# Scientific Measurements: Significant Figures and Statistical Analysis

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

12 b) Based on the calculated % error values, which is more accurate, the volume measurement using the beaker or the graduated cylinder? Does this agree with your prediction in the question above? (It is expected these answers will agree for most students, however, if they do not, give a reason why not or go back and check your results/calculations.) 7) Given a choice, which glassware would you use to measure volumes more precisely, a graduated cylinder or a beaker? Explain briefly. 8) Many times you ll come across a new piece of lab equipment and need to determine its precision. Without performing any calculations, what would you look at to determine the precision of a piece of glassware? Part 4: Average and Standard Deviation 1) Take a 50 ml beaker and record its mass. Mass of empty beaker: g 2) Measure 1.00 ml of distilled water using a 5-mL graduated pipette and a pipette pump and transfer it to the weighted 50-mL beaker. Record the mass of beaker and water. (The green pipette pumps are used for 5- and 10-mL pipettes. The blue pumps are used for 1-mL pipettes.) 3) Repeat step 2 adding 1.00 ml water each time and recording the mass of beaker and water until you have added a total of 5.00 ml of water. Record the data in the following table. 4) Calculate the mass of water for each volume. Use the volume and calculated mass to calculate the density of water. Report values to the correct number of significant digits. Volume of water (ml) Mass of beaker + water (g) Mass of water (g) Density of water (g/ml) Page 12 of 16

13 5) Calculate the average, standard deviation, and relative standard deviation of your results. Show your work and report your answers. 6) Based on your calculated average density and given that true density of water is g/ml (at 20 C), calculate the percent error and comment on the accuracy of your data. 7) Use the standard deviation and relative standard deviation to comment on the precision of your data. Page 13 of 16

15 Name Section Bellevue College CHEM& 161 Pre-Lab Assignment To be completed BEFORE lab! Scientific Measurements Read the background section of this experiment. Answer the following questions. 1) A student performed an analysis of a sample for its calcium content and obtained the following results: g, g, g, g The actual amount of calcium in the sample is g. For this lab, the instructor asked students to obtain results within 5% error and RSD and to redo the experiment if that was not achieved. (a) Report the student s results including the mean and the standard deviation, considering all the data points collected. Show your calculations below. Do the calculations by hand, and if you have a calculator or Excel you can use it to check your answer. g ± g (average) (standard deviation) (b) Calculate the percent error for this student s experiment. (c) Calculate the relative standard deviation for this student s experiment. (d) Briefly comment on the accuracy vs. the precision obtained by the student. Does the student need to redo the experiment?

16 2) (a) Provide a measurement for each of the following pieces of glassware filled to the level indicated by the arrow. Use the correct number of significant figures in your answer. Always use units. Remember to estimate one digit more than the level of graduation. ml ml ml (See note below*) *Buret markings are opposite to that of cylinders and beakers. (b) Which gives the most precision, (a.) the graduated cylinder, (b.) the buret, or (c.) the beaker? (c) How can you tell by simply looking at the glassware? Explain briefly. 3) (a) Label this beaker with values so that it can report volume to the tens (not tenths) place. ( Report to means to record digits to this decimal place, including your estimated digit.) (b) Give a sample measurement that could be obtained from this beaker. Use ml for units. Use significant figures. 4) In your own words, what is the moral of the story told in the Background section? Page 16 of 16

### Following are Summaries from Two Chemistry Education Web Sites Concerning Significant Figure Rules

Following are Summaries from Two Chemistry Education Web Sites Concerning Significant Figure Rules From http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/sigfigs/sigfigrules.html There are three rules on determining how many

### Measurement and Calibration

Adapted from: H. A. Neidig and J. N. Spencer Modular Laboratory Program in Chemistry Thompson Learning;, University of Pittsburgh Chemistry 0110 Laboratory Manual, 1998. Purpose To gain an understanding

### Significant Figures, Propagation of Error, Graphs and Graphing

Chapter Two Significant Figures, Propagation of Error, Graphs and Graphing Every measurement has an error associated with it. If you were to put an object on a balance and weight it several times you will

### Experiment 1: Measurement and Density

Experiment 1: Measurement and Density Chemistry 140 Learning Objectives Become familiar with laboratory equipment and glassware Begin to see the link between measurement and chemical knowledge Begin to

### DETERMINING THE DENSITY OF LIQUIDS & SOLIDS

DETERMINING THE DENSITY OF LIQUIDS & SOLIDS 17 Density, like color, odor, melting point, and boiling point, is a physical property of matter. Therefore, density may be used in identifying matter. Density

