LAFRER TECHNICAL REPORT NIHON RUSPERT CO., LTD.

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1 LAFRER TECHNICAL REPORT NIHON RUSPERT CO., LTD.

2 QUALITY &ENVIRONMENTAL We have been certified according to ISO 9001, an international standard of the Quality Management System, as well as ISO 14001, an international standard of the Environmental Management System. We have integrated them into NRMS (Nihon Ruspert Management System), and we offer the products that satisfy our customers in terms of both quality and environment. QUALITY We achieved a coating process to ensure stable performances based on thorough standardization and quality management. ENVIRONMENTAL Our coating technology, which does not contain any heavy materials in consideration of the global environmental protection first, clears the most severe requirements in every industry including the EU directives. It thoroughly minimizes any environmental impact in the coating process, by achieving a coating method without discharging any wastewater.

3 INDEX Concept: Film structure Features: Coating process Performance test results SST Performance at crosscut sections, performance after tightening, and bimetallic corrosion CCT Performance by combined cycle corrosion test, performance at crosscut sections, and performance after tightening Other tests Flexibility test, surface resistance, electric resistance, heat cycle test, pencil scratch test, adhesion test, weather resistance test, and friction coefficient measurement result Overseas facilities/applicators Diversified applications Series LAFRE S LAFRE W

4 CONCEPT For further corrosion prevention Extremely thin film Superior anti-corrosion = R LAFRE LAFRE was developed as a surface treatment having unique features to meet a variety of Customers expect the surface customers needs. treatment technology that Extremely thin film Aiming at combining extremely thin film and improves corrosion prevention superior anti-corrosion, LAFRE achieved an without hydrogen embrittlement outstanding anti-corrosion performance by Superior anti-corrosion to continuously evolve. combining three types of metal flakes, as well as uniform coating. It allows bolts and nuts to fit Top quality metal surface treatments smoothly without over-tapping, which enables total cost reduction. FILM STRUCTURE Top quality metal surface treatments: Extremely thin film Superior anti-corrosion Conflicting features of Extremely thin film and Superior anti-corrosion were achieved by combining three types of metals at the optimum rate. 5µm Substrate LAFRE is also known as Alloy coating In addition to the conventional idea to prevent substrate from corrosion due to a sacrificial corrosion prevention effect of zinc, LAFRE drastically improved the anti-corrosion performance due to ionization tendency of tin and aluminum, by combining three types of metals (zinc, aluminum and tin) at the optimum rate. Inorganic silica resin binds strongly these metals, which forms a strong film as never before by the conventional surface treatment. * See the following section for details of testing SEM photo of a coating section * Observed using a scanning electron microscope Cross section of the LAFRE coating Zn Al Sn * Three types of fine metal flakes are dispersed in a good balance. 4

5 FEATURES Extremely thin film (5µm) We achieved an extremely thin film of 5µm by 2 coating and 2 baking. Flat and smooth films with excellent throwing power are formed by making three types of ultra-fine metal flakes, and laminating numbers of layers. Low-temperature baking Low-temperature baking is one of the features. The baking temperature of 200 C is applicable to the products that require severe temperature control, such as springs, by increasing the number of coating (250 C as standard). Free from hydrogen embrittlement Pickling and electrolytic processes are not necessary, which eliminates hydrogen embrittlement. Consequesntly, it is applicable to high-tensile strength bolts. Superior anti-corrosion The most significant feature is superior anti-corrosion regardless of extremely thin film. Salt spray test: 2,000 hours or more, and Combined cycle corrosion test: 200 cycles or more FINISHING PROCESS Pretreatment (Blasting) 1st coating Baking 2nd coating Baking Shipment * 2 coating is applied using a single type of coating material. * Spray coating (1 coating) is available depending on the profile of products. 5

6 TEST (SST) Salt spray test (JIS Z 2371 = ISO 9227) Performance at crosscut sections Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) to test pieces, and then crosscut. Evaluate the anti-corrosion performance by salt spray test. 2,000 hours: on both test pieces with and without crosscut Before test 250 hours 500 hours 1,000 hours 1,500 hours 2,000 hours Without crosscut With crosscut Performance after tightening Side Top Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) to steel hexagon head bolts, nuts, and washers (M18), and then tighten them onto a hot-dip galvanized steel plate (12 mm in thickness) at 80 N-m using a torque wrench. Evaluate the anti-corrosion performance at sections damaged by tightening by salt spray test. Before test 2,000 hours: After 1,300 hours After 2,000 hours 6

7 Bimetallic corrosion Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) and various types of surface treatments by other companies to drill screws, and then drive them onto an aluminum plate (6 mm in thickness). Evaluate the bimetallic corrosion by salt spray test. 2,000 hours: It was proved that the LAFRE coating to aluminum reduce bimetallic corrosion compared with various types of surface treatments by other companies. Before test 250 hours 500 hours 750 hours 1000 hours LAFRE Zinc rich treatment by company A Zinc rich treatment by company B Trivalent ferrozinc alloy plating Trivalent nickel zinc alloy plating + special coating 1250 hours 1500 hours 1750 hours 2000 hours LAFRE Zinc rich treatment by company A Zinc rich treatment by company B Trivalent ferrozinc alloy plating Trivalent nickel zinc alloy plating + special coating 7

