The climate cooling potential of different geoengineering options

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The climate cooling potential of different geoengineering options"

Transcription

1 The climate cooling potential of different geoengineering options Tim Lenton & Naomi Vaughan (GEAR) initiative School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK

2 Overview Climate context Method Cooling potential Side effects Conclusion

3 Prevention versus medicine Mitigation - Reducing greenhouse gas (especially CO 2 ) emissions Geoengineering large scale engineering of our environment in order to combat or counteract the effects of changes in atmospheric chemistry. National Academy of Sciences (1992) 1. Solar radiation management 2. Carbon dioxide removal

4 Future projections = High growth = Mid growth = Low growth IPCC (2007)

5 Potential climate tipping points Lenton et al. (2008) PNAS 105(6):

6 Some tipping points may be too close Lenton and Schellnhuber (2007) Nature Reports Climate Change

7 Geoengineering options Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

8 Geoengineering options Reflect more sunlight back to space Remove CO 2 from atmosphere and store it Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

9 How to quantify and compare them? Use radiative forcing (RF in W m -2 ) Linearly related to surface temperature change T s = RF Uncertain climate sensitivity parameter = K W -1 m 2 (best guess = 0.86) Useful reference points: Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9: Current anthropogenic RF ~ 1.6 W m -2 Doubling CO 2 gives RF = 3.71 W m -2

10 Solar radiation management Reflect more sunlight back to space Sunshades Stratospheric aerosols Increase surface albedo Increase cloud albedo Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

11 Quantification Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9: Radiative forcing at top of atmosphere Depends on change in planetary albedo Change in planetary albedo depends on: Albedo change of layer affected Fraction of Earth s area affected Prior absorption/reflection Changes in subsequent absorption/reflection Use global mean energy balance (land or ocean)

12 Reduce sunlight reaching the surface Sunshades Stratospheric aerosols Cloud albedo - CCN biological, mechanical Sunshades Stratospheric aerosols Increase cloud albedo Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

13 Sunshades in space At L1 point (Angel 2006) 4.7 million km 2 Multiple flyers ~0.3m 2 800,000 flyers/launch Just to counteract CO 2 rise of 2 ppm yr -1 requires: 35,700 km 2 yr -1 ~150,000 launches yr -1 Cartoon of reflectors in space RF = W m -2 In principle but not in practice

14 Stratospheric aerosol injection Depends on aerosol type, amount, effective radius Inject into lower stratosphere over tropics Mt S yr -1 to offset doubling CO 2 c.f. current ~50 Mt S yr -1 added to troposphere Stratospheric aerosols injection Mt Pinatubo eruption 1991 RF = W m -2 Feasible

15 Enhancing cloud albedo Cloud albedo depends on density of cloud droplets Enhance this by adding condensation nuclei Sea salt, dimethyl sulphide Sensitivity depends on: Hygroscopicity of aerosol Optical depth of cloud Changes in entrainment Mechanically enhance cloud albedo Stephen Salter RF = W m -2 Feasible but uneven

16 Increase reflection at the surface Cropland, Grassland Urban, human settlement Desert Increase surface albedo Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

17 Increase surface albedo Desert Reflective cover over Cropland, grassland Variegated species, light shrubs, leaf waxes Human settlement, urban areas Paved surfaces, roofs Urban heat island 50% global population Reflective roof surfaces Californian legislation Urban RF = W m -2

18 CO 2 removal from the atmosphere Remove CO 2 from atmosphere and store it Air capture Biochar Afforestation & reforestation Nutrient addition Carbonate addition Enhance downwelling Bio-energy capture Enhance upwelling Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

19 Quantification Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9: Radiative forcing a logarithmic function of CO 2 RF = 5.35 ln(co 2 /CO 2 ref ) Must specify reference concentration; CO 2 ref Any perturbation to atmospheric CO 2 decays away over time due to exchange with the ocean and land f(t) = e t/ e t/ e t/ e t/3.4 Removal flux of CO 2 is itself a function of time Must specify timescale of interest, chose 2050 and 2100

