Hard Anemone. II. The Coral Host. Some scleractinian coral growth forms. Zooxanthallae participate In a mutualistic Association with Corals.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Hard Anemone. II. The Coral Host. Some scleractinian coral growth forms. Zooxanthallae participate In a mutualistic Association with Corals."

Transcription

1 Hard Anemone An exoskeleton Even though it lies Beneath the animal Some scleractinian coral growth forms massive II. The Coral Host branching plate like foliaceous encrusting columnar Free-living Algae in coral tissue Already present in planula Zooxanthallae participate In a mutualistic Association with Corals. Both members of the association benefit as indicated by the cycling of carbon (one important nutrient is Nitrogen) 1

2 III. Coral Reef Community Structure Hard Substrate Coral Reef Structure: 3 main types of reef What is the process by which reefs are formed? Hard Substrate Coral rubble Consolidation Fringing Reef Barrier Reef Atoll Hard Substrate Darwin first explained how reefs form. Island Fringing Reef IV. Biogeography of Coral Reefs Where do Coral Reefs Occur? Atoll Barrier Reef Lagoon And that Each type Is a stage In the same process Calcium Carbonate Original Island Where do Coral Reefs Occur? Solar radiation Number of Genera Temperature Indo-Pacific Maximum diversity Atlantic Maximum diversity In areas where mean avg. temp. >20 C Especially where fluctuations are small But not too far above 27 C. 2

3 V. Physical Factors and Zonation in Coral Reef Communities High temperature, high light (UV), desiccation runoff, etc. keep many corals from the reef flat Wave action, major storms control the reef front Vertical Zonation Of a Fringing Reef A. Competition for space between Corals Competition video B. Herbivory by Sea Urchins and Fish Extensive fisheries starting in the 1950 s had little additional effect on coral reefs However major predators of sea urchin Diadema and herbivorous fish competitors were lost From a mass die-off of sea urchins due to a disease reduced populations by 99% This was followed by extensive take over of reefs by algae Hughes, 1994 Hughes,

4 Hughes, 1994 Hughes, 1994 Impact of fisheries Fisheries vs. hurricanes Resilience Role of herbivory Phase shifts Roberts C.M Conservation Biology Vol 9: VII. Climate Change and Coral Reefs What Cellular Events Lead to Bleaching? Bleaching Event in the Maldives Two Alternative Mechanisms Before During After 4

5 Temperature fluctuations in the GBR related to the onset of bleaching (arrows) The displaced symbiont is inferior to invading symbionts Replacement of the resident population in an animal requires depletion of the population (e.g. Hydra with nutritionally inferior and superior strains) An alternative strain is available to populate the bleached animal hosts (may be residual or external in origin) McField (1999) also identifies temperature as the cause of bleaching in Belize during 1995 Hughes et al 2003, Science Vol. 301 p 929 Invariant bleaching threshold leads to massive losses bleaching is an ecological gamble in that it sacrifices short-term benefits for long term advantage. This counters conventional wisdom that bleaching is detrimental from all perspectives, and supports the role of symbionts as adaptive agents. Andrew C. Baker In rebuttal: there is no guarantee that temperature was the stressor that caused bleaching. Also, as light energy is critical to coral survival, stressed corals might survive better when transplanted to the more sunlit site and less well after transfer to deep water. Baker is unable to distinguish newly invading genotypes from other rare genotypes that are present in the host and which simply increase in proportion. The latter is a phenotypic change known as acclimatization and as such is restricted in its provision of new genetic combinations for evolution. Hoegh Guldberg et al. Bleaching threshold as a broad spectrum of responses leads initially to differential bleaching Adaptive bleaching response may lead to evolution in some species Acclimatization vs. Adaptation 5

6 Acidification of the Oceans Baker et al 2004 Conducted molecular studies of Symbiodinium in corals from reefs differentially affected by ENSO: in Panama before and after bleaching events from heat adapted & bleached Persian Gulf to milder Red Sea severely bleached Kenyan corals to unbleached Mauritius corals Under this model, Coral reefs would reach a point where maintenance of a coral dominated phase rather than an algal dominated phase would be nearly impossible U.S. Coral Reefs Annual revenues from reef tourism in Keys is $1.6 billion Only 6% of the Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary is no take Purple Pandolfi et al Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science #307: Pandolfi et al Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science #307:

