Ocean Acidification, Warming and the Biological Carbon Pump Uta Passow MSI, UC Santa Barbara

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1 Ocean Acidification, Warming and the Biological Carbon Pump Uta Passow MSI, UC Santa Barbara S :40 Th. 26Mar Diam. 6-7 Lab Assistants: Caitlin Fairfield Julia Sweet Graduate Students, past and present, working on OA in my lab: Tullio Rossi Anna James Jan Taucher Shalin Seebah Jonathan Jones Collaborators: Mark Brzezinski, Craig Carlson, Ed Laws

2 Global Change Some direct and indirect changed to the abiotic environment of the surface ocean: Introduction - temperature - ocean acidification - allochthonous inputs (N, Fe) pco 2 today 370 Year 2100 ~750 µatm - stratification/ turbulence - light climate - nutrient availability & stoichiometry - sea level rise - deoxygenation, OMZ - trace element availability - exoenzyme activity - saturation state of CaCO 3 ph ~8.1 ~7.8 mixing irradiance nutrient input Adapted Rost et al. 2008

3 Carbon Sequestration by the Biological Pump Surface layer ~ 100 m 10 yrs. to surface 100 yrs. to surface ~ 1000 m 1000 yrs. to surface CO 2 DIC DIC & Nutrients DIC nutrients Allochthonous nutrient input Vertical migration POM & Export flux Gravitational settling Sequestration flux DOM Physical transport Euphotic zone Mesopelagic zone Deep Ocean Introduction Passow & Carlson 2012

4 The Problem: An Analysis of Relevant Scales Models Introduction Global Biochemical Cycle Ecosystem What we can measure well What we want to know (BCP) Community Species/ Population Physiological Response multiple

5 Hypothesis on TEP, aggregation and carbon flux Ambient Temp., pco 2 Future Temp., pco 2 Introduction Adapted Arrigo 2007 TEP = Transparent Exopolymer Particles: Sticky exopolysaccharides that form the matrix of most sinking marine snow

6 POC & TEP production as a function of pco 2 (exp. 1) 4500 POC in ug L present TEP in ug Xeq. L -1 future Note: Population level: Skeletonema costatum Higher pco 2 has no impact on POC leads to increased TEP Batch growth till nutrient limitation Carbon Fixation present future Rossi et al. in prep.

7 POC & TEP production as a function of pco 2 & temperature (exp. 3) POC Temp. effect Note: T. weissflogii: (CCMP 1336) Population level: Carbon Fixation TEP Temp. & pco 2 effect Higher pco 2 no impact on POC increased TEP Higher temperature increased POC Increased TEP Batch growth after N- limitation Taucher et al. L&O 2015

8 POC & TEP production as a function of pco 2 & temperature (exp. 3) POC pco 2 effect Note: Dactyliosolen fragilissimus Carbon Fixation Population level: TEP Temp. & pco 2 effect Higher pco 2 increased POC!!! increased TEP Higher temperature unchanged POC!!! decreased TEP!!! Batch growth after N- limitation Taucher et al. L&O 2015

9 TEP Production as a function of pco 2 & temperature (exp. 6) T. weissflogii: (CCMP1336) Note: Population level: TEP µg GXeq L ⁰C 20⁰C Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Higher pco 2: No consistent effect on TEP!!! Higher temperature: increased TEP Aggregation Seebah et al. PLOS ONE 2014

10 Why is there no consistent response pattern of POC and TEP to increased temperature and pco 2? Three coastal diatoms, all bloom forming Skeletonema costatum T. weissflogii: Dactyliosolen fragilissimus

11 1. Keeping Perspective Single abiotic stressor experiments: A fixed change in stressor may result in three different answers Performance (Optimum, Response) Curves Performance, e.g. growth Growth range Optimum Optimum Inhibition threshold Lethal limit Environmental parameter, e.g. temperature, irradiance, pco 2 Carbon Fixation

12 2. Interactive effects of multiple stressors (exp. 2) POC per cell TEP per cell pco 2 & Temperature CO 2 : P < Temp: P < CO 2 *Temp: P < C Amb 20C Amb 15C Fut 20C Fut CO 2 : P < Temp: P < CO 2 *Temp: P < C Amb 20C Amb 15C Fut 20C Fut POC per cell TEP per cell T. Weissflogii (CCMP 1053) pco 2 & light CO 2 : P < 0.05 (only POC) Light: P < CO 2 *Light: P < Amb HL Amb LL Fut HL Fut LL CO 2 : NS Light: P < CO 2 * Light: NS Amb HL Amb LL Fut HL Fut LL Passow & Laws subm. Carbon Fixation

13 Carbon Fixation

14 Hypothesis on POC and TEP production Future Temp., pco 2 Carbon Fixation

15 Aggregation & sinking velocity as a function of pco 2 (& TEP)(exp. 1) TEP in ug Xeq. L -1 Skeletonema costatum present future Total Aggregate Area mm Sinking velocity m/d present future 0 present future Rossi et al. in prep. Aggregation Sinking Velocity

16 Aggregation as a function of pco 2 & temperature (and TEP)(exp. 6) 20⁰C TEP µg GXeq L ⁰C Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Aggregation: T. weissflogii: Total Aggregate Volume cm ⁰C 20⁰C Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Amb Fut 1 Fut 2 Higher pco 2: decreased aggregation (independent of TEP) Higher temperature: decreased aggregation (increased TEP) Aggregation Seebah et al. PLOS ONE 2014

17 Sinking velocity as a function of pco 2 & temperature (exp. 6) No pco 2 effect 100 Sinking velocity m d ⁰C; more TEP 15⁰C Equivalent Spherical Diameter (ESD) mm Seebah et al. PLOS ONE 2014 Sinking Velocity

18 Hypothesis on aggregation and sinking velocity Future Temp., pco 2 Aggregation Sinking Velocity

19 Carbon Sequestration by the Biological Pump CO 2 Allochthonous nutrient input pco 2 & temperature Surface layer ~ 100 m ~ 1000 m DIC DIC & Nutrients POM & TEP (DOM) Euphotic zone Mesopelagic zone Deep Ocean Conclusions

20 Summary & Conclusions Carbon Fixation No a priori predictions with regards to carbon partitioning (between TEP and POC and DOC) as a function of increased temperature or pco 2 currently possible. The response is a function of stressor in relation to response curve of that species function of species physiology function of interactive effects of multiple environmental stressors Aggregation & Sinking Aggregation rate decreased at high pco 2 or high temperature Sinking velocity decreased at high temperature (more TEP), but no pco 2 effect per se (or maybe a high TEP effect). BCP Diatom aggregation section of the Biological Carbon Pump would suggest a weakening of carbon flux under high pco 2 and high temperature conditions Conclusions

21 Gotschalk

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