# CAE -Finite Element Method

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1 Engineering Design and Rapid Prototyping CAE -Finite Element Method Instructor(s) Prof. Olivier de Weck January 11, 2005

2 Plan for Today Hand Calculations Aero Æ Structures FEM Lecture (ca. 45 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos Introduction (ca. 30 min) Given by TA Follow along step-by-step Work on CAD and conduct FEA in teams(ca. 90 min) Work in teams of two First conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original model (16.682) 2

3 Course Concept today (16.682) 3

4 Course Flow Diagram (2005) Learning/Review Problem statement Deliverables Design Intro / Sketch Hand sketching (A) Hand Sketch CAD Introduction CAD design (B) Initial Airfoil FEM/Solid Mechanics Xfoil Airfoil Analysis FEM/Xfoil analysis (C) Initial Design Design Optimization Optimization optional CAM Manufacturing Training Structural & Wind Tunnel Testing Revise CAD design Parts Fabrication Assembly (D) Final Design (E) Completed Wing Assembly Test (F) Test Data & Cost Estimation (16.682) Final Review (G) CDR Package 4

5 Numerical Method Finite Element Method Boundary Element Method Finite Difference Method Finite Volume Method Meshless Method (16.682) 5

6 What is the FEM? FEM: Method for numerical solution of field problems. Description - FEM cuts a structure into several elements (pieces of the structure). - Then reconnects elements at nodes as if nodes were pins or drops of glue that hold elements together. - This process results in a set of simultaneous algebraic equations. Number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) Continuum: Infinite FEM: Finite (This is the origin of the name, Finite Element Method) (16.682) 6

7 Fundamental Concepts (1) Many engineering phenomena can be expressed by governing equations and boundary conditions Elastic problems Thermal problems Governing Equation (Differential equation) L( φ ) + f = 0 Fluid flow Electrostatics Boundary Conditions etc. B( φ ) + g = (16.682) 7

8 Fundamental Concepts (2) Example: Vertical machining center Elastic deformation Thermal behavior etc. Geometry is very complex! Equation: L ( φ ) + f = 0 Governing Boundary Conditions: B ( ) g 0 FEM A set of simultaneous algebraic equations φ + = [ K] { u } = { F } Approximate! You know all the equations, but you cannot solve it by hand (16.682) 8

9 Fundamental Concepts (3) [ ]{ } { } 1 K u = F {}= u [K] {} F Property Action Behavior Unknown Property [ K ] Behavior { u } Action { F } Elastic stiffness displacement force Thermal conductivity temperature heat source Fluid viscosity velocity body force Electrostatic Dielectric permittivity electric potential charge (16.682) 9

10 Fundamental Concepts (4) It is very difficult to solve the algebraic equations for the entire domain Divide the domain into a number of small, simple elements A field quantity is interpolated by a polynomial over an element Adjacent elements share the DOF at connecting nodes Finite element: Small piece of structure (16.682) 10

11 Fundamental Concepts (5) Obtain the algebraic equations for each element (this is easy!) Put all the element equations together E E E [K E ]{ u } = { F E } [K E ]{ u } = { F E } [K E ]{ u } = { F E } E E E E E E [K E ]{ u } = { F } [K E ]{ u } = { F } [K E ]{ u } = { F } E E [K E ]{ u E } = { F E } [K E ]{ u E } = { F E } [K E ]{ u } = { F } [ K]{ u } = { F } (16.682) 11

12 Fundamental Concepts (6) Solve the equations, obtaining unknown variabless at nodes. [ K]{ u } = { F } 1 {}= u [K] {} F (16.682) 12

13 Concepts - Summary - FEM uses the concept of piecewise polynomial interpolation. - By connecting elements together, the field quantity becomes interpolated over the entire structure in piecewise fashion. - A set of simultaneous algebraic equations at nodes. [ K]{ u } = { F} K: Stiffness matrix Property Action Behavior x: Displacement F: Load F Kx= F K x (16.682) 13

