Ohio Markets Grade Four

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1 Ohio Standards Connection: Economics Benchmark C Explain how competition affects producers and consumers in a market economy and why specialization facilitates trade. Indicator 6 Explain why many jobs in Ohio depend on markets in other countries and why Ohio is a market for goods and services from other countries. Lesson Summary: This lesson encourages students to examine the relationship between Ohio jobs and foreign markets. Students will participate in activities to help them understand that they live in a global economy and that jobs in Ohio are connected and dependent on other national and world markets. Specialization and exchange are introduced. Estimated Duration: Two hours and 30 minutes Commentary: Students should have prior knowledge of several economic concepts developed in grades K-3. A participant in the field test said, I liked the opportunity for students to work together. Learning by doing and learning from others is very important and allowing students to use their knowledge and creative talents to create a business display is an excellent idea. Pre-Assessment: See Attachment A, Pre-Assessment. Scoring Guidelines: Collect pre-assessments. Use these, the information from the class discussion and teacher s judgment to determine the level of knowledge of the students and to differentiate and guide instruction. Post-Assessment: See Attachment B, Post-Assessment. Scoring Guidelines: Score student responses to assure that students understand products that are traded and plausible reasons for trade. Instructional Tip: Additional time may be required to complete the postassessment, depending upon your students needs and abilities. Portions of the post-assessment may be assigned for homework. 1

2 Instructional Procedures: Day One 1. Conduct the pre-assessment. 2. Divide the class into groups of three and four and have them generate a list of Ohio businesses. Have the students start with local and community businesses and expand statewide. Have students use phone books, flyers, the Internet, newspapers (especially the business section) and/or the local chamber of commerce Web site. 3. After they have generated the lists, ask students to identify ways a business might depend on markets in other countries. For example, an Ohio company that sells tire repair kits in China where millions of people rely on bicycles for transportation. 4. Help students contact at least three exporting companies and ask them which countries are markets for their products. 5. From their lists of businesses, discuss with students which companies sell goods and services locally and which may depend on foreign markets. 6. Have students consider the following question, As a resident in Ohio, what goods or services do you buy from other countries? 7. Instruct students to check at home and bring to class a list of items produced in other countries. Day Two 8. In small groups, have students discuss their lists and speculate as to why Ohio is a market for goods and services from other countries. 9. Have each group explain their conclusions. Guide students to conclude that: a. Some products cannot be produced in the United States (bananas); b. Some countries specialize in particular products (Japanese electronics); c. Some countries can produce goods more cheaply because of lower production costs. 10. Working in small groups, have the students use an outline world map to identify the markets for Ohio products or services by coloring in yellow the countries where the products are sold. 11. Have students use red to identify countries that have companies which sell products in the United States. 12. Some countries may be both an exporter and importer, so the yellow and red will produce orange. 13. Debrief the activity by reviewing the concepts with the students. Focus on these four discussion questions: a. Why do countries trade goods and services? b. What jobs in Ohio produce goods and services sold in other countries? c. Why do some jobs in Ohio depend on markets in other countries? d. Why do people in Ohio buy products made in other countries? Day Three 14. Conduct the post-assessment. 2

3 Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Have students work in pairs or small groups on any of these assignments. If students work in small groups, consider having a parent volunteer work with each group as a facilitator. Have students create a slide-show presentation about one Ohio company and the markets in which it sells products. Have students create a fictitious Ohio business. Instruct students to write a business plan and identify potential markets. Have students work with a scribe to complete the written portions of this lesson. Extension: Have students research one Ohio business more fully. Instruct the students to find out where they sell their goods or services and why they sell in that market. Have students write a report about a parent s business. Have students write a business letter to a company to inquire about the markets in which they buy and sell. Homework Options and Home Connections: Have students seek parental assistance in finding Ohio businesses to use in their postassessment projects. Involve parents by inviting them to share information about the businesses for which they work. Have the parents share how their business is structured (the various jobs in their business), what goods and services the business purchases and from where they are purchased. Have parents share whether this business sells in any international markets, and if so, where. Have parents share information similar to the information students will need to provide on their post-assessment. Interdisciplinary Connections: English Language Arts Reading Process Benchmark B: Apply effective reading comprehension strategies, including summarizing and making predictions and comparisons, using information in text, between text and across subject areas. Indicator 4: Summarize important information in texts to demonstrate comprehension. Indicator 11: Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). Writing Applications Benchmark D: Write informational reports that include facts, details and examples that illustrate an important idea. Indicator 4: Write informational reports that include facts and examples and present important details in a logical order. 3

4 Research Benchmark A: Identify a topic of study, construct questions and determine appropriate sources for gathering information. Indicator 1: Identify a topic and questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information. Indicator 2: Locate sources and collect relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources). Benchmark D: Communicate findings orally, visually and in writing or through multimedia. Indicator 6: Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered. Mathematics Make math connections by reading charts and graphs, depending upon the resources used to complete the post-assessment. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: Phone books, flyers, the Internet, newspapers (especially the business section), world map, related videos and books (nonfiction and fiction). For the student: A list of Ohio businesses, phone books, flyers, the Internet, newspapers (especially the business section), information from the local chamber of commerce, world map. Vocabulary: goods services market specialization exchange (trade) Technology Connections: Use the Ohio Department of Development Web site to find information. Have students use computers to create flowcharts showing the relationship between Ohio jobs, Ohio goods and services and foreign markets, and the relationship between foreign jobs, foreign goods and services and Ohio markets. 4

5 Use the Internet for gathering data about various Ohio businesses and markets. Use Internet software and free Internet sites to develop rubrics (keyword: rubrics). Research Connections: Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. This includes the following: Creating graphic representations (organizers); Making physical models; Generating mental pictures; Drawing pictures and pictographs; Engaging in kinesthetic activity. Cooperative grouping has a powerful effect on student learning. This includes: Positive interdependence; Face-to-fact promotive interaction; Individual and group accountability; Interpersonal and small group skills; Group processing. Cues, questions and organizers help students retrieve what they already know about a topic. Activating prior knowledge is critical to learning new concepts. Tomlinson, Carol Ann and Heacox, Diane, The Differentiated Classroom, Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Differentiated instruction is not a single approach or formula, but includes elements of the following: Focuses on essential elements of a subject; Attends to student differences; Assessment and instruction are inseparable; Modifies content, process and products. Gardner, H., Multiple Intelligences: The theory in practice, New York: Basic Books, Gardner s multiple intelligences incorporate various learning styles into instruction. Learning styles include: verbal linguistic, visual/spacial, mathematical/logical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and musical/rhythmical. Attachments: Attachment A, Pre-Assessment Attachment B, Post-Assessment 5

6 Attachment A Pre-Assessment Directions: Work individually or in a small group to complete the questions. 1. List three to five products you or your parents have bought in Ohio that were produced in other countries. a. b. c. d. e. 2. Answer the following questions: a. Why do countries trade goods and services? b. What jobs in Ohio produce goods and services sold in other countries? c. Why do some jobs in Ohio depend on markets in other countries? d. Why do people in Ohio buy products made in other countries? 6

7 Attachment B Post-Assessment In the box draw a picture showing someone in Ohio buying goods or services from another country. Explain why people in Ohio buy goods and services from other countries. 7

8 Attachment B Post-Assessment In the box draw a picture showing someone in another country buying goods or services from Ohio. Explain why people in other countries buy goods and services from Ohio. 8

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