# Chapter There are non-isomorphic rooted trees with four vertices. Ans: 4.

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1 Use the following to answer questions 1-26: In the questions below fill in the blanks. Chapter If T is a tree with 999 vertices, then T has edges There are non-isomorphic trees with four vertices There are non-isomorphic rooted trees with four vertices There are full binary trees with six vertices The minimum number of weighings with a pan balance scale needed to guarantee that you find the single counterfeit coin and determine whether it is heavier or lighter than the other coins in a group of five coins is The value of the arithmetic expression whose prefix representation is 5 / is Write 3n (k + 5) in prefix notation:. 3 n + k C 7 has spanning trees If each edge of Q 4 has weight 1, then the cost of any spanning tree of minimum cost is The best comparison-based sorting algorithms for a list of n items have complexity O ( ). n log 2 n. 11. The bubble sort has complexity O ( ). n If T is a binary tree with 100 vertices, its minimum height is. 6. Page 136

2 13. If T is a full binary tree with 101 vertices, its minimum height is If T is a full binary tree with 101 vertices, its maximum height is If T is a full binary tree with 50 leaves, its minimum height is Every full binary tree with 61 vertices has leaves Every full binary tree with 50 leaves has vertices If T is a full binary tree of height h, then the minimum number of leaves in T is and the maximum number of leaves in T is. h + 1, 2 h. 19. Every 3-ary tree with 13 vertices has leaves If T is a full binary tree with 50 internal vertices, then T has vertices Every full 3-ary tree of height 2 has at least vertices and at most vertices. 7, The largest number of leaves in a binary tree of height 5 is Every full binary tree with 45 vertices has internal vertices A full 3-ary tree with 13 internal vertices has vertices There are full 3-ary trees with 6 vertices If T is a tree, then its vertex-chromatic number is and its region-chromatic number is. 2, 1. Page 137

3 Use the following to answer questions 27-36: In the questions below mark the statement TRUE or FALSE. 27. If T is a tree with 17 vertices, then there is a simple path in T of length 17. False 28. Every tree is bipartite. True 29. There is a tree with degrees 3,2,2,2,1,1,1,1,1. False 30. There is a tree with degrees 3,3,2,2,1,1,1,1. True 31. If two trees have the same number of vertices and the same degrees, then the two trees are isomorphic. False 32. If T is a tree with 50 vertices, the largest degree that any vertex can have is 49. True 33. In a rooted binary tree with 16 vertices, there must be a path of length 4. True 34. Every tree is planar. True 35. No tree has a Hamilton path. False 36. If T is a rooted binary tree of height 5, then T has at most 25 leaves. False 37. Draw all nonisomorphic trees with 5 vertices. Page 138

4 38. Draw all nonisomorphic rooted trees with 4 vertices. 39. Suppose T is a full m-ary tree with i internal vertices. Prove that T has 1 + (m 1)i leaves. mi + 1 = v = i + l. Therefore l = mi + 1 i = 1 + (m 1)i. 40. Prove that if T is a full m-ary tree with l leaves, then T has (ml 1)/(m 1) vertices. mi + 1 = v and i = v l. Therefore m(v l) + 1 = v. Solve for v to obtain the formula. 41. Suppose T is a full m-ary tree with l leaves. Prove that T has (l 1)/(m 1) internal vertices. i + l = v = mi + 1. Therefore i + l = mi + 1. Solve for i to obtain the result. 42. Prove that if T is a full m-ary tree with v vertices, then T has ((m 1)v + 1)/m leaves. i + l = v and mi + 1 = v. Therefore v l = i and i = (v 1)/m. Therefore, v l = (v 1)/m. Solve for l to obtain the result. 43. Suppose that the universal address set address of a vertex v in an ordered rooted tree is Find (a) the level of v. (b) the minimum number of siblings of v. (c) the address of the parent of v. (d) the minimum number of vertices in the tree. (a) 5. (b) 4. (c) (d) Suppose you have 50 coins, one of which is counterfeit (either heavier or lighter than the others). You use a pan balance scale to find the bad coin. Prove that 4 weighings is not enough to guarantee that you find the bad coin and determine whether it is heavier or lighter than the other coins. Four weighings yield a 3-ary tree of height 4, which has at most 81 leaves. Fifty coins require a tree with 100 leaves. Page 139

