Routing Behavior of IP Routers running RIP in different scenarios

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1 Routing Behavior of IP Routers running RIP in different scenarios P. R. Gundalwar 1, Dr. V. N. Chavan 2 1 Assistant Professor, Dept of MCA, VMV Commerce, JMT Arts & JJP Science College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, 2 Associate Professor, Dept of CS and IT,S. K. Porwal College Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, Abstract Routing Information Protocol (RIP) remains one of the popular routing protocols for a small network environment used in Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) family. We discuss issues from the basic working concept of a RIP to experimental setup used in IP networks using OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition Simulator, stability features, message formats etc. This paper is helpful to understand how IP addressing and routing tables are related to a router-based IP network and then is easy for comparison with other available protocols. We investigated three simulation scenarios with same network topology comprising six routers with ICMP as a ping message. From the detailed simulation results and analysis, a RIP can be chosen for a specified network and goal. Keywords: RIP, RIP Timers, RIP Message format, RIP Packet format, OPNET 1. Evolution of RIP Routing Information Protocol (RIP) version 1 is the oldest interior routing protocol, originally designed in the mid-1970s for Xerox PARC Universal Protocol (PUP, where it was called GWINFO) and used in the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol suite. RIP was formally defined in the XNS Internet Transport Protocols publication (1981). RIP became associated with both UNIX and TCP/IP in 1982 when the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) version of UNIX began shipping with a RIP implementation referred to as "routed" (pronounced "route dee"). RIP version 1 was adopted in the Internet community in 1988 as standard (RFC 1058) [1]. The initial version of RIP was extended to version 2 as a proposed standard in 1994 (RFC 1723), and, in 1998, it became an Internet Standard (RFC 2453) [2], replacing RIPv1. However, both versions may still be seen in networks. RIP has been widely adopted by personal computer (PC) manufacturers for use in their networking products. RIP was the basis for the routing protocols of AppleTalk, Novell, 3Com, Ungermann- Bass, and Banyan VINES. 2. Introduction The routing of IP packets in an IP network is the set of tasks required to move an IP packet from router to router to its destination. RIP is the first protocol in a family of dynamic routing protocols. Dynamic routing protocols automatically compute routing tables, freeing the network administrator from the task of specifying routes to every network using static routes. RIP doesn't directly run over IP, but runs over UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Thus, its routing updates are encapsulated in connectionless transport datagrams. The well-known UDP port used by RIPv1 and RIPv2 is 520. All RIP messages must be sent to this port otherwise they will be ignored. Following are the inadequacies of RIP. 1.RIP is a classful routing protocol summarizing at the network boundary and not supporting Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) or Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR), but RIPv2 partially removes this limitation. 2. The maximum path is limited to 15 routers, so destinations cannot be more than 15 hops away, which may be a serious constraint for implementers in large enterprise networks. But in a hierarchical network design this limits to 7 hops from the single core router to access networks. 3. RIP can cause excessive bandwidth utilization due to periodic broadcasting or multicasting of routing tables[3]. 3. Rip Routing Operation 3.1 Working Principle RIP is based on the distance vector routing algorithm, which provides only a limited view of the internetwork topology to each router running RIP. RIPv1 operation 302

