# Types of Elements

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1 chapter : Modeling and Simulation Then from the first equation, P 1 = 140(0.0714) = kn. 280 = MPa =, psi The structure pushes on the wall with a force of kn. (Note: we could have obtained this from the summation of forces in the x direction.) Now we need to find the stresses in each bar. The stress in bar 1 is Type of Finite Elements and Steps in FEA Process Note that both elements (bars) h a different elastic modulus σ () 1 = Ee 1 1 = E u u Physically, this is what we should expect from the simple L1 = N m m mm equation s = P /A since the load on each bar and its area 2 mm is the same. 0 mm This section discusses the most element ary 3 4 N FEA element N possible, an axial linear element with = only 200 a single ( 7. 4 degree ) of = freedom 1420 = 1420 = 142 MPa = 20, 600 psi 2(DOF). From 2 what you learned during mm mm the first week in your mechanics.. σ ( 2 ) = = = Ee E u u of mater ia ls course, you would have quickly found L the stresses in the structure without resorting to the complexity of the matrix equations. However, if we used a 2 three-dimensional beam element there are 6 DOF, and the possibility of moments and forces normal to the axes, which are not possible with a linear element. The mathematics quickly becomes very complex, and computer numerical analysis becomes a must..6.2 Types of Elements Finite element analysis was originally developed for two-dimensional (plane stress) situations. A three-dimensional solid causes an orders-of-magnitude increase in the number of simultaneous equations that must be solved, but by using higher-order mesh elements and faster computers these issues are routinely handled in FEA. Broadly, a continuum element is one whose geometry is completely defined by the coordinates of the nodes and allows variation of the displacement based on the deformation of the elements. Figure 2.16shows a few of the elements available in FEA. Triangles and quadrilaterials, Fig. 2.16a and b, are the simplest plane elements, with two degrees of freedom at each node. Adding additional nodes, either at the centroid or along the edges (Fig. 2.16c), provides for curved edges and faces. Whenever the boundaries are curved in three dimensions, a special class of elements called isoparametric elements are used. Figure 2.16d is an isoparametric triangle, (e) is a tetrahedron (tet), and (f) is a hexahedron (hex). These elements are most useful when it is desirable to approximate curved boundaries with a minimum number of elements. Another useful class of elements are structural elements. These are based on common structural shapes and types of loading used in the mechanics of solids. The most common structural elements are the axial element shown in Fig..13, and in Fig. 2.16the beam element (g), the plate element (h), and the shell element (i).

2 2440 engineering design (a) (d) (g) Nodes (b) (e) (h) (c) (f ) (i ) FIGURE 2.16 Some common elements used in finite element analysis. With the linear axial element, Sec..6.1,finding the values of the displacement vector u was straightforward. It could be expressed as a linear polynomial u = a 1 + a 2 x, where the constants are determined from the displacements at the nodes. In Fig..13, at node 1, x = 0, so u = u 1 = a 1. At node 2, x = L, so u = u 2 = a 1 + a 2 L. Therefore, a 1 = u 1 and a 2 = ( u 2 u 1 )/L. The variation in displacement over the element is u = a + u u a x = x u x L L u x = 1 + L u ( 1.34) This equation can be written in matrix form as x u = 1 L x u 1 L u2 N u ( 2.35) = { } [N] is called the shape factor of the element. It specifies the variation in displacement within the element. Two- and three-dimensional elements with more nodes and displacements at a node have much more complex shape factors. For example, in a 2-D triangular element

3 chapter : Modeling and Simulation 3441 with three nodes and two displacements per node, the components of displacement u along the x -axis and v along the y -axis are given by Eq. (.36). u= a + a x+ a y v = a + a x+ a y u Since the strain in the x - d i r e ct ion is ε x = a x = 2 we see that for this first-order element the strain is constant throughout the element. For a 2-D quadrilateral, with four nodes and two displacements per node, the components of the displacement are u= a + a x+ a y+ a xy ( 4.37) v = a + a x+ a y+ a xy ( 3.36) u Now the strain in the x - d i r e ct ion is ε x = a a y x = +, which provides for a strain 2 4 gradient in this higher-order element. Elements with additional nodes, like Fig. 2.16c, lead to still higher-order polynomials to express the strain more accurately within the element and to more accurately represent curved boundaries. Since FEA creates a model of elements that aims to predict the behavior of a continuum, the selection of type of element and its size is very important. For example, using straight-sided triangular elements to model the region around a hole in a plate would lead to a poor approximation to the circular hole unless the size of the elements is very small. This is an example of a type of modeling error called discretization. Formulation errors arise from using elements that do not exactly duplicate the way the physical part would behave under the loading. If we think that displacements change linearly over the meshed region, then a linear element would be appropriate. However, if the displacements vary quadratically, then there would be a formulation error, and a higher-order element should be chosen. To create a good element mesh, the stress distribution, not the stresses, should be understood beforehand. FEA software generally provides the capability for automatically meshing a solid with triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedrons, and hexahedrons. The accuracy of the model will be determined by its convergence error. This is the percent difference between the results of one run and the next iteration as either the element size or the nature of the element is changed. There are two ways that FEA software approaches this problem. In the h-element method, the size of the element (h is the element size) is reduced. In the p-element method ( p for polynomial), the software increases the element s order of the polynomial describing the variation of displacement with distance without changing the original mesh. Figure 3.17 illustrates these approaches. At the top left, we see the original mesh of first-order elements in an h -element approach. After the first run the analysis shows the stresses to be highest in the curved region, and the automatic mesher decreases the size of the elements in this region to account for the steep stress gradient (top right). A third iteration, with still smaller elements in the critical region, is run to see whether the stress is converging. The bottom of Fig illustrates the p-element approach. The initial mesh (bottom left) is changed by the automatic mesher to second-order