Impact of the 2010 mass coral bleaching event on Tobago s Reefs

Impact of the 2010 mass coral bleaching event on Tobago s Reefs Impact of the 2010 mass coral bleaching event on Tobago s Reefs Jahson B. Alemu I Environmental Research Programme Crown Plaza, Port of Spain September 2012 What are corals? Coral reefs Coral reefs are

More information

Climate Change and Coral Bleaching in Puerto Rico: Efforts and Challenges

Climate Change and Coral Bleaching in Puerto Rico: Efforts and Challenges Climate Change and Coral Bleaching in Puerto Rico: Efforts and Challenges June 18-20, 2003 Oahu, Hawaii 1 2 Aileen T. Velazco-Domínguez, MS Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources

More information

Symbiosis: Responding to Coral Bleaching in the Two Samoas

Symbiosis: Responding to Coral Bleaching in the Two Samoas Symbiosis: Responding to Coral Bleaching in the Two Samoas Coral reefs get their structure from calcium carbonate skeletons built by individual corals (animals) which take many shapes and their colors

More information

GREAT BARRIER REEF. Climate Change Action Plan

GREAT BARRIER REEF. Climate Change Action Plan GREAT BARRIER REEF Climate Change Action Plan 2007 2011 Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is internationally renowned as

More information

The impact of coral bleaching 2010

The impact of coral bleaching 2010 The impact of coral bleaching 2010 in the Andaman Sea and the management to mitigate the impact Presented by Niphon Phongsuwan Phuket Marine Biological Center, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources

More information

Smithsonian Marine Science Network

Smithsonian Marine Science Network Smithsonian Office of the Under Secretary for Science Smithsonian Marine Science Network Michael A. Lang January 2010 1 2 Smithsonian Marine Science Network The Smithsonian Marine Science Network is a

More information

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Coral Reefs Lecture Notes (Topic 10D) page 1 Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Corals Polyps & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyps Are coral polyps algae or animals? Description (What do coral polyps look like? Make a

More information

Coral Bleaching. Ann-Tin Cheng, ID#0628482 Cathy Wu, ID#0633019

Coral Bleaching. Ann-Tin Cheng, ID#0628482 Cathy Wu, ID#0633019 Coral Bleaching Ann-Tin Cheng, ID#0628482 Cathy Wu, ID#0633019 1. Elevated/ Decreased Sea Water Temperature Causes 2. 3. Solar Irradiance Subaerial Exposure 4. Sedimentation 5. Fresh Water Dilution 6.

More information

Figure 4. Clown fish and anemone. Figure 5. Sea spider. Page 2 of 6. Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/bio102

Figure 4. Clown fish and anemone. Figure 5. Sea spider. Page 2 of 6. Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/bio102 Symbiosis The phrase symbiotic relationship simply refers to a close ecological relationship between two different species. These relationships differ along a spectrum from positive to negative interactions.

More information

Climate change and coral reefs key issues and risks for the Maldives

Climate change and coral reefs key issues and risks for the Maldives Climate change and coral reefs key issues and risks for the Maldives PROJECT REGENERATE AN IUCN AND USAID INITIATIVE Climate change is happening now The earth s climate is changing. Around the world people

More information

Staghorn Corals and Climate Change

Staghorn Corals and Climate Change Better to burn out than to phade away? Summary As well as being the most biodiverse ecosystems in the marine realm, coral reefs provide protein, livelihoods and services to tens of millions of people worldwide.

More information

ACT NOW for the future of our reefs

ACT NOW for the future of our reefs Do It Yourself Kit WWW.CORALWATCH.ORG ACT NOW for the future of our reefs Rising water temperatures are a major contributor to mass coral bleaching events. Get involved in CoralWatch to monitor and protect

More information

Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009. ICRI Monaco Jan 2010

Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009. ICRI Monaco Jan 2010 Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 ICRI Monaco Jan 2010 Eight assessments - Values Eight assessments - Pressures and responses OUTLOOK What does this mean for the Great Barrier Reef's future? Making

More information

Reef Magic Education and Research Field trips. Links to the Australian Curriculum v6.0 Science

Reef Magic Education and Research Field trips. Links to the Australian Curriculum v6.0 Science Reef Magic Education and Research Field trips. Links to the Australian Curriculum v6.0 Science Year Level Biological Science Description Foundation Living things have basic needs including food and water.