20 Removal of CO 2 - Land BioEnergy Capture & Storage Air capture - Artificial trees Biochar Afforestation Air capture Biochar Afforestation & reforestation Nutrient addition Carbonate addition Enhance downwelling Bio-energy capture Enhance upwelling Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

21 Air capture and storage of CO 2 Chemical air capture More costly Biomass energy with carbon capture & storage (BECS) Maximum estimate Biofuels replace oil in transport Biomass replaces coal for electricity production 11.8 PgC yr -1 in PgC stored by 2100 Direct air capture Klaus Lackner s artificial trees RF (2050) = W m -2 RF (2100) = -2.5 W m -2

22 Biochar CO 2 removal Pyrolysis converts up to 50% of carbon in biomass to charcoal Maximum estimate 0.56 PgC yr -1 at present Scaling up using biomass energy production 3.15 PgC yr -1 in 2100 Total biochar reservoir 148 PgC by 2100 Long term storage potential: 224 PgC global cropland 175 PgC temperate grassland Biochar biomass burnt in near zero oxygen (pyrolysis) RF (2050) = W m -2 RF (2100) = W m -2

23 Removal of CO 2 - Ocean Addition of Iron, Nitrate, Phosphorus Ocean pipes Add carbonate Increase downwelling Air capture Biochar Afforestation & reforestation Nutrient addition Carbonate addition Enhance downwelling Bio-energy capture Enhance upwelling Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

24 Ocean fertilisation Macronutrient addition Nitrate, Phosphate Micronutrient addition Iron fertilisation 12 Fe-addition patch experiments to date Assume removal of iron limitation globally Consider increase of sinking organic carbon flux below the depth of winter mixing Iron addition to Fe-limited surface waters to stimulate productivity Iron Fertilisation RF (2050) = W m -2 RF (2100) = W m -2

25 Radiative forcing potential (in 2100) All blue values are in W m -2 >-3.1 All green values are in ppm of CO 2 > desert grassland cropland settlements urban areas ~ ~ ppm +3.1 W m Lenton & Vaughan (2009) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:

26 Radiative forcing potential

27 Radiative forcing potential

28 Side effects of reflecting sunlight Weakens the water cycle Promotes drought in monsoon regions e.g. India Commitment to long-term maintenance Sudden stop of activity causes rapid warming Ocean acidification Does not address this impact (may increase it) Regional climate changes Residual differences in global climate

29 Side effects of CO 2 removal Land Possible conflicts with other land uses Other greenhouse gases and albedo effects Ocean Ecosystem impacts Difficult verification and monitoring

30 Conclusion Climate change is a problem of risk management Already a risk of dangerous climate change even with strong mitigation Need to weigh up the risks of using or not using geoengineering 2 types of geoengineering with very different side effects and risks Sunlight reflection options could be reserved for use in emergency Carbon dioxide removal could complement mitigation efforts It is the only way to return to the pre-industrial atmospheric CO 2 level

Phosphorus and Sulfur

Phosphorus and Sulfur Global Change Instruction Program Phosphorus and Sulfur The Important Nutrient Phosphorus Phosphorus is a key nutrient, fueling organic productivity on land and in water. A portion of its cycle is shown

More information

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least the past 650,000

More information

Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change. Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member

Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change. Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change What are the signs that climate change is occurring?

More information

Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I

Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I Contents 1. Greenhouse gas concentrations have continued to increase 2. Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative

More information

Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds. Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds. Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of the climate system for

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The Sun, which is the Earth's only external form of heat, emits solar radiation mainly in the form of visible and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As this radiation travels toward the

More information

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge Understanding Global Warming Global Warming is Real The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for January November 2013 was 0.62

More information

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy.