### Measurement and Measurement Error

1 Measurement and Measurement Error PHYS 1301 F99 Prof. T.E. Coan Version: 8 Sep 99 Introduction Physics makes both general and detailed statements about the physical universe. These statements are organized

### Chem 141 Titration Lab Lecture Notes Samuel A. Abrash

Chem 141 Titration Lab Lecture Notes Samuel A. Abrash Q: What is the purpose of this experiment? The purpose of this experiment is to explore two techniques by which we answer the question: How much? One

### Lab 7. Analysis of Hard Water

Lab 7. Analysis of Hard Water Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Use the handout "Lab Notebook Policy" as a guide to complete the following sections of your report for this lab exercise before attending

### Biological Principles Lab: Scientific Measurements

Biological Principles Lab: Scientific Measurements Name: PURPOSE To become familiar with the reference units and prefixes in the metric system. To become familiar with some common laboratory equipment.

### EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R

Outcomes EXPERIMENT 9 Evaluation of the Universal Gas Constant, R After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Determine universal gas constant using reaction of an acid with a metal.

### THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK

THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK In scientific work keeping a permanent record of all raw data, observations, calculations, et cetera obtained during an experiment is important. Therefore, a student must become

### The Densities of Solutions and Solids

The Densities of Solutions and Solids Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To compare the precision of various types of volumetric glassware. To determine, and then compare, the

### The volume of a penny will be calculated from its mass and density.

Measurement and Density In science a key concern is the quantities involved in chemical processes. These amounts can be directly measured or calculated from other measurements. A measurement consists of

### Experiment 1F-1 MEASUREMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I

Experiment 1F-1 MEASUREMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I FV 1-15-15 MATERIALS: room-temperature distilled water, 2 100 ml beakers, 150 ml beaker, plastic dropper, small plastic (for both weeks) bottle

### CHEM 101 / 105 LECT 1

CHEM 101 / 105 LECT 1 Rules of the road: Your Loyola computer account (activate it). Class Web site (visit and send me an e-mail B4 Tues.) spavko1@luc.edu Chapter 1. Chemistry is... Matter is... Classifications

### Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are: a) To use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of regular geometric shapes, and to use these measurements

### Assessment of Accuracy and Precision

2 chapter Assessment of Accuracy and Precision S.S. Nielsen, Food Analysis Laboratory Manual, Food Science Texts Series, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1463-7_2, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 9 Chapter

### EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation

EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation Student Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise, students will be able to learn: 1. How to use scientific notation 2. Discuss the importance

### Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3

Experiment 3 PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, DETERMINATION OF PURITY OF IMPURE KHP AND STANDARDIZATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID 2 lab periods Reading: Chapter 1 (pg 22-24), Chapter 8,

### Chapter 2 Formulas and Decimals

Chapter Formulas and Decimals Section A Rounding, Comparing, Adding and Subtracting Decimals Look at the following formulas. The first formula (P = A + B + C) is one we use to calculate perimeter of a

### The Density of Liquids and Solids

The Density of Liquids and Solids Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are: a) To determine the density of pure water; b) To determine the density of aluminum (applying the technique of water displacement)

### Mass and Volume Relationships

Mass and Volume Relationships Objective: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to become familiar with some of the basic relationships and units used by scientists. In this experiment you will perform

### Density of 7-Up. Densities of the 7-Ups

Density of 7-Up Chem 1A Lab Spring 2010 Densities of the 7-Ups Can we use a physical property to distinguish between diet and regular soda? We shall see.. What are our hypotheses? You choose - record on

### Figure 1. A typical Laboratory Thermometer graduated in C.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES, EXPONENTS, AND SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 2004, 1990 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom use as long as the original copyright is included. 1. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

### DENSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

Experiment 3 DENSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS Prepared by Ross S. Nord and Stephen E. Schullery, Eastern Michigan University PURPOSE Determine the concentration of an unknown sodium chloride

### The Analytical Balance

Chemistry 119: Experiment 1 The Analytical Balance Operation of the Single-Pan Analytical Balance Receive instruction from your teaching assistant concerning the proper operation of the Sartorius BP 210S

### Unit 1 Number Sense. In this unit, students will study repeating decimals, percents, fractions, decimals, and proportions.