More information

The World Bank & the Ocean. A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty

The World Bank & the Ocean. A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty The World Bank & the Ocean A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty Why oceans matter to the World Bank NUTRITION Seafood provides 16% of the world s animal protein 1 billion people in developing

More information

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy

2. What kind of energy is stored in food? A. chemical energy B. heat energy C. kinetic energy D. light energy Assessment Bank Matter and Energy in Living Things SC.8.L.18.4 1. What is energy? A. anything that takes up space B. anything that has mass C. the ability to conduct current D. the ability to do work 2.

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity: Third Edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Scope of the Presentation Status and trends

More information

Integrating Near Real-Time Data for Coral Reef Ecosystem Forecasting

Integrating Near Real-Time Data for Coral Reef Ecosystem Forecasting Integrating Near Real-Time Data for Coral Reef Ecosystem Forecasting NOAA s Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON) Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Laboratory Review, March 18, 2008

More information

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE OPEN WORKING GROUP ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE OPEN WORKING GROUP ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS EIGHTH SESSION OF THE OPEN WORKING GROUP ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS New Zealand intervention in segment on Oceans and Seas Stephanie Lee, Chargé d'affaires a.i. 4 February 2014 Check against delivery

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

7/24/11. Zones of the Ocean. Green algae. Red algae. Kelp. Fucoid brown. Some of the abundant animal groups. barnacles. Physical Environment

7/24/11. Zones of the Ocean. Green algae. Red algae. Kelp. Fucoid brown. Some of the abundant animal groups. barnacles. Physical Environment 7/24/11 Zones of the Ocean I. Physical Environment III. Patterns in the Biota III. Processes Only lines on the outline of the ocean; belies its importance to humankind as a key component of nearshore coastal

More information

Sunshine State Standard Benchmarks

Sunshine State Standard Benchmarks National Science Education Standards (9-12) Physical Science - Structure of atoms - Structure and properties of matter - Chemical reactions - Motions and forces - Conversation of energy and increase in

More information

Sitename:-Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System

Sitename:-Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System Sitename:-Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System Site Description:-The coastal area of Belize is an outstanding natural system consisting of the largest barrier reef in the northern hemisphere, offshore atolls,

More information

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology Introduction to Ecology Reading: Chapter 50 Introduction, today Chapter 52 Population ecology, today and W Chapter 54 Ecosystem ecology, W&F Outline of Lecture 1. Branches of ecology 2. Factors affecting

More information

ICRI Resolution on Artificial Coral Reef Restoration and Rehabilitation

ICRI Resolution on Artificial Coral Reef Restoration and Rehabilitation ICRI Resolution on Artificial Coral Reef Restoration and Rehabilitation This Resolution was tabled and discussed at the ICRI General Meeting in Seychelles on Wednesday, 27 April 2005. It was approved after

More information

CORAL BLEACHING A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES CHAPTER 4

CORAL BLEACHING A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES CHAPTER 4 CORAL BLEACHING A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES CHAPTER 4 A REEF MANAGER S GUIDE TO CORAL BLEACHING 4. CORAL BLEACHING A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES The mass coral bleaching events that

More information

Ocean Ecosystems. Target Audience: Middle School. Next Generation Science Standards* 5- LS2; MS- LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Ocean Ecosystems. Target Audience: Middle School. Next Generation Science Standards* 5- LS2; MS- LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics Ocean Ecosystems Abstract What s in the ocean? Only 5% of the ocean has been explored and yet it is the largest ecosystem in the world. It affects the entire planet and this creates a great need to understand