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. Earth Systems Overview of Earth s Spheres The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. LITHOSPHERE: The solid, rocky shell of the Earth is the

More information

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long

More information

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT)

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT) Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies Chien Wang (MIT) 1. A large-scale installation of windmills Desired Energy Output: supply 10% of the estimated world

More information

Forest carbon sequestration and climate change. Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin

Forest carbon sequestration and climate change. Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin Forest carbon sequestration and climate change Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin Overview Sequestration what is it & why important? Role of forests in climate change CARBiFOR research project Forest

More information

The Global Carbon Cycle

The Global Carbon Cycle The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing Global carbon reservoirs Glacial-interglacial cycles Anthropogenic CO2 Ocean-atmosphere partitioning Ocean carbon cycle Carbon distribution in the ocean Solubility

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of The Science and Ethics of Global warming Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of our time. It holds a fascination for scientists because of the tremendous complexity

More information

Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences

Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of

More information

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts 1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

More information

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing DR FLORA MACTAVISH AND DR SIMON BUCKLE Overview Human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and

More information

Extreme Climate Change and policy responses

Extreme Climate Change and policy responses Extreme Climate Change and policy responses Holland Climate House event Saturday 12 December, Copenhagen Leo Meyer Key message: 2 There are risks that climate change may happen faster or have more severe

More information

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant)

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant) Atmospheric "greenhouse effect" - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer Some relevant parameters and facts (see previous slide sets) (So/) W m -2 is the average incoming solar

More information

What is Greenhouse Effect?

What is Greenhouse Effect? Climatological Information Services > Climate Change > Green House Effect What is Greenhouse Effect? The Greenhouse Effect is a term that refers to a physical property of the Earth's atmosphere. If the

More information

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing How does radiative energy balance help determine Earth s climate? How does the greenhouse effect work? What is radiative forcing? References AR4 Ch. 2

More information

What is climate change? Global climate change. What is climate change? Glaciers and deserts. This winter was really cold!

What is climate change? Global climate change. What is climate change? Glaciers and deserts. This winter was really cold! What is climate change? This winter was really cold! Global climate change Temp difference ( C): Jan 2004 vs. Jan 2002-2003 Make your own maps at: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/data/update/gistemp/maps/ What

More information

Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems

Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems Introduction to Non- Conventional Energy Systems Dr.L.Umanand L. Umanand NCES/M1/V1/2004 1 Why Fossil Fuel Base? Applications need concentrated energy i.e. high energy densities. Extraction, storage, distribution

More information

Physics 100 Lecture 17. The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016

Physics 100 Lecture 17. The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016 1 Physics 100 Lecture 17 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016 4 Written Quiz Chapter 7 Timer applet 5 The Greenhouse Effect For an actual greenhouse, glass panels allow solar energy

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Understanding Global Warming Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Outline Starting Points What Sets the Earth s Thermostat? Global Warming and Climate

More information

A Combined Mitigation/Geoengineering Approach to Climate Stabilization

A Combined Mitigation/Geoengineering Approach to Climate Stabilization A Combined Mitigation/Geoengineering Approach to Climate Stabilization T. M. L. Wigley National Center for Atmospheric Research, Post Office Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 3000, USA. Projected anthropogenic

More information

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect

Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Friends of Science Society June 2011 By Ken Gregory revised September 2011 Out-going Longwave Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect Abstract The upward surface radiation is greater than the out-going longwave

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., 1980. The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., 1989. Glossary of Meteorology.

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses:

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: The Atmosphere Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: Absorption and emission of radiation by greenhouse gasses The atmospheric energy balance and the greenhouse effect The vertical structure of the atmosphere

More information

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other.

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other. Lungs of the Planet Name: Date: Why do people call rain forests the lungs of the planet? Usually it is because people think that the rain forests produce most of the oxygen we breathe. But do they? To

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Modelling the climatic influence of Volcanoes. Paul Valdes, Peter Hopcroft, Jessy Kandlbauer School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol

Modelling the climatic influence of Volcanoes. Paul Valdes, Peter Hopcroft, Jessy Kandlbauer School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Modelling the climatic influence of Volcanoes Paul Valdes, Peter Hopcroft, Jessy Kandlbauer School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Structure of Talk Introduction: How do climate models work?

