues
6 Blue-Green Algae The pond has blue-green algae and a pea soup green color during the summer months. The blue-green algae may cause many health issues and may also even assimilate nitrogen from the air potentially contributing to nutrient problems.
7 Dissolved Oxygen Ph Temperature Change Biological Oxygen Demand Nitrates Phosphates Turbidity Testing Water Quality
8 Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen is found in microscopic bubbles of oxygen that are mixed in the water and occur between water molecules. It s the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, and thus available for aquatic organisms to use. Fish breathe by absorbing dissolved oxygen through their gills. Water quality and dissolved oxygen content in parts per million at 20 C (68 F). Only a few fish species can survive in water with less than 4 ppm of dissolved oxygen at this temperature. Water Quality Good: 8-9 Slightly Polluted: Moderately Polluted: Heavily Polluted: Below 4.5 Gravely Polluted: Below 4 Results: Santuit Pond North Average 10.3 mg/l Santuit Pond South Average 12.1 mg/l
9 DO (ppm) at 20' C Good Slightly Good Moderately Polluted Heavily Polluted Water Quality Gravely Polluted North Pond South Pond
10 ph ph is short for potentiometric hydrogen ion concentration ph is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. ph is the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution expressed in moles per liter. Solutions with ph values below 7 are acidic. Solutions ph values above 7 are basic or alkaline.
11 Santuit Pond ph Values South- 5.9, 5.9, 5.8 Average= 5.9 North- 6.04, 5.95, 5.8 Average= 5.93 Average ph for pure water is 7. A typical ph range: 5 to 7.5 for Brook Trout. Brook trout tolerate acidic conditions particularly well, compared with other species. They have been known to survive at ph 3.5, though only in unusual circumstances. Realistically, the lower limits are around ph 4.8. The presence of aluminum ions or other heavy metals may raise the lowest ph level at which brook trout can survive. Where ph levels are low, brook trout may be the only game fish that can survive. ph levels above 9 are often lethal to freshwater fish. This species has suffered because of acid rain, particularly in the northeastern United States
12 Temperature Most aquatic organisms are cold-blooded making the water temperature control metabolism, reproductive activities and life cycles. Some organisms require high oxygen. This results in only being able to live in high oxygen and cool temperature environments. Factors that influence water temperature are shade, seasons, and ground water springs.
13 Degrees Celsius Site 1 Site 2 Optimal Temp Brook Trout South North Brook Trout 1
14 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) What Is Biological Oxygen? Aerobic bacteria in water eat organic matter and at the same time remove oxygen. When the organic material in dead aquatic plants is decomposed, it releases the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients trigger more plant growth and more nutrients, which further lower oxygen levels. If there is too large an amount of organic material in the water, the oxygen levels can drop below what is necessary for other aquatic life forms. What Is BOD? BOD is the rate in which organisms like plants, bacteria, and fish use the oxygen in the water. The BOD test gives an approximation of the level of biodegradable waste there is in the water. The more biodegradable waste the lower oxygen levels are.
15 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) How Do You Test For BOD? We used a simple test method. We took a 500mL water sample and tested the dissolved oxygen using a YSI electronic oxygen meter. After, we wrapped the sample in tin foil and stored it in a dark room. After five days we tested the dissolved oxygen again. We then subtracted the Day five reading from the Day one reading. BOD Level (in ppm) Water Quality 1-2 Very Good There will not be much organic waste present in the water supply. 3-5 Fair: Moderately Clean 6-9 Poor: Somewhat Polluted Usually indicates organic matter is present and bacteria are this waste. 10+ Very Poor: Polluted Contains organic waste. decomposing
16 Our Results: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) North sample: Day mg/l Day mg/l BOD- 6.8 mg/l South sample: Day mg/l Day mg/l BOD- 5.4 mg/l The north sample was poor and somewhat polluted, probably because the sample was collected near a housing development and a cranberry bog still in use. The south sample was fair and moderately clean, probably because the sample was collected near the headwaters of the Santuit river, farther from houses and active bogs. The reason why the BOD is not great is because of high levels of phosphorus, a nutrient that speeds up plant growth causing oxygen levels to go down in the water. The Brook Trout requires a low BOD of about 1 or 2, in order to survive.
17 Nitrogen Makes up 80% of our air. Recycled by plants and animals. Stimulates the growth of plankton, which may increase fish population. If algae become too populated from increased nitrogen, they take away dissolved oxygen necessary for fish. May get into water by: leaking septic tanks, animal waste, fertilizer, and car exhaust.
18 Nitrogen Nitrogen levels should not fall below.06 mg/l and not above 3.0 mg/l. Santuit Pond has an average nitrogen level of 1.9 mg/l in the north end and 1.7 mg/l in the south end. This falls in the prime nitrogen range and is able to sustain organisms.
19 Plants take in dissolved inorganic phosphorus from the water column and convert it to organic as a part of the plant tissue. Animals get the organic phosphorus by either eating the plants, or eating the animals that ate the plants. Scavengers consume the decomposed plants and animals. As the plants and animals die, or excrete, the organic phosphate is released and sinks to the bottom where anaerobic bacterial decomposition converts it back to reactive phosphate. The cycle then begins again as the plants take in the dissolved inorganic phosphorus. The Phosphorus Cycle Soil & Water Conservation Society of Metro Halifax
20 Plant Life of Phosphorus Phosphorus is an essential element for plant life. It is a plant nutrient needed for the growth, and metabolic reactions of plants and animals. Plant growth is often limited by the amount of Phosphorus available. Small increases in Phosphorus can greatly impact the plant life in the pond and over time accelerate eutrophication.