More information

Belize Coral Bleaching Response & Management Plan

Belize Coral Bleaching Response & Management Plan Belize Coral Bleaching Response & Management Plan 2008-2013 An Overview of the Response, Management Activities & Recommendations List of Figures List of Tables List of Acronyms Forward TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Coral Reef Watch A Satellite View. AE Strong. Satellite SST Anomalies. January 2002 May 2003

Coral Reef Watch A Satellite View. AE Strong. Satellite SST Anomalies. January 2002 May 2003 Coral Reef Watch A Satellite View AE Strong Satellite SST Anomalies January 2002 May 2003 Coral Reefs, Climate, and Coral Bleaching Workshop June 18-20, 2003 Turtle Bay, Oahu, HI NOAA s Program Leaders:

More information

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE POTENTIAL OF INCREASE IN COASTAL VULNERABILITY IN TINHARÉ AND BOIPEBA ISLANDS, BAHIA, BRAZIL, IN FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE POTENTIAL OF INCREASE IN COASTAL VULNERABILITY IN TINHARÉ AND BOIPEBA ISLANDS, BAHIA, BRAZIL, IN FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE CONSIDERATIONS ON THE POTENTIAL OF INCREASE IN COASTAL VULNERABILITY IN TINHARÉ AND BOIPEBA ISLANDS, BAHIA, BRAZIL, IN FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE Carla I. Elliff & Ruy K. P. Kikuchi Universidade Federal da

More information

A Comparison of Brain Coral Bleaching And Water Quality at Champagne Bay and Rodney s Rock

A Comparison of Brain Coral Bleaching And Water Quality at Champagne Bay and Rodney s Rock A Comparison of Brain Coral Bleaching And Water Quality at Champagne Bay and Rodney s Rock Lauren Divine, Carolyn Campbell, Ricci Loughridge, Travis Krause June 8, 20006 Texas A&M University Study Abroad

More information

Marine Invertebrates (Ch.9) part 3. Echinoderms Invert chordates CAT Review Game BINGO

Marine Invertebrates (Ch.9) part 3. Echinoderms Invert chordates CAT Review Game BINGO Marine Invertebrates (Ch.9) part 3 Echinoderms Invert chordates CAT Review Game BINGO Ph. Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins) Ph. Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins) Have spiny skin Water vascular

More information

WEB OF LIFE Kelp keystone species ecosystem extinction decimated predator invertebrates proliferated inhabit herbivorous biodiversity prey profound

WEB OF LIFE Kelp keystone species ecosystem extinction decimated predator invertebrates proliferated inhabit herbivorous biodiversity prey profound WEB OF LIFE Sea otters live in the shallow waters of the Pacific and in various types of habitats that include rocky shores, tidal estuaries, and kelp forests. Kelp forests are a key habitat often associated

More information

Coral Bleaching Environmental stresses can cause irreparable harm to coral reefs. Unusually high seawater temperatures may be a principal culprit

Coral Bleaching Environmental stresses can cause irreparable harm to coral reefs. Unusually high seawater temperatures may be a principal culprit Coral Bleaching Environmental stresses can cause irreparable harm to coral reefs. Unusually high seawater temperatures may be a principal culprit by Barbara E. Brown and John C. Ogden ate summer of 1987

More information

Experimental Effects of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs: Synergic Impacts and Management Implication

Experimental Effects of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs: Synergic Impacts and Management Implication Experimental Effects of Climate Change and Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs: Synergic Impacts and Management Implication Jamaluddin Jompa -- Dean: Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries UNhas - Secretary

More information

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

SLOW ONSET EVENTS. climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY

More information

The Need Is Mutual: The Importance of Biological Interactions

The Need Is Mutual: The Importance of Biological Interactions The Need Is Mutual: The Importance of Biological Interactions Science Topic: Food Webs Grades: 6 th -8 th Essential Question: What kinds of relationships are involved in biological interactions? Lesson

More information

Make an Edible Coral Reef

Make an Edible Coral Reef Discover Your World With NOAA Make an Edible Coral Reef Spanish hogfish at reef. Coutesy Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary You have probably seen pictures of coral reefs before lots of colors, fishes,

More information

CORAL REEFS AND HURRICANES IN 2005. edited by Clive Wilkinson and David Souter

CORAL REEFS AND HURRICANES IN 2005. edited by Clive Wilkinson and David Souter STATUS STATUS OF CARIBBEAN OF CORAL REEFS OFAFTER THE WORLD: BLEACHING 2008 AND HURRICANES IN 2005 edited by Clive edited Wilkinson by Clive Wilkinson and David Souter Expert opinion i of 372 coral reef

More information

There are many existing and potential impacts that climate change have and will have on Tuvalu s ability to feed its nation.