More information

Emissions de CO 2 et objectifs climatiques

Emissions de CO 2 et objectifs climatiques Emissions de CO 2 et objectifs climatiques Pierre Friedlingstein University of Exeter, UK Plus many IPCC WG1 authors and GCP colleagues Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude Recent trends in anthropogenic CO

More information

TeachingEnglish Lesson plans

TeachingEnglish Lesson plans Worksheet 1: Taking notes What is climate change? To understand climate change, it s important to recognise the difference between weather and climate. Weather is the temperature, precipitation (rain,

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414)

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with

More information

The smell of the sea: Sulphur production by marine algae. Heidi L. Burdett

The smell of the sea: Sulphur production by marine algae. Heidi L. Burdett The smell of the sea: Sulphur production by marine algae Heidi L. Burdett The oceans have a distinctive smell that can transport us back to the seaside summer holidays we had as a child. But, have you

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

The greenhouse effect and global warming

The greenhouse effect and global warming CA1. The greenhouse effect and global warming. Vicky Wong Page 1 of 7 The greenhouse effect and global warming The sun produces radiation mainly in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and infrared (IR)

More information

How We Know Global Warming is Real

How We Know Global Warming is Real 31 How We Know Global Warming is Real The Science Behind Human-induced Climate Change T A P I O S C H N E I D E R ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least

More information

A Theoretical Analysis of the Effect of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere

A Theoretical Analysis of the Effect of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere A Theoretical Analysis of the Effect of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Michael Hammer A presentation to The Lavoisier Group s 2007 Workshop Rehabilitating Carbon Dioxide held in Melbourne on 29-30

More information

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature 14.1 The Earth-Sun System 1) Energy from the sun Observe the models of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in the room. a) Imagine that the distance between the Earth

More information

Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

Lecture 11 The Holocene and Recent Climate Change

Lecture 11 The Holocene and Recent Climate Change Lecture 11 The Holocene and Recent Climate Change Over the past 2 million years, the Earth has had ice sheets which have varied in size, causing alternations between ice ages and interglacial periods.

More information

Lecture 1: A Brief Survey of the Atmosphere

Lecture 1: A Brief Survey of the Atmosphere Lecture 1: A Brief Survey of the Atmosphere Origins of the atmosphere Vertical structures of the atmosphere Weather maps Thickness of the Atmosphere (from Meteorology Today) 70% The thickness of the atmosphere

More information

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Venus Exploration Advisory Group Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Dave Crisp November 5, 2007-1- Venus and Earth: An Unlikely Pair Most theories of solar system evolution assume

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

Where does carbon come from?

Where does carbon come from? Where does carbon come from? What are Carbon Sinks? Presentation by Jutta Kill SinksWatch jutta@fern.org www.sinkswatch.org Carbon dioxide is a gas that is created when carbon (C) comes in contact with

More information

The Science of Climate Change: Evidence, Examples, and Avoiding the Worst. Dr. Jeff Lewis

The Science of Climate Change: Evidence, Examples, and Avoiding the Worst. Dr. Jeff Lewis The Science of Climate Change: Evidence, Examples, and Avoiding the Worst Dr. Jeff Lewis Jeff.Lewis@viu.ca Outline Overwhelming burden of evidence Main driving forces of climate change Examples of present

More information

Chapter 3. The Greenhouse effect

Chapter 3. The Greenhouse effect Environmental Science 1. The Greenhouse effect 3.1 Greenhouse effect 3.2 Global energy balance 3.3 Anthropogenic Greenhouse effect 3.4 Increase in Greenhouse gases 3.5 Livestock influences on Greenhouse

More information

More and different clouds from transport

More and different clouds from transport More and different clouds from transport Klaus Gierens Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany Transport Emissions: The Climate Challenge

More information

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June 24 2010 What are the Major Greenhouse Gases? Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%)

More information

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19 Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19 Global Warming and Global Cooling Are Not New Over the past 4.5 billion years the climate has been altered by Volcanic emissions Changes in solar input Movement

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases Outline What drives the Climate? What are Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect? How the changes in GHG concentrations produce global warming/climate

More information

Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project. Frequently Asked Questions

Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project. Frequently Asked Questions Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project Frequently Asked Questions Q: What is woody biomass and where does it come from? A: Woody biomass for the Nevada County project will primarily

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Narration: This presentation will introduce you to biofuels and their impact on climate. You will also learn about future energy challenges.

