Chapter 4. Distance Vector Routing Protocols

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1 Chapter 4 Distance Vector Routing Protocols CCNA2-1 Chapter 4 Note for Instructors These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario. Thanks must go out to Rick Graziani of Cabrillo College. His material and additional information was used as a reference in their creation. If anyone finds any errors or omissions, please let me know at: CCNA2-2 Chapter 4

2 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Introduction to Distance Vector Routing Protocols CCNA2-3 Chapter 4 Introduction to Distance Vector There are advantages and disadvantages to using any type of routing protocol. Understanding the operation of distance vector routing is critical to enabling, verifying, and troubleshooting these protocols. CCNA2-4 Chapter 4

3 Introduction to Distance Vector Static Routes? CCNA2-5 Chapter 4 Introduction to Distance Vector Routing Information Protocol (RIP): Metric: Hop count. A hop count greater than 15 means that the network is unreachable. Periodic routing updates. Entire routing table is broadcast every 3 seconds. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP): Cisco proprietary. Composite metric: Bandwidth, delay, reliability and load. It uses Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path. No periodic updates. Multicast updates only on a change in topology. CCNA2-6 Chapter 4

4 Meaning of Distance Vector The routing protocol does not know the entire topology of a network. It only knows the routing information received from its neighbors. A Distance Vector routing protocol does not have the knowledge of the entire path to a destination network. CCNA2-7 Chapter 4 Meaning of Distance Vector A Distance Vector routing protocol does not have the knowledge of the entire path to a destination network. Network /24: is 1 hop away (Distance) through interface s// (Vector) CCNA2-8 Chapter 4

5 Operation of Distance Vector Periodic Updates: Some distance vector routing protocols periodically broadcast the entire routing table to each of its neighbors (RIP every 3 seconds). Inefficient: Updates consume bandwidth and router CPU resources. Periodic updates are always sent even there have been no changes for weeks or months. Router is only aware of the: Network addresses of its own interfaces. Network addresses the neighbors running the same routing protocol. CCNA2-9 Chapter 4 Operation of Distance Vector Periodic Updates: R1 Update Timer expires Neighbour of R1 Updates sent. Broadcast! R1 is unaware of R3 and its networks Neighbour of R1 CCNA2-1 Chapter 4

6 Routing Protocol Algorithms The algorithm used by a particular routing protocol is responsible for building and maintaining the router s s routing table. Defines the following processes: Mechanism for sending and receiving routing information. Mechanism for calculating the best paths and installing routes in the routing table. Mechanism for detecting and reacting to topology changes. CCNA2-11 Chapter 4 Routing Protocol Algorithms Calculate Send Best Update Path and Install Route Periodic Update UPDATE / /24 S// 1 CCNA2-12 Chapter 4

7 Routing Protocol Algorithms Calculate Send Best Update Path and Install Route Periodic Update UPDATE /24 S// / /24 S// 1 CCNA2-13 Chapter 4 Routing Protocol Algorithms Detect and React to Topology Changes Triggered Update UPDATE /24 (DOWN) /24 (DOWN) /24 S// /24 S// 1 CCNA2-14 Chapter 4

8 Routing Protocol Characteristics Other ways to compare routing protocols: Time to convergence: Faster the better. Scalability: How large a network the routing protocol can handle. Classless or Classful: Support VLSM and CIDR. Resource usage: Routing protocol usage of RAM, CPU utilization, and link bandwidth utilization. Implementation and maintenance: Level of knowledge of a network administrator. CCNA2-15 Chapter 4 Comparing Routing Protocol Features Feature Distance Vector Routing Protocols RIPv1 RIPv2 EIGRP Speed of Convergence Slow Slow Fast Scalability Small Small Large Supports VLSM No Yes Yes Resource Usage Low Low Medium Implementation Simple Simple Complex CCNA2-16 Chapter 4