Unit 1 Number Sense In this unit, students will study repeating decimals, percents, fractions, decimals, and proportions. BLM Three Types of Percent Problems (p L-34) is a summary BLM for the material

### Experiment 3 Introduction to Density INTRODUCTION

Experiment 3 Introduction to Density INTRODUCTION The purpose of this experiment is to understand the meaning and significance of the density of a substance. Density is a basic physical property of a homogeneous

### What is the Percent Sugar in Soda? An Investigation Using Density

Lab 4 Name What is the Percent Sugar in Soda? An Investigation Using Density Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 15% (3 points) of your lab report grade and must be turned in to your lab instructor

### Experiment: TITRATION OF AN ACID WITH A BASE

Experiment: TITRATION OF AN ACID WITH A BASE INTRODUCTION: The word titration is derived from a French word, "titre" which means "to bestow a title upon or to standardize". The purpose of a chemical titration

### Lab Activity: Measuring with Metric. Introduction: Standard Metric Units. Names

Names Date Period Introduction: The purpose of this activity is to practice using the metric system. To conduct a scientific investigation, a researcher must be able to make accurate measurements. In today

### Measurement of Length, Mass, Volume and Density

Measurement of Length, Mass, Volume and Density Experimental Objective The objective of this experiment is to acquaint you with basic scientific conventions for measuring physical quantities. You will

### Density Determinations and Various Methods to Measure

Density Determinations and Various Methods to Measure Volume GOAL AND OVERVIEW This lab provides an introduction to the concept and applications of density measurements. The densities of brass and aluminum

### Lab 4. Reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide and Bleach: Stoichiometry, Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield

Lab 4. Reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide and : Stoichiometry, Limiting Reagents and Percent Yield Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Use the handout "Lab Notebook Policy" as a guide to complete the following

### CHAPTER 4 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 4 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 1. DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Dimensional analysis, which is also known as the factor label method or unit conversion method, is an extremely important tool in the field of chemistry.

### How do scientists collect and analyze data?

EXERCISE 1 Name How do scientists collect and analyze data? Objectives After completing this exercise, you should be able to: identify the names and functions of the laboratory items on display in the

### The introduction of your report should be written on the on the topic of the role of indicators on acid base titrations.

Experiment # 13A TITRATIONS INTRODUCTION: This experiment will be written as a formal report and has several parts: Experiment 13 A: Basic methods (accuracy and precision) (a) To standardize a base (~

### Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid

Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Introduction Many metals react with acids to form hydrogen gas. In this experiment, you will use the reactions

### Experiment 69. Analysis of Vinegar. Problem. Introduction. How can the acid content of vinegar be determined experimentally?

A nalys is of Vinega r Experiment 69 Analysis of Vinegar Problem How can the acid content of vinegar be determined experimentally? Introduction Ordinary "white" vinegar is an aqueous (water) solution of

### AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations

AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks

### COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS

COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Beakers are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solid samples. They are also used to catch liquids from titrations and filtrates from filtering operations. Bunsen

### Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan

Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan Questioning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking Using a Conceptual Change Model (Integration of mathematics & physical science) Delena Norris-Tull and

### Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry

1 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 What Is Chemistry, and What Can Chemistry Do for You? Special Topic 1.1: Green Chemistry 1.2 Suggestions for Studying Chemistry 1.3 The Scientific Method 1.4

### Using Balances. Be careful not to spill any chemicals on or around the balance. If you do, clean up immediately!

Using Balances The primary method that you will use to measure the amounts of chemicals is to weigh them--that is, to determine their mass. To do this you use a balance. You'll be learning to use two balances:

### Chapter 2 Measurements in Chemistry. Standard measuring device. Standard scale gram (g)

1 Chapter 2 Measurements in Chemistry Standard measuring device Standard scale gram (g) 2 Reliability of Measurements Accuracy closeness to true value Precision reproducibility Example: 98.6 o F 98.5 o

### Stoichiometry Limiting Reagent Laboratory. Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston

Chemistry 118 Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Boston STOICHIOMETRY - LIMITING REAGENT -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Determination of the Mass Percentage of Copper in a Penny. Introduction

Determination of the Mass Percentage of Copper in a Penny Introduction This experiment will cost you one penny (\$0.01). The penny must be minted after 1983. Any penny will do; for best results the penny

### Welcome to Physics 40!

Welcome to Physics 40! Physics for Scientists and Engineers Lab 1: Introduction to Measurement SI Quantities & Units In mechanics, three basic quantities are used Length, Mass, Time Will also use derived

### Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg

Vern Lindberg 1 Making Graphs A picture is worth a thousand words. Graphical presentation of data is a vital tool in the sciences and engineering. Good graphs convey a great deal of information and can

### CALCULATIONS & STATISTICS

CALCULATIONS & STATISTICS CALCULATION OF SCORES Conversion of 1-5 scale to 0-100 scores When you look at your report, you will notice that the scores are reported on a 0-100 scale, even though respondents

### A Short Guide to Significant Figures

A Short Guide to Significant Figures Quick Reference Section Here are the basic rules for significant figures - read the full text of this guide to gain a complete understanding of what these rules really

