!Here we see the prized Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun, from the 18th dynasty ( BCE).

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1 1 Chapter 3: Art of Ancient Egypt Art History 1 2 In this chapter you will...! Explore the pictorial conventions for representing the human figure in ancient Egyptian art, established early on and maintained for millennia. 3 In this Chapter You Will...! Be able to trace the evolution of royal portrait styles form the Old Kingdom through the New Kingdom and assess the differences between depictions of royalty and ordinary people. 4 In this chapter you will...! Be able to analyze how religious beliefs were reflected in the funerary art and architecture of ancient Egypt. 5 In this chapter you will...! Be able to appreciate the complexity of construction and decoration brought to New Kingdom temple architecture rooted in the same post and lintel architectural tradition that has been used since the Old Kingdom. 6 Discoveries of Ancient Egypt! On Feb. 16, 1923 the Times of London contacted the New York Times with news of an amazing discovery.! The entrance to Egyptian king Tutankhamun s sealed tomb chamber was opened & found within was the preserved & untouched, mummified body of the king. 7 Who was Responsible for the Discovery?! The two men pictured here played an essential part in the discovery of the undisturbed inner burial chamber of Tutankhamun.! The man on the left is Howard Carter and to his right is George Herbert, better known as Lord Carnarvon. 8 The Lure of Hidden Treasures! Since ancient times, tombs & their hidden treasures have attracted attention.! More recently, archaeologists & historians have been attracted to the hidden wonders of the ancient world & all of the knowledge the can be gained by studying such artifacts. 9 Ancient Treasures!Here we see the prized Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun, from the 18th dynasty ( BCE). 10 The Gift of the Nile! The Greek traveler and historian Herodotus writes in the 5th century BCE that Egypt is the gift of the Nile.! We see this great river, the longest in the world, makes its way northward from equatorial Africa, through Egypt, in a relatively straight path into the Mediterranean Sea. 1

2 11 Early Inhabitants 12! Around 8000 BCE the valley s inhabitants became relatively settled, living off the abundance of fish, wild game & wild plant life.! It was not until about 5000 BCE did they develop an agriculture based society like the ones we have seen with the Neolithic cultures from chapter one.! The Predynastic Period was a time of important social & political transition that comes before the unification of Egypt under a single ruler.! We will go through periods in time, beginning with the Early Dynastic Period, where we will see Egyptian history as it follows a succession of rulers inheriting the throne from family members- these types of rule are known as Dynasties. 13 Early Dynastic Egypt! Around 3000 BCE Egypt became one large consolidated state.! According to legend, the country had previously grown into two major kingdoms known as the the Two Lands or Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt.! According to ancient document, a powerful ruler from Upper Egypt eventually conquered Lower Egypt, uniting the kingdoms. 14 Egyptian Religion & Myth! The Greek historian Herodotus thought the Egyptians to be the most religious people he ever encountered.! We see such religious beliefs throughout Egyptian art of all periods.! Some of the earliest and most important of Egypt s deities are introduced through a series of creation myths. 15 Creation Myths! 1st version: the sun god Ra shaped himself out of the waters of chaos, or unformed matter, and emerged sealed atop a mound of sand hardened by his own rays 16 Creation Myth #1 Continues...!By spitting, Ra then creates the gods of wetness & dryness, Tefnut & Shu 17 And the Myth Continues...! Tefnut and Shu then have the male Geb (earth) and the female Nut (sky) 18 More Gods Emerge! Geb & Nut then produced two sons, Osiris & Seth, & two daughters, Isis & Nephthys.! Osiris takes Isis as his wife and became king of Egypt.! Seth, being envious of Osiris and in wanting Egypt for himself, kills him by hacking his body into pieces. 19 The Myth Continues! Isis & Nephthys gather the remains of Osiris, with the help of the god Anubis, patched him back together 2