4 442 engineering design FIGURE 3.17 Top row h-element approach to improving accuracy in remeshing. Bottom row p-element approach. elements without changing the mesh size. There is controversy as to which is the better approach. The p -element method gives better representation of curved surfaces and is better suited where stress gradients are high. However, it requires much greater computational resources. Moreover, if the element is too large in the p-element method, it can have a major impact on accuracy. Many FEA software programs provide for both approaches. As to choice of elements, most 3-D work in FEA modeling is done with the higher-order elements shown in Fig. 2.16e and f. The -node tetrahedron element and the 20-node hexahedron element provide good results for stress analysis at reasonable mesh size with a similar number of nodes. 14 However, the -node tetrahedron elements provide accuracy comparable to the 20-node hexahedron at less computation time..6.3 Steps in FEA Process Finite element modeling is divided into three phases: preprocessing, computation, and post processing. However, even before entering the first phase, a careful engineer will 14. A. M. Ni a z y, Machine Design, Nov. 6, 1997, pp

5 chapter : Modeling and Simulation 5443 perform a preliminary analysis to define the problem. Is the physics of the problem well enough known? What is an approximate solution based on simple methods of analysis and calculation? Does the problem really need an expensive finite element analysis? Preprocessing phase : In the preprocessing phase the following decisions and actions are taken: The geometry of the part is imported from the CAD model. Because solid models contain great detail, they often must be simplified by deleting small nonstructural features and taking advantage of symmetry to reduce computation time. Make decisions concerning the division of the geometry into elements, often called meshing. The issue is knowing which types of elements to use, linear, quadratic, or cubic interpolation functions, and building a mesh that will provide a solution with the needed accuracy and efficiency. Most FEA software provide a means for automatically meshing the geometry. The finite element mesh is applied in one of two ways: structured (mapped) mesh or unstructured (free) mesh. Structured meshes have a clear structure of triangles or quadrilateral elements (for 2-D) or tets or hexes (for 3-D) that are produced by rule-based mapping techniques. Grid points can be distributed along lines with effective spacing, and well-graded grids can be constructed. This approach is effective when the geometry is relatively simple. With complex geometries a multiblock approach is used, in which the geometry is filled with an assemblage of meshed cubes. This requires the additional step of setting up the connections between the blocks. Unstructured meshing does not show structure in the placement of the elements. Determine how the structure is loaded and supported, or in a thermal problem determine the initial conditions of temperature. Make sure you understand the boundary conditions. It is important to incorporate sufficient restraints to displacement so that rigid body motion of the structure is prevented. Select the constitutive equation for describing the material (linear, nonlinear, etc.) that relates displacement to strain and then to stress. Computation: The operations in this phase are performed by the FEA software. The FEA program renumbers the nodes in the mesh to minimize computational resources by minimizing the size of the global stiffness matrix K. It generates a stiffness matrix k for each element and assembles the elements together so that continuity is maintained to form the global or structural matrix K. Based on the load vector the software generates the external loads and applies displacement boundary conditions. Then the computer solves the massive matrix equation for the displacement vector or whatever is the dependent variable in the problem. The constraint forces suchasp, inexample.1are 1 also determined. Post processing : These operations are also performed by the FEA software. In a stress analysis problem, post processing takes the displacement vector and converts into strains, element by element, and then, with the appropriate constitutive equation, into a field of stress values.

6 6444 engineering design A finite element solution could easily contain thousands of field values. Therefore, post processing operations are needed to interpret the numbers efficiently. Typically the geometry of the part is shown on which contours of constant stress have been plotted,fig..25. Mathematical operations may have to be performed on the data by the FEA software before it is displayed, such as determining the Von Mises effective stress. Increasingly, FEA software is being combined with an optimization package and used in iterative calculations to optimize a critical dimension or shape..6.4 Current Practice The key to practical utilization of finite element modeling is the model itself. To minimize cost, the model should contain the smallest number of elements to produce the needed accuracy. The best procedure is to use an iterative modeling strategy whereby coarse meshes with few elements are increasingly refined in critical areas of the model. Coarse models can be constructed with beam and plate structural models, ignoring details like holes and flanges. Once the overall structural characteristics have been found with the coarse model, a fine-mesh model is used, with many more elements constructed in regions where stress and deflection must be determined more accurately. Accuracy increases rapidly as a function of the number of degrees of freedom (DOF), defined as the product of the number of nodes times the number of unknowns per node. However, cost increases exponentially with DOF. The application of FEA to the complex problem of a truck frame is illustrated in Fig..18. A stick figure or beam model of the frame is constructed first to find the deflections and locate the high-stress areas. Once the critical stresses are found, a fine-mesh model is constructed to get detailed analysis. The result is a computergenerated drawing of the part with the stresses plotted as contours. In many instances, finite element modeling software is combined with computer modeling software to give a seamless suite of functionality. Some capabilities found in a typical mainline CAD system are: Easy 2-D to 3-D data integration and transition Easy design collaboration through sharing of drawings via Machine design tools, including a library of machine design features, weldment design capability, and a sheet-metal design feature Tools for plastic mold design Access to an online catalog of ready-made components Design visualization tools that allow simulation of stresses, deflections, and motions of parts in an assembly A fluid flow package that allows analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer problems. Because the software is integrated, there is no need to transfer the data to the analysis program. The last feature in this list is typical of a new class of finite element software called multiphysics modeling. Multiphysics software can create a computer simulation of any physical process that can be described with partial differential equations.

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