There are many existing and potential impacts that climate change have and will have on Tuvalu s ability to feed its nation. Tuvalu s Views on the Possible Security Implications of Climate Change to be included in the report of the UN Secretary General to the UN General Assembly 64 th Session. A: Security Implications of Climate

More information

Oregon. Climate Change Adaptation Framework

Oregon. Climate Change Adaptation Framework Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework Oregon Environmental Quality Commission Climate Change Adaptation Framework Presentation at a glance: Purposes of the framework Participating agencies Climate

More information

Chapter 8 Lower Invertebrates I: Sponges & Radiata

Chapter 8 Lower Invertebrates I: Sponges & Radiata Chapter 8 Lower Invertebrates I: Sponges & Radiata Karleskint Turner Small Key Concepts Sponges are asymmetric, sessile animals that filter food from the water circulating through their bodies. Sponges

More information

Maritime Thematic Unit

Maritime Thematic Unit Maritime Thematic Unit 21101 NE 26 th Avenue Miami Fl, 33180 Principal: Luis A. Bello Aventura Waterways K 8 Assistant Principals: Lakesha Wilson Rochelle and Scott Saperstein Science Department Chair/Science

More information

Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Securities

Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Securities 2008/MRCWG/022 Agenda Item: 10 Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Securities Purpose: Information Submitted by: Indonesia 21 st Marine Resource Conservation Working Group

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

Over-fishing too much for the Reef

Over-fishing too much for the Reef Over-fishing too much for the Reef Over- aggressive fishing hasn t been much of a problem for The Great Barrier Reef until the past few decades. The Great Barrier Reef, a highly popular tourist destination

More information

THE NEED IS MUTUAL: THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS

THE NEED IS MUTUAL: THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS THE NEED IS MUTUAL: THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS Subject Area: Science - Food Webs Grades: 6 th -8 th Time: This lesson can be completed in two 45 minute sessions. Essential Question: What

More information

Marine Invertebrate diversity along a reef gradient at Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park

Marine Invertebrate diversity along a reef gradient at Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park Marine Invertebrate diversity along a reef gradient at Tunku Abdul Rahman Marine Park Eka Fatmawati, Subekti Sulistyawati, Megan Bartlett, Toh Kok Ben, Ian McFadden & Ruchira Somaweera ABSTRACT We compared

More information

P E T I T I O N TO THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE REQUESTING INCLUSION OF BELIZE BARRIER REEF RESERVE SYSTEM

P E T I T I O N TO THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE REQUESTING INCLUSION OF BELIZE BARRIER REEF RESERVE SYSTEM P E T I T I O N TO THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE REQUESTING INCLUSION OF BELIZE BARRIER REEF RESERVE SYSTEM IN THE LIST OF WORLD HERITAGE IN DANGER AS A RESULT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOR PROTECTIVE MEASURES

More information

CORAL BLEACHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS: ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES AND RECOVERY IN MADAGASCAR, COMOROS, MAYOTTE AND REUNION.

CORAL BLEACHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS: ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES AND RECOVERY IN MADAGASCAR, COMOROS, MAYOTTE AND REUNION. CORAL BLEACHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS: ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES AND RECOVERY IN MADAGASCAR, COMOROS, MAYOTTE AND REUNION. Jean-Pascal Quod and Lionel Bigot Agence pour la recherche et la valorisation

More information

Corals and coral reefs

Corals and coral reefs 10 Corals and What you will learn A tiny polyp protecting a giant Increasing in number Formation of reefs Organisms Adaptation to the environment Threats to Endangered organisms 101 Corals and 10a A tiny

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S.

Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S. Water Pollution and Algal Blooms in the Coastal Waters of the U.S. edited by David L. Alles Western Washington University e-mail: alles@biol.wwu.edu Last updated 2008-2-27 Note: In PDF format most of the

More information

The Importance of Protecting Marine Biodiversity. Jeff Hilchey

The Importance of Protecting Marine Biodiversity. Jeff Hilchey The Importance of Protecting Marine Biodiversity Jeff Hilchey January 12 th, 2003 Earth is a closed system and therefore, all of its life is interdependent, relying upon each other as resources. The more

More information

Influential passengers:

Influential passengers: Influential passengers: monitoring invasive species through High Throughput DNA Sequencing during EXPO2015 Maurizio Casiraghi ZooPlantLab, The research topics in the scientific area are committed to the

More information

How do abiotic factors and physical processes impact life in the ocean?

How do abiotic factors and physical processes impact life in the ocean? This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Activitydevelop Ocean Abiotic Factors

More information

Coral Growth: Photosynthesis & Calcification

Coral Growth: Photosynthesis & Calcification Coral Growth: Photosynthesis & Calcification Materials For the leader: Projector Whiteboard to project data graph onto For the activity: Copy of coral data table Computer program to graph in or graphing

More information

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations 8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations Watch and Think https://www.youtube.com/embed/ysa5obhxz- Q?feature=player_embedded What

More information

Climate Council Communications Guide: GREAT BARRIER REEF BLEACHING EVENT FEBRUARY - APRIL 2016

Climate Council Communications Guide: GREAT BARRIER REEF BLEACHING EVENT FEBRUARY - APRIL 2016 Climate Council Communications Guide: GREAT BARRIER REEF BLEACHING EVENT FEBRUARY - APRIL 2016 CLIMATECOUNCIL.ORG.AU Published by the Climate Council of Australia Limited ISBN: 978-0-9944926-8-5 (web)

More information

2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion

2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion 2014 GED Test Free Practice Test Companion Now that you have viewed or taken the 2014 GED Free Practice Test, the information in this Companion will help you understand what content is covered on each

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

Coral reefs provide a diverse array of goods and services. Coastal Capital: Jamaica. The Economic Contribution of Jamaica s Coral Reefs

Coral reefs provide a diverse array of goods and services. Coastal Capital: Jamaica. The Economic Contribution of Jamaica s Coral Reefs Coastal Capital: Jamaica The Economic Contribution of Jamaica s Coral Reefs Coral reefs provide a diverse array of goods and services to the people and economy of Jamaica. They help to build and protect

More information

The Solubility of Calcium Carbonate

The Solubility of Calcium Carbonate 1 The Solubility of Calcium Carbonate Lesson Plan Developed by: John Thurmond, Plainfield North High School, Plainfield, Illinois Based on Presentation June, 2011. Northwestern University, Climate Change

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

Restoring the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef:

Restoring the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef: Restoring the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef: - an important component of ecosystem based management International Symposium on Marine Nature Restoration Copenhagen 11 th -12th March 2013 Jon Day

More information

GRADE 6 SCIENCE. Demonstrate a respect for all forms of life and a growing appreciation for the beauty and diversity of God s world.

GRADE 6 SCIENCE. Demonstrate a respect for all forms of life and a growing appreciation for the beauty and diversity of God s world. GRADE 6 SCIENCE STRAND A Value and Attitudes Catholic Schools exist so that curriculum may be taught in the light of Gospel teachings. Teachers must reinforce Gospel truths and values so that students

More information

Terms of Reference For First Joint Mission for the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience (PPCR) In St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Terms of Reference For First Joint Mission for the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience (PPCR) In St. Vincent and the Grenadines Terms of Reference For First Joint Mission for the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience (PPCR) In St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations CIF IDB MTESP NEMO NESDC NESDP NGO

More information

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species

More information

Effects of Climate Change

Effects of Climate Change Effects of Climate Change LESSON 3 Guiding Question: What are the effects of climate change? State ways in which the warming atmosphere affects ecosystems and organisms. Explain how climate change is affecting