2 follows step by step the operation of the distance vector algorithm. When a router starts running RIP, it first broadcasts a request packet. Adjacent RIP routers must reply with a RIP update, allowing the new router to join a network without waiting for the periodic RIP update. The reply to a request is not broadcast. It is sent only to the requesting router, and split horizon is not performed on the routes in the reply packet. RIP sends periodic routing-update messages at regular intervals 25.5 to 30 seconds. The variance in time between the updates is called RIP jitter. Update synchronization might be a problem if it occurs on Ethernet LANs. If routing updates are all sent at the exact same time, they tend to "synchronize," or collide. Periodic updates, in the form of complete routing tables, are broadcast to neighbor routers from primary and secondary addresses, reflecting the appropriate source IP address. To be precise, the list of up to 25 routes is broadcast to each of the neighboring routers. RIPv1 mostly uses the local broadcast address , which translates at the data link layer to a broadcast MAC address of 0xFF-FF-FF-FFFF-FF. Some RIP implementations, however, send routing tables to destination IP address or to the network address (where the host portion is set to 0), but all the implementations use a broadcast address of 0xFF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF at the MAC layer. The local broadcasts RIPv1 uses to transmit its updates have an associated cost. Every computer system on multiaccess networks (e.g., Ethernet or TokenRing) will receive the broadcast. RIP transmits a "distance," in the form of a hop count, with each route. The route metrics in received routing updates are stored directly in the routing table. When a RIP-enabled interface goes down, the relevant directly connected network is removed from the routing table and all RIP-derived routes via the interface start a garbage collection timer (unless the timer's value is zero, in which case the routes will be dropped from the routing table right away). An extension to the distance vector algorithm allows for immediate reaction to a topology change (route added, changed, or expired) in the form of a triggered update (flash update). For example, when a router loses a route to a network behind it, it announces that it cannot get to the network by sending a triggered update that lists the route to the network with a distance of 16. Triggered updates are introduced with the characteristics and impact given as below: 1. Updates are sent independent of periodic updates and do not affect their timing. 2. Updates are incremental and include only routes that have changed since the last update. 3. There must exist some mechanism to limit the frequency of triggered updates to prevent network malfunction. Once a route changes, the triggered update is scheduled, but not immediately sent. There is a planned delay of 1 to 5 seconds before it is sent out. This allows for more routes, in case they change to be included, and limits the number of sent triggered updates. In case the periodic update is planned just before a triggered update is scheduled, the periodic update takes precedence and the triggered update is canceled. Otherwise, sending a triggered update does not have any impact on the timing of regular updates[3]. 3.2 Sending and Receiving Updates RIP has two types of user devices: active and passive. Active RIP users, typically routers, advertise their routes via a broadcast over their networks. Passive RIP users, typically hosts, listen and update their routes based on the RIP information, but do not advertise routes. Before a router sends updates to another router, it checks whether the subnet information is part of the same major network as the interface that will be used as a source for such an update. If this is not the case, the router summarizes the route at the major network boundary and advertises only the major network (e.g ). In the opposite case, the router checks the subnet mask next. If the network has the same subnet mask as the interface that will be sourcing the update, the router advertises the subnet (e.g ); otherwise, it advertises the host route (/32 routes, e.g ). Upon receipt of an update, a RIP router performs certain checks before accepting the update and applying the subnet mask. If the subnet received in the update is on the same major network as the interface that received the update, the receiving router applies the mask of the interface that received the update. If the advertised network has a host bit set in the host portion of the update, the router applies the host mask (/32). If the update does not correspond to the network to which the receiving interface connects, the router checks whether any subnets of this major network already exist in the routing table, known from interfaces other than the one that received the update. If they exist, the router ignores the update; otherwise, the router applies a classful mask to the update. Each entry in a RIP routing table provides a variety of information derived from periodic and triggered routing protocol updates given as below: 1. The IP address of the destination. 303