Narration: This presentation will introduce you to biofuels and their impact on climate. You will also learn about future energy challenges. 1 Narration: This presentation will introduce you to biofuels and their impact on climate. You will also learn about future energy challenges. 2 Narration: How big is the energy challenge of climate change?

More information

Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt

Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt Global Warming The global climate is believed to be changing in response to the release of large amounts of heat-trapping

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work Ecosystem Ecology Read Chps 18-19 (know N, P, C cycles) Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus its nonlinving (=abiotic) environment At the individual level, the abiotic environment affects organisms

More information

The Global Water Cycle

The Global Water Cycle The Global Water Cycle OCN 401 November 18, 2014 1. The Global Water Cycle - Processes - Reservoirs and Fluxes - Composition Lecture Outline 2. Models of the Hydrologic Cycle 3. The History of the Water

More information

Oceans and sea level. Steve Rintoul. On behalf of the authors of Chapters 3 and 13 of IPCC AR5. Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude

Oceans and sea level. Steve Rintoul. On behalf of the authors of Chapters 3 and 13 of IPCC AR5. Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude Oceans and sea level Steve Rintoul On behalf of the authors of Chapters 3 and 13 of IPCC AR5 Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude The oceans have warmed. 0-700 m temperature trend, 1971-2010 Zonal average Change

More information

Geoengineering climate

Geoengineering climate Geoengineering climate Institute of Physics response to a Royal Society call for submissions A full list of the Institute s submissions to consultations and inquiries can be viewed at www.iop.org 24 November

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Climate Model Validation activities at the Met Office Hadley Centre

Climate Model Validation activities at the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Model Validation activities at the Met Office Hadley Centre Roger Saunders, Mark Ringer, Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo and Viju John Crown copyright Met Office Overview Climate model Satellite climate

More information

Updates. Global C cycle - key points: Ocean biogeochemistry - Part 1: Gas exchange and the carbonate system

Updates. Global C cycle - key points: Ocean biogeochemistry - Part 1: Gas exchange and the carbonate system Updates Ocean biogeochemistry Part 1: Gas exchange and the carbonate system Grad proposal new deadlines Outline by Oct 28 Optional deadline for grading early version Nov 16 Final due Dec 7 Next week breakout/presentation

More information

Ole Humlum; Oslo University

Ole Humlum; Oslo University Ole Humlum; Oslo University Earth Milankovitch Cycles Axial tilt is the inclination of the Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit around the Sun. Oscillations in the degree of Earth's axial

More information

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration Regents Earth Science Unit 8 Climate Water Cycle Most of Earth s water was created by volcanic out-gassing when the Earth formed and by impacts by comets early in Earth s history this water has remained

More information

Climate Change and Biomes

Climate Change and Biomes Climate Change and Biomes Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas WHAT YOU WILL LEARN Biome Climate zone Greenhouse gases 1. You will learn the difference between weather and climate. 2. You will analyze the effect

More information

OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CARIBBEAN:

OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CARIBBEAN: OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CARIBBEAN: CURRENT STATUS AND PAST STUDIES Climate Studies Group, Mona Department of Physics University of the West Indies, Mona Climate change is an issue of our times one

More information

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products?

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? Science S Theory Lesson Lesson information Level: Junior secondary school Year 10 Duration: Summary: Approximately 3 lessons Sustainably managed forests

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

Greenhouse gases. A snow-covered surface refl ects massive amounts of sunlight and therefore has a cooling effect on the climate.