More information

The coral reefs of the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas

The coral reefs of the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas The coral reefs of the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas Florida is the only state in the continental United States to have extensive shallow coral reef formations near its coasts. Coral reefs create specialized

More information

Policy Implications in the Management of Kenya s Marine Protected Areas

Policy Implications in the Management of Kenya s Marine Protected Areas Policy Implications in the Management of Kenya s Marine Protected Areas Sam Weru Abstract Coral reefs exist along most of Kenya s coast as coral flats, lagoons, reef platforms and fringing reefs. The total

More information

Georgia Performance Standards: Science Grades Frames. Frames Tasks

Georgia Performance Standards: Science Grades Frames. Frames Tasks How to read the Frames Standards Correlations The Frames Standards Correlations include information on how you and your students can use Frames to meet your curriculum and technology standards. Since you

More information

Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate

Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate Fisheries and Aquaculture in our Changing Climate Coastal communities, fishers and fish farmers are already profoundly affected by climate change. Rising sea levels, acid oceans, droughts and floods are

More information

The Everglades & Northern Estuaries; St. Lucie River Estuary, Indian River Lagoon & Caloosahatchee Estuary. Water Flows & Current Issues

The Everglades & Northern Estuaries; St. Lucie River Estuary, Indian River Lagoon & Caloosahatchee Estuary. Water Flows & Current Issues The Everglades & Northern Estuaries; St. Lucie River Estuary, Indian River Lagoon & Caloosahatchee Estuary Water Flows & Current Issues Florida Governor Rick Scott August 20, 2013 Upper Chain of Lakes

More information

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES. reflect

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES. reflect reflect There is a saying, No man is an island, which means that people need one another in order to survive. Everyone on Earth is interconnected in some way. This is not only true of human beings, but

More information

Reef Restoration. Concepts & Guidelines: Making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. by Alasdair Edwards and Edgardo Gomez

Reef Restoration. Concepts & Guidelines: Making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. by Alasdair Edwards and Edgardo Gomez Reef Restoration Concepts & Guidelines: Making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. by Alasdair Edwards and Edgardo Gomez www.gefcoral.org Alasdair J. Edwards 1 and Edgardo D. Gomez

More information

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH World Environment Day June 2010 111 BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH By: Shahid Saleem Biodiversity loss and other environmental problems that the world is facing today are the products of hundreds of

More information

Reef Health Incident Response System

Reef Health Incident Response System Reef Health Incident Response System 2011 Commonwealth of Australia 2007 Published by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Reef Health Incident Response System. 2011 ISSN 2200-2057 (pdf) This work

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SYNOPSIS CLIVE WILKINSON CURRENT STATUS OF CORAL REEFS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SYNOPSIS CLIVE WILKINSON CURRENT STATUS OF CORAL REEFS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CLIVE WILKINSON SYNOPSIS The assessments of more than 240 contributors from 98 countries in this Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004 report that: CURRENT STATUS OF CORAL REEFS Estimates

More information

Coral Bleaching Alert System

Coral Bleaching Alert System Coral Bleaching Alert System Technical Document Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) Hyderabad 2011 Contents Page No. 1. Introduction...1 1. Objective...2 2. Study Area...2 3.

More information

BAHAMAS CORAL REEF GUIDE

BAHAMAS CORAL REEF GUIDE BAHAMAS CORAL REEF GUIDE for kids of all ages! WHAT IS A CORAL REEF? Coral reefs are delicately balanced underwater environments that are home to millions of kinds of plant and animal life, more than any

More information

Climate Change Adaptation Good Practice - Case Study. The Great Barrier Reef Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012

Climate Change Adaptation Good Practice - Case Study. The Great Barrier Reef Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012 Climate Change Adaptation Good Practice - Case Study The Great Barrier Reef Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012 About Adaptation Good Practice Adapting to climate change is a relatively new concept to

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

LIMITED RESOURCES: "A SHORTAGE IN THE SEA" QUESTION Are the things that we use from the ocean unlimited? Can we run out?