3 2. The IP address of the next hop (nearest router to reach the destination). 3. The local interface used to reach the next hop. 4. The distance metric in number of hops. 5. The route timers (update, invalid, hold down, garbage collection). 6. The route change flag. RIP keeps track of only the routes currently in use. Unlike more modern routing protocols, it has no capability of storing information about potential routes. If RIP decides a route has gone down, it must, at a minimum, wait until another router updates it with a new route to the destination. 3.3 Metric RIP uses hop count as its simple metric. Hop count is the number of routers that a packet must traverse to reach the destination network i.e., the length of a particular route. Each network link is, by default, considered to be one hop. This gives an optimal result for a network with similar types of links. Generally, a directly connected network on router has a metric of zero i.e. zero hop count; the longest route may have a metric of 15, and an unreachable network has a metric of 16 [3],[4]. 3.4 Routing Table RIP maintains only the best route to a destination in its routing table. In the case of multiple routes with the same prefix, administrative distance, and metric, all will be entered in the routing table and may be used for load balancing in RIPv2. When new information provides a better route, this information replaces old route information. When network topology changes occur, they are reflected in routing update messages. For example, when a router detects a link failure or a router failure, it recalculates its routes and sends routing update messages. Each router receiving a routing update message that includes a change updates its tables and propagates the change. The routing table may contain an information on the default route (pseudo network with mask, or /0). A default route is used when it is not convenient to list every possible network in the RIP updates, and when one or more closely connected routers in the internetwork are prepared to handle traffic to networks that are not listed explicitly. These routers should create RIP entries for the address , just as if it were a network to which they are connected. The entries for are handled by RIP in exactly the same manner as if there were an actual network with this address. However, the entry is used to route any datagram whose destination address does not match that of any other network in the table. Typically, only one router will have the default route configured, while all other routers will get the default route through routing update propagation with a respective added metric. Without the default route in the routing table, traffic addressed to an unlisted destination is discarded [3],[4]. 3.5 Route Database RIP originally did not use any kind of internal route database, but used the main routing table, storing routes in it and announcing them directly from the routing table. If the route gets overridden by a route with better i.e.lower administrative distance, a RIP route will stop being advertised to neighbors and will gradually age out of their routing tables, unless RIP is configured to redistribute the new route. 3.6 Neighbour Discovery RIP does not have any mechanism for neighbour discovery. Hello or Keepalives protocol are not used in RIP. Therefore, no formal relationship e.g. adjacency is formed between neighbouring routers. neighbours are simply discovered when they send routing update messages. The same principle applies to the situation when a neighbour becomes unreachable. There is no explicit mechanism to discover unreachable neighbours. Routers simply stop routing through unreachable neighbours once routes supplied by these neighbours age out of the routing table. 4. Rip Stability Features RIP specifies a number of features designed to make its operation more stable in the face of rapid network topology changes. These include a RIP timers, hopcount limit, hold-downs, split horizons, and poison reverse updates described as below: 4.1 RIP Timers Like other routing protocols, RIP uses certain timers to regulate its performance. The biggest drawback to a RIP router is the broadcast it makes. RIP uses numerous timers to regulate its performance. These include a routing-update timer, a route-timeout timer, and a route-flush timer. The routing-update timer clocks the interval between periodic routing updates, each router periodically transmits it entire routing table to all the other routers on the network. Generally, it is set to 30 seconds, with a small random amount of time 304