9 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Network Discovery CCNA2-17 Chapter 4 Cold Start Network Discovery: Is part of the process of the routing protocol algorithm that enables routers to learn about remote networks for the first time. CCNA2-18 Chapter 4

10 Cold Start When a router powers up: Knows nothing about the network topology. Knows only the information saved in NVRAM. Sends updates about its known networks out all ports. CCNA2-19 Chapter 4 Initial Exchange of Routing Information Sends an update about network out the Serial // interface with a metric of 1. Sends an update about network out the Fa/ interface with a metric of 1. CCNA2-2 Chapter 4

11 Initial Exchange of Routing Information Sends an update about network out the Serial // interface with a metric of 1. Sends an update about network out the Serial //1 interface with a metric of 1. CCNA2-21 Chapter 4 Initial Exchange of Routing Information Sends an update about network out the S// interface with a metric of 1. Sends an update about network out the Fa/ interface with a metric of 1. CCNA2-22 Chapter 4

13 Initial Exchange of Routing Information First round of update exchanges: : Each router knows about the connected networks of its directly connected neighbors. When the update timers expire (Periodic Update),, the routers begin the next exchange of information. CCNA2-25 Chapter 4 Next Exchange of Routing Information Sends an update about network out the S// interface with a metric of 1 - AGAIN! When R2 receives the update,, there is no change in information so the update is ignored. CCNA2-26 Chapter 4

14 Next Exchange of Routing Information NE W NE W Sends an update about networks with a metric of 1 and with a metric of 2 out the Serial // interface. Sends an update about networks with a metric of 2 and with a metric of 1 out the Serial //1 interface. CCNA2-27 Chapter 4 Initial Exchange of Routing Information Sends an update about network out the S// interface with a metric of 1 - AGAIN! When R2 receives the update,, there is no change in information so the update is ignored. CCNA2-28 Chapter 4

15 Next Exchange of Routing Information R1 receives an update from R2 about network and there is no change update ignored. R1 receives an update from R2 about network (new) and adds it to its routing table. CCNA2-29 Chapter 4 Next Exchange of Routing Information R3 receives an update from R2 about network and there is no change update ignored. R3 receives an update from R2 about network (new) and adds it to its routing table. CCNA2-3 Chapter 4

16 Next Exchange of Routing Information The network has CONVERGED! All routers now know about all of the networks attached to all of their neighbouring routers. CCNA2-31 Chapter 4 Convergence The amount of time it takes for a network to converge is directly proportional to the size of that network. Routing protocols are compared based on how fast they can propagate this information - their speed to convergence. A network is not completely operable until it has converged. Network administrators prefer routing protocols with shorter convergence times. CCNA2-32 Chapter 4

17 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Table Maintenance CCNA2-33 Chapter 4 Routing Table Maintenance Routing protocols must maintain the routing tables so that they have the most current information. How it is maintained depends upon: The type of routing protocol (distance vector, link state, path state) The routing protocol itself (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF) CCNA2-34 Chapter 4

18 Routing Table Maintenance Distance Vector Updates: Periodic Bounded Triggered CCNA2-35 Chapter 4 Periodic Updates A router sends the complete routing table to its neighbors at a predefined interval. RIP every 3 seconds. Link failure, New Link, Router Failure, Link parameter change. CCNA2-36 Chapter 4

19 Periodic Updates - RIP Timers Invalid Timer: If an update has not been received in 18 seconds (the default), the route is marked as invalid by setting the metric to 16. Route still is in routing table. Flush Timer: 24 seconds (default) When the flush timer expires, the route is removed from the routing table. Hold-down down Timer: Helps stabilize routing information and helps prevent routing loops. (Much more later!) CCNA2-37 Chapter 4 Periodic Updates Verifying RIP Timers Elapsed time since last update. CCNA2-38 Chapter 4