5 45. Suppose you have 5 coins, one of which is counterfeit (either heavier or lighter than the other four). You use a pan balance scale to find the bad coin and determine whether it is heavier or lighter. (a) Prove that 2 weighings are not enough to guarantee that you find the bad coin and determine whether it is heavier or lighter. (b) Draw a decision tree for weighing the coins to determine the bad coin (and whether it is heavier or lighter) in the minimum number of weighings. (a) Two weighings yield a 3-ary tree of height 2, which has at most 9 leaves, but 5 coins require a tree with 10 leaves. (b) Use the weighing 1 and 2 against 3 and 4 as the root. If the four coins have the same weight, weigh 1 against 5 to determine whether 5 is heavy or light. If 1 and 2 are lighter or heavier than 3 and 4, weigh 1 against 2. If 1 and 2 balance, weight 3 against 4 to find out which of these coins is heavier or lighter; if 1 and 2 do not balance, then immediate information is obtained regarding coins 1 or Suppose you have 5 coins, one of which is heavier than the other four. Draw the decision tree for using a pan balance scale to find the heavy coin. Weigh 1 and 2 against 3 and 4. If they balance, 5 is the bad coin. If 1 and 2 weigh less than 3 and 4, weigh 3 against 4 to find which of 3 or 4 is bad. If 1 and 2 weigh more than 3 and 4, weigh 1 against 2 to find out which of 1 or 2 is bad. Page 140

6 47. (a) Set up a binary tree for the following list, in the given order, using alphabetical ordering: STOP, LET, THERE, TAPE, NONE, YOU, ANT, NINE, OAT, NUT. (b) Explain step by step how you would search for the word TEST in your tree. (c) What is the height of the shortest binary search tree that can hold all 10 words? (d) Write the preorder traversal of the tree. (e) Write the postorder traversal of the tree. (f) Write the inorder traversal of the tree. (a) (b) In sequence, TEST would be compared with STOP, THERE, TAPE, and inserted as the right child of TAPE. (c) 3. (d) STOP, LET, ANT, NONE, NINE, OAT, NUT, THERE, TAPE, YOU. (e) ANT, NINE, NUT, OAT, NONE. LET, TAPE, YOU, THERE, STOP. (f) ANT, LET, NINE, NONE, NUT, OAT, STOP, TAPE, THERE, YOU. Page 141

7 48. (a) Set up a binary tree for the following list, in the given order, using alphabetical ordering: SHE, SELLS, SEA, SHELLS, BY, THE, SEASHORE. (b) How many comparisons with words in the tree are needed to determine if the word SHARK is in the tree? (c) How many comparisons with words in the tree are needed to determine if the word SEAWEED is in the tree? (d) How many comparisons with words in the tree are needed to determine if the word CONCH is in the tree? (a) (b) 2. (c) 4. (d) Draw a parsing tree for (a (3 + 2b))/(c 2 + d). 50. Find the preorder traversal of the parsing tree for 8xy5 7 4z3 5 (8 x y) 7 4z 3. Page 142

8 5 51. Find the postorder traversal of the parsing tree for (8x y) 7 4z 3. 8x y 5 4z Find the inorder traversal of the parsing tree for 8 x y z 3. 5 (8 x y) 7 4z 3. Use the following to answer questions 53-55: In the questions below refer to the given tree. 53. Find the preorder traversal. dbacefghiljmknop 54. Find the inorder traversal. abcfegdihjlkmnop 55. Find the postorder traversal. acfgebijknmoplhd 56. The algebraic expression / a 7c34 3b is written in prefix notation. Write the expression in postfix notation. a7c 3 4 3b / 57. Write the compound proposition ( p) (q (r s)) in postfix notation. p q r s 58. Write the compound proposition ( p) (q (r s)) in prefix notation. p q r s Page 143

9 59. Write the compound proposition ( p) (q (r s)) in infix notation. p q r s 60. The string 2 3 a x is postfix notation for an algebraic expression. Write the expression in prefix notation a x The string 2 3 a x is postfix notation for an algebraic expression. Write the expression in infix notation a + x The string 2 x a + 4 y is prefix notation for an algebraic expression. Write the expression in postfix notation. 2 x a 4 y The string 2 x a + 4 y is prefix notation for an algebraic expression. Write the expression in infix notation. 2 x a 4 + y 64. The string p r q q p is postfix notation for a logic expression, however there is a misprint. The triangle should be one of these three: r,, or. Determine which of these three it must be and explain your reasoning. The triangle should be. Using either r or makes the parsing tree impossible to draw. 65. Find the value of x 5 t / 4 7 c (in prefix notation) if c = 5, x = 2, and t = Use the following to answer questions 66-73: In the questions below refer to this graph. Page 144