3 20 The Myth Continues! Isis then conceives a son, Horus- who defeats Seth & becomes king of the earth while his father, Osiris, retires to the underworld as overseer of the realm of the dead. 21 Other Creation Myths! 2nd Version: The creation of humans in the story that Ra looses an eye, replaces it with a new one- the old eye is found, it cries because it is of no use- Ra creates humans from the tears 22 Yet Another Creation Myth! 3rd Version: Tells of the god Khnum who creates mankind using his potter s wheel 23 The God-Kings! By the Early Dynastic period, Egypt s kings were seen as gods in human form! The gods were depicted in different forms- some as humans, some as animals, & others as humans with animal heads 24 The Narmer Palette, Early Dynasty, 2950 BCE! It represents the unification of Upper & Lower Egypt under the first king named Narmer. 25 Side A- Detail of The Narmer Palette! He is shown wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt- he bashes the enemy with a club & above his kneeling foe, the god Horus.! Using the Hieratic Scale- the ruler appears much larger than the other figures 26 Side B- Detail from The Narmer Palette! In the top register of the other side, he wears the red crown of Lower Egypt, possibly to show how he now rules both lands 27 Funerary Practice & Architecture! Ancient Egyptians believed that an essential part of every human personality is its life force, or spirit, called the ka, which lived on after death of the body.! The ka needed a body to live in, so a sculpted likeness was adequate. 28 The Ka & Funerary Practice! They preserved the bodies through mummification & provided their tombs with every luxury they could want in the afterlife. 29 Early Funerary Architecture: The Mastaba! In Early Dynastic Egypt, the Mastaba, a flat-topped, one-story building with slanted walls 3

4 erected above an underground burial chamber- was the most common tomb! Early mastabas were made of mud brick, but toward the end of the 3rd Dynasty we see the use of cut stone as well. 30 The Necropolis! Kings of the third dynasty devoted large sums of money to design, construct and decorate extensive funerary complexes! The land of the dead was thought to be in the direction of the setting sun. 31 Djoser s Complex at Saqqara! For his tomb complex at Saqqara, the Third Dynasty King Djoser commissioned the earliest known monumental architecture in Egypt 32 The Step Pyramid- Funerary Complex at Saqqara! First it seemed Imhotep intended to created a single-story mastaba, then later decided to enlarge upon the concept.! He creates a step pyramid formed by six mastaba-like elements of decreasing size placed on top of each other 33 The Pyramids at Giza! The first pyramid structures as we know them were erected in the Fourth Dynasty.! These structures were built by kings Khufu, Khafre, & Menkaure. 34 Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu! The oldest and largest pyramid is Khufu- covering 13 acres at its base! Originally it had a thick veneer of polished limestone that extended its apex (or peak point) to almost 481 feet high 35 Constructing the Pyramids! The Pyramid was a triumph of engineering & design! Most of the cut stone blocks- each weighing an average of 2.5 tons- used in building the Giza complex were quarried either on the site or nearby 36 Great Sphinx, Funerary Complex of Khafre, BCE! Khafre s funerary complex is the best preserved & is most famous for the Great Sphinx that sits just behind his valley temple. 37 Khafre, BCE! Egyptian artists were skilled in creating lifelike three-dimensional figures! The figures were compact, solid, & block like which express a feeling of strength & permanence! As was custom of rulers, Khafre commissioned many portraits of himself 38 Menkaure and a Queen, BCE! King Menkaure s sculpture is characterized by dignity, calm & 4

5 permanence! Discovered in his valley temple, from the Fourth Dynasty, this work shows the king and queen linked by the stone and by her gesture of embrace 39 The Seated Scribe, BCE! Old Kingdom sculptors produced figures not only of kings, but of less prominent people as well 40 Butcher, BCE! Even more lifelike than the scribe were smaller figures of servants at work that were made for inclusion in Old Kingdom tombs so that the deceased could be provided for in the next world. 41 Tomb Decoration! To provide the ka with the most pleasant possible living quarters for eternity, wealthy families often had the interior walls and ceilings of their tombs decorated with paintings and relief carving.! Much of the decoration was symbolic or religious, especially in royal tombs, but it could also include scenes of everyday events in the person s life. 42 The Middle Kingdom! With the collapse of the Old Kingdom we see approximately 150 years of political turmoil referred to as the First Intermediate Period! Following came another high point in Egyptian history- the Middle Kingdom- a period of a powerful and unified government 43 Sculpture: Royal Portraits! Some royal portraits from the Middle Kingdom express a special awareness of the hardship and fragility of human existence! Here we have the statue of Senusret III from the Twelfth Dynasty ( BCE) 44 Tomb Architecture: Rock-Cut Tombs, Beni Hasan ( BCE)! During the Eleventh and Twelfth dynasties, members of the royal family and high-level officials commissioned a new form of tomb known as Rock-cut tombs. 45 Picking Figs, Twelfth Dynasty, 1890 BCE! Painted scenes cover the interior walls of many tombs.! Among the best preserved are those in the Twelfth Dynasty tomb of local noble Khnumhotep. 46 Stele of the Sculptor Userwer, 1850 BCE! Only the wealthiest & noblest of ancient Egyptians could afford elaborately decorated mastabas or rock-cut tombs.! Prosperous people could commission funerary stelae depicting themselves, their family, & offerings of food. 47 Stele of Amenemhat 2000 BCE! This is a more modest stele that brings the relief carving to life with vibrant 5