LIMITED RESOURCES: A SHORTAGE IN THE SEA QUESTION Are the things that we use from the ocean unlimited? Can we run out? LIMITED RESOURCES: "A SHORTAGE IN THE SEA" QUESTION Are the things that we use from the ocean unlimited? Can we run out? UNDERLYING CONCEPT Resources are limited and we must take care in how we use them.

More information

BACTERIAL BLEACHING OF CORALS

BACTERIAL BLEACHING OF CORALS BACTERIAL BLEACHING OF CORALS Vibrio shiloi/oculina patagonica model system Vibrio coralliilyticus/pocillopora damicornis model system Tel Aviv University Eugene Rosenberg Dept Molecular Microbiology &

More information

1. Introduction. 2. Coral bleaching

1. Introduction. 2. Coral bleaching NATURE FOUNDATION St. Maarten Nature Foundation Coral Bleaching Response Plan Mailing address P. O. Box 863 Philipsburg St. Maarten Netherlands Antilles Physical address Wellsberg Street 1 A Unit 25 26

More information

Predator-prey relationships

Predator-prey relationships Predator-prey relationships Can insects hunt for food? When you think of an animal hunting for its food, large animals such as lions may come to mind. But many tiny animals also hunt for their food. For

More information

Small Island Developing States at the Forefront of Global Climate Change

Small Island Developing States at the Forefront of Global Climate Change STATE OF THE WORLD 2009 Climate Connections Small Island Developing States at the Forefront of Global Climate Change Edward Cameron Edward Cameron is a Washington-based climate change specialist who has

More information

IVA 21. Monitoring Coral Bleaching

IVA 21. Monitoring Coral Bleaching IVA 21. Monitoring Coral Bleaching Background Because coral bleaching results from many environmental factors, defining the causes of bleaching is important for conservation of reefs. Recording the extent

More information

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences The Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences February 4, 2016 In the fall of 2015 the Agronomy, Crop Science and Soil Science societies put out a call for white papers to help inform

More information

This is JEOPARDY!!!! 7 TH Grade Life Science

This is JEOPARDY!!!! 7 TH Grade Life Science This is JEOPARDY!!!! 7 TH Grade Life Science Blind Me with Science Questions about the Nature of Science They Might Be Giant Cells Questions about Cells, Molecules, and Atoms Head, Shoulders, Knees and

More information

Alan White The Nature Conservancy

Alan White The Nature Conservancy The Coral Triangle Region, The Coral Triangle Initiative, and the Development of the Six Country Marine Protected Area System Alan White The Nature Conservancy The Coral Triangle Initiative Coral Triangle

More information

Section 3: Trophic Structures

Section 3: Trophic Structures Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem.

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

3/31/2012. About the STXEEMP. About the STEER

3/31/2012. About the STXEEMP. About the STEER October 0, 2011 Gulf Caribbean Fisheries Institute Puerto Morelos, Mexico Sustainable Finance Plans for USVI St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) St. Croix East End Marine Park (STXEEMP) Photo credits:

More information

Unit III Single-celled Organisms. Introduction to Single-celled Organisms

Unit III Single-celled Organisms. Introduction to Single-celled Organisms Unit III On the cutting edge Dr. Wood at the University of Oregon is on the edge of scientific discovery as she explores some of the microscopic inhabitants of the marine environment. She is studying the

More information

Recovery of Caymanian Reefs after a coral bleaching event; can Marine Parks help?

Recovery of Caymanian Reefs after a coral bleaching event; can Marine Parks help? Recovery of Caymanian Reefs after a coral bleaching event; can Marine Parks help? Jessica Campbell Bangor University MSc Thesis - Marine Environmental Protection, 2010 Supervisor: Dr John R. Turner, Bangor

More information

Cnidaria - Carnivorous Stinging Animals Jellyfish, anemones, corals

Cnidaria - Carnivorous Stinging Animals Jellyfish, anemones, corals Nature s Gardens: Coral Reefs Building a Reef: Symbiosis Types of Reefs Life on a Reef Coral Reefs and the Future Reading: 12.20-12.22 15.5 16.15, 16.21 17.26 Graphic: Coral reef, courtesy of NOAA. Cnidaria

More information

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes

Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step

More information