4 added whenever the timer is reset. This is done to help prevent congestion, which could result from all routers simultaneously attempting to update their neighbors. The update timer ensures that each router will send a complete copy of its routing table to all neighbors every 30 seconds. While this alone is not a major detriment to network traffic, the routers also transmit a route response packet. This is controlled by the route invalid timer (or routetimeout timer), which determines how much time must expire without a router having heard about a particular route before that route is considered invalid. Each routing table entry has a route-timeout timer associated with it. When the route-timeout timer expires, the route is marked invalid and neighbors are notified of this fact. Typical initial value of route invalid timer is 90 sec. This notification of invalid route must occur prior to expiration of the route flush timer. When the route flush timer expires, the route is removed from the routing table. Typical initial value for route flush timer is 270 seconds. Hence, routing update timer determines what the clock interval between two routing updates; route invalid timer determines when a route should be marked as Invalid, without having heard about the same; and finally router flush timer determines when to remove a route from the table. 4.2 Hop-Count Limit RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. If a router receives a routing update that contains a new or changed entry, and if increasing the metric value by 1 causes the metric to be infinity (that is, 16), the network destination is considered unreachable. The downside of this stability feature is that it limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops. An example would if Router 2's link to Network A is via Router 1's link i.e. R2 has learned about a route to network A from R1 initially. If Router 1's link to network A fails, R1 will update its routing table immediately to make the distance 16 (infinite). In the next broadcast, R1 will report the higher cost route. Now suppose R2 advertise a route to Network A via R1 in its normal advertisement message, just after R1 s connection to network A fails. If so R1 will receive this update message and sees that Router 2 has a two-hop link (which is actually via Router 1) to Network A, according to the normal vector-distance algorithm it will install a new route to network A via R2, of length 3. This is shown in Figure 1. Fig-1: Count to infinity problem After this, it would began advertising it has a three-hop link to Network A and then route all traffic to Network A through R2. This would create a routing loop, since when Router 2 sees that Router 1 get to Network A in three hops, it alters it own routing table entry to show it has a four-hop path to Network A. This is known as Count-to Infinity problem, i.e. bad news travel slowly through the network and to advertise a bad news throughout the entire network will take a long time. This problem is also called as slow convergence problem. 4.3 Hold-Downs Hold-downs prevent inappropriately reinstating a route that has gone bad when routers broadcast their regular update messages. When a route is down, neighbor routers will detect it and attempt to broadcast route changes after they have calculated the new routes. This triggered route updates may not arrive at certain network devices and those devices may broadcast a regular update message stating that the route that has gone down is still good to devices that has just been notified of the network failure. As such, the latter devices contains incorrect routing information which they may potentially further advertise. Let us examine this problem with an example, say initially all Routers (R1, R2 and R3) knows about a route to network A through Router 1 (R1). Now if the Router 1 (R1) link for network A goes down, and say the link failure message from Router 1 (R1) reaches Router 2 (R2) but not yet reached the Router 3 (R3). At this point Router 2 (R2) has no entry in its table for a route to network A. Now if a regular update message from Router 3 (R3), about the reachability information for network A, i.e. the out-dated information, reaches Router 2 (R2). Then Router 2 (R2) will think as if the route to Network A is Up and working, so both the routers- R3, R2 will have wrong information about the network. This is shown in Figure

5 Fig-2: Hold down To solve the above problem, a technique known as Hold Down is considered. Hold downs tell routers to hold on to any changes that might affect recently removed routes for a certain period of time, usually calculated just to be greater than the period of time necessary to update the entire network with a route change. This prevents count-to-infinity problem. As per our example, it means that once R2 has removed the route to Network A, after receiving a link failure message from R1, It will not change or add any new route to network A, until a certain amount of time has passed. This time duration is known as Hold Down time. Typically hold down time is around 60 sec. So the idea is to wait long enough to ensure that all machines receive the bad news (link failure news) and not mistakenly accepts a message that is out dated. 4.4 Split Horizons It is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came and thus split horizons is used to prevent updates that are redundant to the network. For this purpose Router records the interface over which it received a particular route and does not propagates its information about that route back to the same interface. Let us consider an example in which Router 1 advertises that it has a route to Network A. If Router 2 is sending traffic to Network A via Router 1, there is no reason for Router 2 to include the route info in its update back to Router 1, because Router 1 is closer to Network A. Without split horizon rule in place, Router 2 would continue to inform Router 1 that it can actually get to Network A through 2 hops which is via Router 1. If there is a failed direct connection to Network A, Router 1 may direct traffic to Router 2 thinking it s an alternative route to Network A and thus causing a routing loop. Split horizon in this instance serve as an additional algorithm to achieve stability. This is shown in Figure 3. Fig-3: Split horizon 4.5 Poison Reverse Updates This is another technique used to solve the slow convergence problem. Larger routing loops prevented using poison reverse updates. Once a connection disappears, the router advertising the connection retains the entry for several update periods, and include an infinite cost in the broadcast. The updates are sent to remove downed route and place it in hold-down. R1 Regular update message should not include a route a advertisement to route to Network A Via R1 Network A Regular update message contains advertisement of a route to Network A R2 To make Poison reverse more efficient, it must be combined with Triggered Updates. Triggered updates force a router to send an immediate broadcast when receiving bad news, instead of waiting for the next periodic broadcast. By sending an update immediately, a router minimizes the time it is vulnerable to believing in good news. This is shown in Figure 4. Fig-4: Poison reverse update 5. Rip Message Format A routing packet is just encapsulated and sent to the neighbor, normally through broadcast. A routing packet in the TCP/IP stack for RIP message structure is as shown in Figure