10 66. Using alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. 67. Using alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. 68. Using the ordering C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, A, B, C find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. 69. Using the ordering C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, A, B, C find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. Page 145

11 70. Using reverse alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for the graph by using a depthfirst search. 71. Using reverse alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for the graph by using a breadth-first search. 72. Using the ordering B, G, J, A, C, I, F, H, D, E, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. 73. Using the ordering B, G, J, A, C, I, F, H, D, E, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. Page 146

12 Use the following to answer questions 74-81: In the questions below refer to this graph. 74. Using alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. 75. Using alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. 76. Using the ordering C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, A, B, C find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. Page 147

13 77. Using the ordering C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, A, B, C find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. 78. Using reverse alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for the graph by using a depthfirst search. 79. Using reverse alphabetical ordering, find a spanning tree for the graph by using a breadth-first search. 80. Using the ordering B, G, J, A, C, I, F, H, D, E, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a depth-first search. Page 148

14 81. Using the ordering B, G, J, A, C, I, F, H, D, E, find a spanning tree for this graph by using a breadth-first search. 82. Find a spanning tree for the graph K 3,4 using a depth-first search. (Assume that the vertices are labeled u 1,u 2,u 3 in one set and v 1,v 2,v 3,v 4 in the other set, and that alphabetical ordering is used in the search, with numerical ordering on the subscripts used to break ties.) 83. Find a spanning tree for the graph K 3,4 using a breadth-first search. (Assume that the vertices are labeled u 1,u 2,u 3 in one set and v 1,v 2,v 3,v 4 in the other set, and that alphabetical ordering is used in the search, with numerical ordering on the subscripts used to break ties.) 84. Is the following code a prefix code: A:11, B:10, C:0? Yes Page 149

15 85. Use the bubble sort to sort the list 5,2,3,1,4 in increasing order. 2,5,3,1,4, 2,3,5,1,4, 2,3,1,5,4, 2,3,1,4,5; 2,3,1,4,5, 2,1,3,4,5, 2,1,3,4,5; 1,2,3,4,5, 1,2,3,4,5; 1,2,3,4, Use the merge sort to sort the list 4,8,6,1,5,7,3,2 in increasing order. After splitting the list into eight lists of 1 element each, the lists are merged into four sorted lists of 2 elements each: 4,8; 1,6; 5,7; 2,3. These are merged into two sorted lists of 4 elements: 1,4,6,8 and 2,3,5,7. Finally, these are merged into the final sorted list 1,2,3,4,5,6,7, Use the bubble sort to sort the list 5,4,3,2,1 in increasing order. 5,4,3,2,1, 4,5,3,2,1, 4,3,5,2,1, 4,3,2,5,1, 4,3,2,1,5; 3,4,2,1,5, 3,2,4,1,5, 3,2,1,4,5; 2,3,1,4,5, 2,1,3,4,5; 1,2,3,4, Use the merge sort to sort the list 3,8,12,4,1,5,9,6 in increasing order. 3,8; 4,12; 1,5; 6,9. 3,4,8,12; 1,5,6,9. 1,3,4,5,6,8,9, Use backtracking to find a sum of integers in the set {18,19,23,25,31} that equals 44. The following tree is obtained using backtracking; it yields 44 = Page 150

16 90. Find a minimal spanning tree for this weighted graph using Prim's algorithm. In order, the following edges are added: {d,e}, {e,h}, {e,f}, {d,g}, {g,a}, {a,b}, {b,c}, {c,i}. The weight of the minimal spanning tree is Use Prim's algorithm to find a minimal spanning tree for this weighted graph. Use alphabetical order to break ties. In order, the following edges are added: {a,b}. {a,c}, {c,e}, {d,e}. {d,f}. The weight is 9. Page 151

17 92. Find a spanning tree of minimum cost for this graph. The minimum weight is 24. One example of a tree is 93. Describe the difference between Prim's algorithm and Kruskal's algorithm for finding a spanning tree of minimum cost. Using Prim's algorithm, at each stage the edges selected will form a tree, whereas in Kruskal's algorithm this need not happen. Page 152

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