8 TEST (CCT) Combined cycle corrosion test (JASO M = ISO 14993) Performance by combined cycle corrosion test Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) and other types of surface treatments to steel hexagon head bolts (M8 20). Evaluate the performance by combined cycle corrosion test. 200 cycles: It was proved that the LAFRE coating has extremely high anti-corrosion compared with other types of surface treatments. LAFRE Zinc rich treatment by company A Comparative products Zinc rich treatment by company B Trivalent chromate 30 cycles Evaluation White rusted (medium) White rusted (medium) Red rusted (serious) 60 cycles Evaluation Red rusted (serious) Red rusted (serious) Red rusted (serious) 90 cycles Evaluation Red rusted (serious) Red rusted (serious) Red rusted (serious) 120 cycles Evaluation 150 cycles Evaluation Cancellation Cancellation Cancellation 180 cycles Evaluation 200 cycles Evaluation JASO M = ISO MOIST 2 hour DRY 4 hour SALT WATER SPRAY 2 hour *JASO STANDARDS OF JAPAN AUTOMOBILE SKILL ORGANIZATION 8

9 Performance at crosscut sections Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) to test pieces, and then crosscut. Evaluate the anti-corrosion performance by salt spray test cycles: on both test pieces with and without crosscut Before test 25 cycles 50 cycles 100 cycles 150 cycles 200 cycles Without crosscut With crosscut Performance after tightening Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5µm) to steel hexagon head bolts, nuts, and washers (M18), and then tighten them onto a hot-dip galvanized steel plate (12 mm in thickness) at 80 N-m using a torque wrench. Evaluate the anti-corrosion performance at sections damaged by tightening by combined cycle corrosion test. 200 cycles: Side Top Before test 100 cycles 200 cycles 9

10 TEST (OTHERS) Flexibility test Flexibility test (JIS K 5600: Cylindrical mandrel method): 4 mm and 6 mm in diameter x 180 bending on either test (not evaluated the area within 10 mm from the end according to JIS) The LAFRE coating is excellent in ductility, which is applicable to extendable products, such as springs. 4mm 6mm Surface resistance Measuring method Place two aluminum foil electrodes of mm on a sample at intervals of 20 mm, apply a load of 5 kg uniformly on the both electrodes, apply an impressed voltage of 9V, and then measure the resistance. (The electrodes weigh 0.3 kg/cm 2.) Electric resistance Measuring method Measuring device Solder a lead each to the top and bottom of a bolt. Connect a lead from a steel plate to the top of the bolt. Measure the electric resistance between the both ends. Digital ohm meter from Tsuruga Electric Corp Ω Low conductivity 260Ω m Note: The measurements may vary depending on the soldering area and location. Heat cycle test: 4 cycles of the following cycle Room temperature -25 C /1 hour (transition time) Test piece Apply the LAFRE coating (film thickness of 5μm) to test pieces -25 C /1 hour Humidity No control -25 C Room temperature /1 hour (transition time) Test equipment LH41-14P from Nagano Science Co., Ltd. Room temperature +85 C +85 C +85 C Room temperature /1 hour (transition time) /1 hour /1 hour (transition time) Evaluation of coating appearance (visual) Pencil scratch test (destruction) Adhesion test (1 mm-wide gridiron tape test) LAFRE 8H 100/100 Zinc rich treatment by company A Coating destroyed with 4H Coating not destroyed even with 8H, although damaged 6H 7H 8H 10

11 Weather resistance test Model Light source / voltage lighting time Discharge voltage and current 50V±2% 60A±2% S80D Sunshine carbon arc / 78 hours (4 pairs of ultra long life carbon) Test item Temperature and relative humidity range / adjustment accuracy At irradiating At darkness Irradiating / irradiating + raining, or Irradiating / darkness + condensation (spray on the back) 63±3 C (black panel temperature BPT) 30 to 70±5% Chamber temperature: 30±2 C, 95±5% 1000 hours: No change in appearance Friction coefficient measurement result (using M10 flange bolts and M10 hexagon head bolts) Friction coefficient LAFRE Trivalent chromate Zinc rich treatment by company A Zinc rich treatment by company B Zinc rich treatment by company C Zinc rich treatment by company D *A special top coating that stabilizes friction coefficient is available. 11

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14 To Users of LAFRER The performance data contained in this report were obtained from the test as per specified standards using test pieces processed under our standard conditions. They do not guarantee all the performances for any products or under any operating Head Office Osaka Office Tokyo Office NIHON RUSPERT CO., LTD. 18-3, Shinminatomachi, Kishiwada City, Osaka, , Japan , Yasuda, Turumi-ku, Osaka City, Osaka, , Japan , Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo, , Japan [Contact] TEL FAX URL Utilizing recycled paper and soy ink for this brochure for global environmental protection Utilizing 100% post-consumer recycled paper

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