6 painting.! Under the inscription, inviting food offerings for the deceased Amenemhat, is a portrait of his family. 48 The New Kingdom: BCE! Following the Middle Kingdom is another time of turmoil known as the Second Intermediate period 49 Columns with Papyriform & Bud Capitals, Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun at Karnak! One of the most prominent features of the complex at Karnak is the enormous hypostyle hall set between two pylons at the end of the main forecourt. 50 Hatshepsut Kneeling, BCE! Across the Nile from Karnak is the Valley of the Kings & Queens! It was near here that the pharaoh Hatshepsut built her funerary temple! Besides Hatshepsut, few women ruled Egypt 51 Hatshepsut s Temple at Deir El-Bahri! At the height of the New Kingdom, rulers undertook extensive personal building programs, & Hapshepsut is responsible for one of the most spectacular: her funerary temple located at Deir el-bahri. 52 Ramose s Brother May and His Wife Werener, BCE! As mayor of Thebes & vizier to both Amenhotep III & Amenhotep IV, Ramose was second only to the pharaoh in power & prestige. 53 Colossal Figure of Akhenaten! Amenhotep IV was surely the most unusual ruler in the history of ancient Egypt.! During his 17 year reign, he radically transformed the political, spiritual, & cultural life of the country.! He founded a new religion honoring a single god, the sun deity Aten, & changed his own name in about 1348 BCE to Akhenaten. 54 Akhenaten & His Family, BCE! This new style is also reflected in a panel in which the king & queen sit on cushioned stools playing with their nude daughters, whose elongated shaved heads conform to the newly minted figure type. 55 Queen Tiy, 1352 BCE! Akhenaten s goals were actively supported by his wife Nefertiti & his mother, Queen Tiy.! She had been the chief wife of the king s father, Amenhotep III, & had 6

7 played a significant role in affairs of state during his reign. 56 Nefertiti, BCE! Here we have another representation of an important woman from Egyptian history, queen Nefertiti - wife to king Akhenaten who ruled from BCE. 57 Tutankhamun: BCE! After Akhenaten s reign, his son, Tutankhamun came into power! When his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was found in 1922, it was just at it was left so long ago- incredible riches were found as well as his body which lay in three nested coffins, the innermost was in the shape of a mummy and was made of over 240 pounds of gold 58 Ramses II & Abu Simbel! Ramses II was a powerful & long-lived king- he was a bold leader & effective political strategist.! In the course of a long & prosperous reign, he initiated building projects on a scale rivaling the Old Kingdom Pyramids at Giza. 59 Queen Nefertari Making an Offering to Isis, BCE 60 Books of the Dead: (Detail) Judgment of Hunefer Before Osiris, 1285 BCE! The dead were thought to undergo a last judgment consisting of two tests presided over by Osiris, the god of the underworld, & supervised by the jackal-headed god of embalming & cemeteries, Anubis. 61 Karomama, Third Intermediate Period, BCE! After the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt was ruled by a series of new dynasties, whose leaders continued the traditional patterns of royal patronage & pushed figural conventions in new & interesting directions.! This bronze sculpture is one of the largest surviving examples from this period. 62 Mummy Wrapping of a Young Boy, CE! The Late period in Egypt saw the country & its art in the hands & service of foreigners.! Nubians, Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, & Romans were all attracted to Egypt s riches & seduced by its art. 7

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