14 Brief History - The term finite element was first coined by Clough in In the early 1960s, engineers used the method for approximate solutions of problems in stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and other areas. - The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied to a wide variety of engineering problems. - Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s. (Abaqus, Adina, Ansys, etc.) - Klaus-Jurgen Bathe in ME at MIT Reference [2] (16.682) 14

15 Advantages of the FEM Can readily handle very complex geometry: - The heart and power of the FEM Can handle a wide variety of engineering problems - Solid mechanics - Dynamics - Heat problems - Fluids - Electrostatic problems Can handle complex restraints - Indeterminate structures can be solved. Can handle complex loading - Nodal load (point loads) - Element loads - distributed (pressure, thermal, inertial forces) - Time or frequency dependent loading (16.682) 15

16 Disadvantages of the FEM A general closed-form solution, which would permit one to examine system response to changes in various parameters, is not produced. The FEM obtains only "approximate" solutions. The FEM has "inherent" errors. Mistakes by users can remain undetected (16.682) 16

17 Typical FEA Procedure by Commercial Software User Preprocess Build a FE model Computer Process Conduct numerical analysis User Postprocess See results (16.682) 17

18 Preprocess (1) [1] Select analysis type - Structural Static Analysis - Modal Analysis - Transient Dynamic Analysis -Buckling Analysis - Contact - Steady-state Thermal Analysis - Transient Thermal Analysis [2] Select element type 2-D Linear Truss 3-D Quadratic Beam Shell Plate [3] Material properties E, ν, ρ, α, L Solid (16.682) 18

19 Preprocess (2) [4] Make nodes [5] Build elements by assigning connectivity [6] Apply boundary conditions and loads (16.682) 19

20 Process and Postprocess [7] Process - Solve the boundary value problem [8] Postprocess - See the results Displacement Stress Strain Natural frequency Temperature Time history (16.682) 20

21 Responsibility of the user 200 mm Fancy, colorful contours can be produced by any model, good or bad!! 1 ms pressure pulse BC: Hinged supports Load: Pressure pulse Unknown: Lateral mid point displacement in the time domain Results obtained from ten reputable FEM codes and by users regarded as expert.* Displacement (mm) Time (ms) * R. D. Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, (16.682) 21

22 Errors Inherent in FEM Formulation - Geometry is simplified. Domain Approximated domain FEM - Field quantity is assumed to be a polynomial over an element. (which is not true) True deformation Linear element Quadratic element Cubic element FEM - Use very simple integration techniques (Gauss Quadrature) -1 1 f(x) x Area: ( ) 11 f x dx f 1 + f (16.682) 22

23 2-D vs. 3-D In reality, everything is 3-D. But some problems can be simplified to 2-D (in structures, plane stress and plane strain). sheet Plane Stress Plane Strain σ = 0 ε z = 0 z thickness 0 z 3-D z thickness dam 2-D (16.682) 23

24 Truss vs. Beam Truss Beam Only supports axial loads Supports axial loads and bending loads (16.682) 24

25 Errors Inherent in Computing - The computer carries only a finite number of digits. e.g.) 2 = , π = Numerical Difficulties e.g.) Very large stiffness difference k 1 >> k 2, k 2 0 P P [(k + k ) k ] u = 1 P u 2 = k (16.682) 25

26 Mistakes by Users - Elements are of the wrong type e.g) Shell elements are used where solid elements are needed - Distorted elements - Supports are insufficient to prevent all rigid-body motions - Inconsistent units (e.g. E=200 GPa, Force = 100 lbs) - Too large stiffness differences Æ Numerical difficulties (16.682) 26

27 Plan for Today FEM Lecture (ca. 50 min) FEM fundamental concepts, analysis procedure Errors, Mistakes, and Accuracy Cosmos Introduction (ca. 30 min) Follow along step-by-step Conduct FEA of your part (ca. 90 min) Work in teams of two First conduct an analysis of your CAD design You are free to make modifications to your original model (16.682) 27

28 References Glaucio H. Paulino, Introduction to FEM (History, Advantages and Disadvantages) Robert Cook et al., Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1989 Robert Cook, Finite Element Modeling For Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1995 Introduction to Finite Element Method J. Tinsley Oden et al., Finite Elements An Introduction, Prentice Hall, (16.682) 28

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