20 Bounded Updates EIGRP does not send periodic updates. EIGRP sends bounded updates about a route when a path changes or the metric for that route changes. Nonperiodic: Because they are not sent out on a regular basis. Partial: Because they are sent only when there is a change in topology. Bounded: Because they are sent to only those routers that need the information. (More in chapter 9) CCNA2-39 Chapter 4 Triggered Updates A triggered update is s a routing table update that is sent immediately in response to a routing change. Do not wait for update timers to expire. The detecting router immediately sends an update message to adjacent routers. The receiving routers generate triggered updates that notify their neighbors of the change. CCNA2-4 Chapter 4

21 Triggered Updates Speeds up convergence. Sent when one of the following events occurs: An interface changes state (up or down). A route has entered (or exited) the unreachable state. A route is installed in the routing table. CCNA2-41 Chapter 4 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Loops CCNA2-42 Chapter 4

22 Defining a Routing Loop A routing loop is a condition in which a packet is continuously transmitted within a series of routers without ever reaching its intended destination network. The loop can be a result of: Incorrectly configured static routes. Incorrectly configured route redistribution. Inconsistent routing tables not being updated because of slow convergence in a changing network. Distance vector routing protocols are simple in their implementation and configuration, but this comes at a price. Pure distance vector routing protocols suffer from possible routing loops. CCNA2-43 Chapter 4 Implications of Routing Loops A routing loop can have a devastating effect on a network, resulting in degraded network performance or even network downtime. Link bandwidth will be used for traffic looping back and forth between the routers. A router s s CPU will be burdened with useless packet forwarding. Routing updates might get lost or not be processed in a timely manner, making the situation even worse. Packets might get lost in black holes,, never reaching their intended destinations. CCNA2-44 Chapter 4

23 Routing Loop - Example Network 1 Fails. Router E sends an update to Router A. Router A stops routing packets to Network 1. But Routers B, C, and D continue to do so because they have not yet been informed about the failure. Router A sends out its update. Routers B and D stop routing to network1, (via Router A). However, Router C is still not updated. To router C, network 1 is still reachable via router B. CCNA2-45 Chapter 4 Routing Loop - Example Router C thinks network 1 is still 3 hops away. Sends a periodic update to Router D. 3 This update says: A path to network 1 exists by way of Router B and network 1 is 4 hops away. CCNA2-46 Chapter 4

24 Routing Loop - Example Router D routing table information for Network 1. Current path to Network 1 = Unreachable 3 Update from Router C: Network 1 is 4 hops by way of Router C Normally, Router D ignores this routing information because it usually has a better route (2 hops via Router A) but this route is now down. CCNA2-47 Chapter 4 Routing Loop - Example Router D changes its routing table to reflect this better, but incorrect information. 3 4 Network 1 is available by way of Router C (4 hops) Router D propagates the information to Router A. CCNA2-48 Chapter 4

25 Routing Loop - Example Router A changes its routing table Router A adds a new route to its routing table: Network 1 is available by way of Router D (5 hops). Propagates the information to Routers B and E. CCNA2-49 Chapter 4 Routing Loop - Example Router B and Router E change their routing tables Router B now believes: Network 1 is available by way of Router A (6 hops). Wow! I was about to tell Router C that Network 1 was down, but now I have new information! Router B sends the incorrect information to Router C. CCNA2-5 Chapter 4

26 Routing Loop - Example Router C changes its routing table Router C still believes: Network 1 is available by way of Router B But now it believes its 7 hops instead of 3! Propagates the incorrect information to Router D. CCNA2-51 Chapter 4 Routing Loop - Example Here we go again! The routers keep sending data packets and updates! BUT Router A thinks Network 1 is available via Router D. Router D thinks Network 1 is available via Router C. Router C thinks Network 1 is available via Router B. Router B thinks Network 1 is available via Router A. CCNA2-52 Chapter 4