6 Fig-5: RIP Message structure The RIPv1 and RIPv2 packet format is shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7 respectively. The packet format for RIPv1 is shown in 32-bit (4-byte) boundaries. A RIPv1 message has a common header of 4 bytes, followed by a 20-byte message for each route for which the message is communicating, up to a maximum of 25 routes/addresses. Thus, the maximum size of a RIP message including IP/UDP headers [5]. command, version, address family identifier, IP address, and metric. These are described as below[5]: Version (1 byte): This field indicates the RIP protocol version. This is set to 1 for RIPv1. If this field happens to be zero, the message is to be ignored. Address family identifier (2 bytes): This field identifies the address family. This is set to 2 for the IP address family. Originally, the intent was to provide RIP for other address families, although in practice this RIP packet format has not been used for any other address family. There is a special use case when this field is set to zero. IP address (4 bytes): This is the destination network, identified by a subnet or a host. Metric (4 bytes): This is based on hop count; it is a number between 1 and 16, where 16 means unreachable or infinity. Command (1 byte): This field is used for different command sets in a RIPv1message.While there were five different Fig-6: RIPv1 Packet format is = 532 bytes while the minimum is = 52 bytes. It is important to note that the message size does not limit the size of the network in terms of the number of routers; rather it is in terms of the number of addressable networks or routes. It is important to note that the message size does not limit the size of the addressing networks to 25 networks (certainly not to routers); if an IP network has more than 25 addressable networks, say 40 of them, a neighbor can send distance vector information for 25 addressable networks in one message and the rest of the 15 addressable networks in another message. Let us now look at the various fields. A common practice in many protocols is to have some spaces left out for future enhancement of the protocol; often, these spaces are marked with Must Be Zero. As can be seen, there are many places where this occurs in the RIPv1message format; soon, we will see how some of them are utilized in the RIPv2 message format. Thus, a RIPv1 message has the following five fields: Fig-7: RIPv2 Packet format commands originally defined, only two are used: request and response; the others are obsolete. The request command can be used by a router to request a neighboring router for distance vector information. If the entire routing table is desired, a request message (referred to as request-full ) is sent where the address family identifier is set to 0 and the metric to infinity. RIPv2 [442] extends RIPv1 in several ways. Most importantly, it allows explicit masking; also, authentication is introduced. Authentication refers to using some mechanism to authenticate the message and/or its contents when a router receives it in such a way that it knows that the data can be trusted. To do that, changes were introduced in the RIP message format from v1 while keeping the overall format similar by taking advantage of fields previously 307