Greenhouse gases. A snow-covered surface refl ects massive amounts of sunlight and therefore has a cooling effect on the climate. 13 Greenhouse gases - and their impact on the climate The greenhouse effect is the best understood and well mapped of the mechanisms that can lead to climate change. By Eigil Kaas and Peter L. Langen Our

More information

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Outline: The Earth s Energy Balance: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR) Blackbody Radiation Albedo (reflectivity) Greenhouse

More information

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Professor of Remote Sensing UCL Geography & NERC NCEO Aims of lecture In this lecture, we will: consider the importance of understanding the science of climate

More information

GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information

GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information - The internet as a resource - Use reputable web sites Government agencies: EPA, NASA, DOE, etc Academic Institutions

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Thermal energy removed Useful electrical energy output A. 2 1 B. 2 3 C. 3 1 D. 1 2 (Total 1 mark)

Thermal energy removed Useful electrical energy output A. 2 1 B. 2 3 C. 3 1 D. 1 2 (Total 1 mark) Practice Test: 37 marks (49 minutes) Additional Problem: 33 marks (48 minutes) 1. What is the phenomenon that best explains why greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation? A. Resonance B. Interference

More information

Keeping below 2 degrees

Keeping below 2 degrees Keeping below 2 degrees Avoiding dangerous climate change It is widely recognised that if the worst impacts of climate change are to be avoided then the average rise in the surface temperature of the Earth

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

CLIMATE CHANGE, HUMAN SYSTEMS, AND POLICY- Vol.I -Anthropogenic Climate Influences - Boroneant C.E.

CLIMATE CHANGE, HUMAN SYSTEMS, AND POLICY- Vol.I -Anthropogenic Climate Influences - Boroneant C.E. ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE INFLUENCES Boroneant C.E. National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest, Romania Keywords: greenhouse effect, greenhouse gas, atmospheric aerosol, ozone, anthropogenic

More information

Option C: Energy. Greenhouse effect

Option C: Energy. Greenhouse effect Option C: Energy C.5 Environmental Impact: Global Warming Greenhouse effect Natural greenhouse effect: absorption of infrared radiation by natural greenhouse gases (CO 2 and H 2 O vapour) in the atmosphere

More information

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud

Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud Ecosystem change and landsurface-cloud coupling Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, akbetts@aol.com Congress on Climate Change 8)Earth System Feedbacks and Carbon Sequestration Copenhagen, March 10, 2009

More information

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Additional material for Fundamentals of Sustainable Development, Niko Roorda, 2012. Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Debates on the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and climate change

More information

Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today

Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) describes the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during the 20th

More information

Anthropogenic global warming

Anthropogenic global warming Anthropogenic global warming The political pressure behind sustainable energy technology development will be the victim if the IPCC looses its credibility. That must not happen. We must find the right

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Eruption of Mt. Kilauea Impacted Cloud Droplet and Radiation Budget over North Pacific

Eruption of Mt. Kilauea Impacted Cloud Droplet and Radiation Budget over North Pacific Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study, Eds. M. Uematsu, Y. Yokouchi, Y. W. Watanabe, S. Takeda, and Y. Yamanaka, pp. 83 87. by TERRAPUB 2014. doi:10.5047/w-pass.a01.009 Eruption of Mt. Kilauea Impacted

More information

COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm]

COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm] 5 COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm] Fix of Section 5 tables, but no change needed. EEH 955am 11nov00: The cost of greenhouse gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS

UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS OECD Workshop on the benefits of climate policy. Paris, 12/13 December 2002 UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS Geoff Jenkins Hadley Centre MetOffice,UK 1 CLIMATE CHANGE DEPENDS UPON: How man-made

More information

Climate science of methane

Climate science of methane 14 Chapter 2: Climate science of methane Climate science of methane 2.1 Introduction Methane is the most abundant reactive trace gas in the atmosphere and arises from both natural and anthropogenic sources.

More information