# A study of frustrated system in 2 dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet using the Ising model

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5 Introduction Recently, geometrically frustrated spin systems are attracting considerably many researchers due to their unique properties at low temperature. These geometrical frustrations produce a high degeneracy of ground state [1]. Magnetic frustration is a system in which the localized magnetic moments (or spins) interact through exchange interaction. However, the lattice system gives challenge to the interaction in order to form the lowest ground state. The various possible interactions lead to various ground states [2]. Some materials have different exchange interaction constant (J). This difference in J value can be obtained in triangular and square lattices, which is the simplest frustration case. Due to the energy in the system, depending on the order in microscopic levels, frustration causes disorder and leads to spin glass [3]. In this frustrated antiferromagnetic system, temperature plays an important role. Temperature determines how the magnetization approaches zero value in higher dimensions (2 or 3 dimensions) [4]. Studies of frustration in antiferromagnet are done by many researchers using various model. In the Ising model, when the system is heated, the spin will flip to up or down state; hence by using this model, the study is simpler compared to the other models [3-6]. In this study, simulation was done under the influence of temperature and competing J on the ground state and magnetization. The triangular lattice with 6 x 6 lattice points is used along with Monte Carlo method combined with Metropolis algorithm in order to understand the frustrated phenomena. Research Method Ising model was initially invented to solve the one dimension (1D) ferromagnetic system but failed to investigate the phase transition in the system [7]. Onsanger then extended this model to a higher dimension and showed the existence of a phase transition. In Ising model, the spin is determined as up ( = +1) or down ( = 1 ). Hence for the frustrated antiferromagnet, the Hamiltonian can be described as: (1) Using the Ising model, a study of frustrated antiferromagnet can be done via Monte Carlo method combined with Metropolis algorithm. Initially, the spin was selected randomly from the N-lattice points then flipped. This condition produces a new energy. If the new energy is lower than the previous, then the flipping process will be accepted, otherwise the probability of acceptance must be considered. If the obtained random number is smaller than the Boltzman factor obtained from the energy difference calculation, then the new energy will also be accepted. Otherwise, the initial condition is preferred. This simulation was done on triangular lattice with 6 x 6 lattice points including the boundary condition. The parameters in this study are temperature and exchange interaction ratio (J 2 /J 1 ) of 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Result and Discussion Fig. 1 shows magnetization of frustrated antiferromagnet in a triangular lattice. Without any competing interaction, the magnetization of the system is maintained at zero. By adding the interacting competition, magnetization of antiferromagnetic system is initially non-zero, but then drops to zero at some critical temperature. The magnetization drops at higher temperature as exchange interaction ratio is increased. The magnetization disappearance indicates that a phase transition from antiferromagnet to paramagnet has occured.

6 " # \$ % & Figure 1. Magnetization of frustrated antiferromagnet with J 2 /J 1 of (a) 0.0, (b) 0.3, (c) 0.5, (d) 1.0, and (e) 2.0.

7 \$ % & " # Figure 2. Energy of frustrated antiferromagnet with J 2 /J 1 of (a) 0.0, (b) 0.3, (c) 0.5, (d) 1.0, and (e) 2.0. The temperature dependence of energy is presented in Fig 2. At lower temperature, the energy of the system is constant. Then at the critical temperature, the energy is increased significantly. This critical temperature is called Neel s temperature. At Neel s temperature, many spins are flipped so that the energy is increased dramatically. This unique feature continues until some temperature point where the increase in energy is not significantly observed. From this figure, it can be suggested that there is a phase transition from antiferromagnet to paramagnet as explained before. Interestingly, the increase of J 2 /J 1 produces higher Neel s temperature. This also suggests that the interacting competition acts as a system ordering regulator. As the competing interaction ratio increases, the system ordering regulator also increases. Therefore, higher energy is needed to influence the system.

8 Conclusion The ground state of a frustrated antiferromagnetic system is affected by temperature. At Neel s temperature the energy of the system is increased significantly, which indicates that the system undergoes a phase transition from antiferromagnet to paramagnet. The competing interaction also affects the energy of the system. As the competing interaction ratio increases, the initial energy becomes smaller, and the phase transition occurs at a higher temperature. Acknowledgment The author would like to thank Yogyakarta State University for instrumental supports. References [1] M. ukoviˇc, et. al.: Phys. Lett. vol. 376 (2012): p [2] Klevets, P.N., et.al.: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 330 (2013): p.91. [3] Takengny, F.S., et al.: The African Review of Physics, vol. 7 (2012). [4] Olivi-Tran, N., et.al: Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. Vol. 3(2012): p [5] Fishman, R.S., et.al.: Physical Review B. vol. 84(2011): p [6] Wang, X.Z., et.al.: Physical Review Letters, vol. 78(1997): p [7] Ising, E., A.: Z. Phys, vol. 31(1925): p

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