7 marked as must be zero. This also shows why when designing a protocol, it is good to leave some room for future improvement. The common header part, i.e., the first 4 bytes, is the same as in RIPv1; in this, case the version field is set to 2, and the must-be-zero field is labeled as unused while command can be either a request or a response. The fields those are used in RIPv1 are described as below[5]: Route Tag (2 bytes): this field is provided to differentiate internal routes within a RIP routing domain from external routes. For internal routes, this field is set to zero. If a route is obtained from an external routing protocol, then an arbitrary value or preferably the autonomous system number of the external route is included here to differentiate it from internal routes. Subnet mask (4 bytes): this field allows routing based on subnet instead of doing classful routing, thus eliminating a major limitation of RIPv1. In particular, variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) may be used. Next hop (4 bytes): typically, an advertising router is the best next hop from its own view point when it lets its neighbors know about a route; at least, this is the basic assumption. However, in certain unusual circumstances, an advertising router might want to indicate a next hop that is different from itself, such as when two routing domains are connected on the same Ethernet network. 6. Simulation Setup We used OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition Simulator for network simulations. OPNET is a comprehensive network simulation tool with a multitude of powerful functions. The simulated network topology for used for RIP is shown in Figure 8. Fig-8: OPNET Simulated Network topology The simulation environment setup is given in Table 1. Parameters Routing Protocol Network type Scale IP Address Family Send Style Router Update Interval Timeout Interval Start Time (Distribution) Stop Time Failure Impact Simulation Time Table-1: Simulation setup Values Routing Information Protocol Logical 10 Km x 10 Km IPv4 Broadcast Ethernet4-Slip8-Gtwy 30 seconds 180 seconds 5 seconds 65 seconds Retain Route Table 15 minutes The different simulation scenarios are given in Table 2. Table-2: Simulation scenario Scenario Features Type RIP no failure Setup given in Table 1 RIP with Setup given in Table 1 and adding failure Link failure/recovery between Router 1 and Router 2 and Router 4 and Router 5 RIP with ping Setup given in Table 1 and Start Time = 100 seconds Pattern = Record route Full mesh direction 7. Simulation Result And Analysis We have considered traffic sent and traffic received in bits/seconds as a behaviour metric for study of RIP. It is observed that initially the message sent or received for analyzing created routes using ping is high and goes down as the time increases whereas rate of traffic sent/received is also somewhat moderate high for RIP with no failure and gradually constant between bits/sec and between bits/sec for sent and received respectively. But, in failure scenario, there are two links between Router1-Router2 and Router4- Router5 are set failure for a time of 120 seconds, it starts after 60 seconds responding for both sent and received traffic and goes down from

8 bits/seconds and 2000 bits/seconds for sent and received respectively. This is shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10. Fig-11: Total number of updates in Router 1 Fig-9: Traffic sent (bits/seconds) Fig-12: Total number of updates in Router 2 Fig-10: Traffic received (bits/seconds) The configuration of six routers is shown in Figure xx and performed the simulation under the setup given in Table xx. We analyzed the behavior of IP routers used for routing for total number of updates and the time between successive updates in all three scenarios applied separately. It is observed that the RIP ping scenario recorded almost constant number of updates throughout the simulation period for all six routers, failure scenario starts from the ping scenario record and drops deep from seconds and then constant for rest of the time for all routers. RIP scenario with no failure takes after few seconds constant average of 12 updates in all routers. This is shown in Figure from 11 to Figure 16. Fig-13: Total number of updates in Router 3 309

9 seconds, and after that it accepts updation, but with high values upto 35 seconds in Router1 and Router4, and low values upto 5 seconds in Router3. This is shown in Figure from 17 to Figure 22. Fig-14: Total number of updates in Router 4 Fig-17: Time between updates in Router 1 Fig-15: Total number of updates in Router 5 Fig-18: Time between updates in Router 2 Fig-16: Total number of updates in Router 6 The time between updates in RIP ping scenario is constant with very low value, except Router1 and Router4, the same time is taken by RIP no failure scenario except Router5 and Router6. It takes time initially for RIP with failure scenario about 120 Fig-19: Time between updates in Router 3 310

10 routers used in the same campus area for number of updates and time between those updates using ICMP as ping messages. It is understood that RIP works unusual with different sense regarding failure or no failure in the network. We compare RIP with other Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) for comparison in future work. References Fig-20: Time between updates in Router 4 [1] [Online] [2] [Online] [3] Rita Puzmanova, Routing Information Protocol a Certification Zone - Tutorial [4] Ravi Malhotra, IP Routing, O Reilly Publication, ISBN: [5] Deepankar Medhi, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Network Routing Algorithms, Protocols, and Architectures, Morgan Kauffman Publishers, ISBN 13: Fig-21: Time between updates in Router 5 Fig-22: Time between updates in Router 6 8. Conclusion We understand the working principle of RIP with its stability features, message formats etc. We have evaluated the behavior of RIP using traffic sent and traffic received in bits/seconds using the same network topology, but different scenarios. We analyzed the IP 311

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