21 Phosphorus There is no national or state criteria that has been established for concentrations of phosphorus compounds in water. However, to control eutrophication, the EPA makes the following recommendations: total phosphate should not exceed 0.05 mg/l (as phosphorus) in a stream at a point where it enters a lake or reservoir, and should not exceed 0.1 mg/l in streams that do not discharge directly into lakes or reservoirs (Muller and Helsel, 1999). The phosphorus levels that were found in the Santuit Pond were: South-.5 mg/l North- 1.1 mg/l
22 Turbidity Turbidity is the measure of the degree of which water looses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. The more suspended particles there are the murkier the water appears. The cloudiness of the water keeps light from reaching plants needing the sunlight for photosynthesis. High Turbidity can be caused by: Phytoplankton Sediments from erosion Waste discharge Algae growth Urban runoff Re-suspended sediments from the bottom of the water body
23 Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). A nephelometer measures the amount of light scattered at 90 degrees as a beam of light passes through a water. A turbidity reading of 0-10 NTU is considered normal. The results of the Turbidity tests for Santuit Pond are: North: about 10 NTU South: about 9 NTU High Turbidity levels can cause: Higher Temperatures of water because of the darkened water, that some organisms can t survive in. The higher temperatures of the water would lower the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Gills of fish could become clogged.
24 Photos from: Water Quality
25 These are the tests we used when determining Santuit Pond s water quality: Dissolved Oxygen (DO) ph Temperature Change Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Total Phosphates (PO 4 - P) Turbidity (NTU) Nitrogen
26 What is the Water Quality Index? -Developed in the early 1970s to compare waters all over the country. -Created by over one hundred water-quality experts -A single number expresses the overall water quality of a specific location based on different water quality parameters. -The measuring of the Water Quality Index is usually expressed though 9 criteria -A Water Quality Index turns complex water quality data into a common way for all people to understand. WQI Value Water Quality Rating Excellent Water Quality Good Water Quality Average Water Quality Fair Water Quality 0-25 Poor Water Quality
27 Results Test Weighting Factor South Total North Total Dissolved Oxygen ph Temperature Change X BOD Nitrate Total Phosphates Total Suspended Solids Totals WQI The north side showed as average water quality and the south side as good water quality for our test.
28 Macroinvertebrates Another way to assess the health of a water body is to look at the lifeforms it supports. Organisms represent indicators of health. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are excellent bioindicators as they: Are easily collected and identified Have known and varied tolerances to pollution, and Represent part of the natural community which cannot easily escape contamination We collected and assessed macroinvertebrates from the pond. We calculated two metrics which provide information about the health of the pond.
29 Photos: Pictured are a mayfly, dragonfly, amphipod, water boatman, and true fly all of which were represented in our samples from the pond.
30 Major Group Biotic Index This index gives us information on whether or not the water supports organisms that can tolerate pollution or not. According to our macroinvertebate data, Santuit Pond contains water of moderate quality. Our MGBI was a 5.0 in a range from 0 to 10.
31 Major Groups MGBI Santuit Pond MGBI No Impairment Moderate Impairment Severe Impairment Santuit Pond MGBI No Impairment Moderate Impairment Severe Impairment
32 Major Group Composition in Terms of Tolerance Values 23% 46% Percent Intolerant Groups Moderately Intolerant Groups Percent Tolerant Groups 31%
33 Tolerance Out of 179 bugs; 46% are tolerant to pollution 23% were not tolerant to pollution 31% were moderately tolerant to pollution The data suggests, that the organisms that cannot tolerate pollution are still living in the pond. Both measures of macroinvertebrates demonstrate that Santuit Pond is fair in terms of its water quality.
34 Fixing the problem The pond is ranked five out of five on the Clean Water Act list of impaired water bodies, which requires the state to develop a phosphorus target that the town must meet. A recent report by the environmental consulting firm AECOM recommends two main solutions to the problem of high phosphorus levels in the pond: 1. Mechanically mixing the pond water using a bubbler or a circulator. 2. Treating the pond with a chemical called alum. Alum binds the phosphorus making it unusable by algae. Dredging is a third approach to the problem. This idea was estimated to be $12 to $16 million, which is too costly.
35 Conclusions Area inhabitants have seen a downward trend in the water quality of Santuit Pond since the area was developed nearly 30 years ago. This decline will continue until actions are taken to reduce nutrient loads from reaching the pond and slow the rate of eutrophication. Plans are in place to aerate the pond and reduce dissolved phosphates, but more needs to be done in terms of removing the sources and keeping phosphate out of the water!
36 Special Thanks to the APES Santuit Pond Team: Devin Andrade Jessica Blackwell Chelsey Bowker Nichole Colleton Katelyn Cotter Rebecca Fordham Brian Lee Kristen Mauro Breana McGarvey Lauren Sobolewski Valerie Stevens Brooke Sylvia Thanks to Mashpee High School and the Town of Mashpee for their support and relevant information. Thanks to Bridgewater State College and the Watershed Analysis Lab for providing us this opportunity to share our knowledge.
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