27 Routing Loop - Example By the way, Network 1 is STILL down! Data packets destined for Network 1 get caught in a routing loop, from Routers A to D to C to B to A to D etc. As routing updates continue between the routers, the hop count gets greater to infinity? (Not quite we will see in a moment.) CCNA2-53 Chapter 4 Count-to to-infinity Condition Count to infinity is a condition that exists when inaccurate routing updates increase the metric value to infinity for a network that is no longer reachable. Each protocol defines infinity at a different value. When the metric value exceeds the maximum value, and as each router receives this maximum metric, the network is then considered unreachable. CCNA2-54 Chapter 4

28 Count-to to-infinity Condition RIP defines infinity as 16 hops. When the routers count to infinity, they mark the route as unreachable. CCNA2-55 Chapter 4 Hold-Down Timers Hold-Down timers are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may have gone bad. They instruct routers to hold any changes that might affect routes for a specified period of time. CCNA2-56 Chapter 4

29 Hold-Down Timers If a route is identified as down or possibly down, any other information for that route containing the same status, or worse, is ignored for a predetermined amount of time (the hold-down down period). This means that routers will leave a route marked as unreachable in that state for a period of time that is long enough for updates to propagate the routing tables with the most current information. CCNA2-57 Chapter 4 Split Horizon Rule Split Horizon: Is another method used to prevent routing loops. The split horizon rule says that a router should not advertise a network through the interface from which the update came. CCNA2-58 Chapter 4

30 Split Horizon Rule B A e s Router 1 sends an update to Router 2 that Network A is available and Router 2 updates its routing table with the information. Router 2 recognizes a change in topology. This would normally trigger an update to neighbouring routers and cause a routing loop. With split horizon enabled, Router 2 realizes it received the information from Router 1 and does not send the update. CCNA2-59 Chapter 4 Split Horizon Rule Would Split Horizon avoid the routing loop in our example? When Network 1 went down, Router E sent an update to Router A. Router A then sent an update to Routers B and D that Network 1 was no longer available. Router C then sent an update to Router D that Network 1 IS available. CCNA2-6 Chapter 4

31 Split Horizon Rule Would Split Horizon avoid the routing loop in our example? I need HOLD to IT! send NO an update! WAY! Here is where split horizon comes in With Split Horizon disabled,, Router D would send an update to Router A about the status of Network 1 and set the routing loop in motion. With Split Horizon enabled,, Router D does not send the update to Router A because it already received an update about the status of Network 1 from Router A. A CCNA2-61 Chapter 4 Split Horizon Actually, that s s not quite true! Hops = 16 HOLD Well... IT! NO OK! WAY! Router D actually does send an update to Router A. This update has a metric of 16 which means that the route is unreachable and Router A ignores the update. When applied with split horizon, this deliberate poisoning of the route is called poison reverse. Split Horizon with Poison Reverse is enabled by default. CCNA2-62 Chapter 4

32 IP and Time-To To-Live (TTL) The Time to Live (TTL) is an 8-bit 8 field in the IP header that limits the number of hops a packet can traverse through the network before it is discarded. The purpose of the TTL field is to avoid a situation in which an undeliverable packet keeps circulating on the network endlessly. With TTL, the 8-bit 8 field is set with a value by the source device of the packet. CCNA2-63 Chapter 4 IP and Time-To To-Live (TTL) The TTL is decreased by 1 by every router on the route to its destination. If the TTL field reaches before the packet arrives at its destination, the packet is discarded and the router sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) error message back to the source of the IP packet. CCNA2-64 Chapter 4

33 Distance Vector Routing Protocols Distance Vector Routing Protocols Today CCNA2-65 Chapter 4 RIP and EIGRP For distance vector routing protocols, there are really only two choices: RIP or EIGRP. Feature Distance Vector Routing Protocols Speed of Convergence RIP RIPv2 EIGRP Slow Slow Fast Scalability Small Small Large Supports VLSM No Yes Yes Resource Usage Low Low Medium Implementation Simple Simple Complex The decision about which routing protocol to use in a given situation is influenced by a number of factors, including Size of the network. Compatibility between models of routers. Administrative knowledge required. CCNA2-66 Chapter 4

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