### Calibration of Glassware

Calibration of Glassware Introduction Glassware is commonly calibrated using a liquid of known, specific density, and an analytical balance. The procedure is to determine the mass of liquid the glassware

### Physics Lab Report Guidelines

Physics Lab Report Guidelines Summary The following is an outline of the requirements for a physics lab report. A. Experimental Description 1. Provide a statement of the physical theory or principle observed

### Analyzing the Acid in Vinegar

Analyzing the Acid in Vinegar Purpose: This experiment will analyze the percentage of acetic acid in store bought vinegar using titration. Introduction: Vinegar can be found in almost any home. It can

### 1 Introduction The Scientific Method (1 of 20) 1 Introduction Observations and Measurements Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences (2 of 20)

The Scientific Method (1 of 20) This is an attempt to state how scientists do science. It is necessarily artificial. Here are MY five steps: Make observations the leaves on my plant are turning yellow

### Measurement Challenge

elearning 2009 Introduction Measurement Challenge Measurement Lab Activities Publication No. 91309 Take the measurement challenge! Accurately estimate the length, width, and height of a small plastic block

### Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker

Sample Questions Chapter 2. Stoker 1. The mathematical meaning associated with the metric system prefixes centi, milli, and micro is, respectively, A) 2, 4, and 6. B) 2, 3, and 6. C) 3, 6, and 9. D) 3,

### Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice

1 Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice Introduction Vitamin C Vitamins are organic compounds that have important biological functions. For instance, in humans they enable a variety of enzymes in the body to

Some Using a TI Graphing Calculator (Adapted from Principles of Chemistry Lab Manual Edwards/McKay/Sink) These instructions provide a review of basic operations on a TI Graphing Calculator. You must be

### Dividing Decimals 4.5

4.5 Dividing Decimals 4.5 OBJECTIVES 1. Divide a decimal by a whole number 2. Divide a decimal by a decimal 3. Divide a decimal by a power of ten 4. Apply division to the solution of an application problem

### The Composition of Metals and Alloys

1 The Composition of Metals and Alloys Metals are shiny, malleable substances that conduct heat and electricity. They comprise the larest class of elements in the Periodic Table. All metals except mercury

### Rational Number Project

Rational Number Project Fraction Operations and Initial Decimal Ideas Lesson : Overview Students estimate sums and differences using mental images of the 0 x 0 grid. Students develop strategies for adding

### MOLAR AND PARTIAL MOLAR VOLUMES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS (10/21/03)

MOLAR AND PARTIAL MOLAR OLUMES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS (10/1/03) QUANTITATIE TECHNIQUES Use of an Analytical Balance Your assignment is to determine the partial molar volumes of solutions of water with an

### Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics

Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics Name Hr. The Buoyant Force (F b ) is the apparent loss of weight for an object submerged in a fluid. For example if you have an object immersed

### Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids

Willamette University Chemistry Department 2013 Project 5: HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids LABORATORY REPORT: Formal Writing Exercises PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT Read the entire laboratory project and section 28C

### Activity #: 3. Suggested Discussion Topics Matter

Grade: Fourth Activity #: 3 Activity Title: Mass & Volume & Density, Oh My! Recommended Group Size: Class/Small Groups Special Notes: This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science

### Error Analysis. Table 1. Capacity Tolerances for Class A Volumetric Glassware.

Significant Figures in Calculations Error Analysis Every lab report must have an error analysis. For many experiments, significant figure rules are sufficient. For a brush up on significant figure rules,

### Understanding Variability

3 Vive la Différence Understanding Variability Difficulty Scale (moderately easy, but not a cinch) How much Excel? (a ton) What you ll learn about in this chapter Why variability is valuable as a descriptive

### Chapter 2 Measurement and Problem Solving

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Measurement and Problem Solving Graph of global Temperature rise in 20 th Century. Cover page Opposite page 11. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community

### Standardization of NaOH

EXPERIMENT 18 Prepared by Edward L. Brown, Lee University The student will become familiar with the techniques of titration and the use of a primary standard, Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP). Buret

### 2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers

2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers A number written in scientific notation has two parts. A decimal part: a number that is between 1 and 10. An exponential part: 10 raised to an exponent,

### Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Science and Measurements

Educational Goals Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Science and Measurements 1. Explain, compare, and contrast the terms scientific method, hypothesis, and experiment. 2. Compare and contrast scientific theory

### Preparation for BioScience Academy Math Assessment Test

Preparation for BioScience Academy Math Assessment Test Math is an essential component of laboratory science and solid math skills are required for a successful career in this field. To be eligible for

### Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

### Density Determinations

CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 3.1 Density Determinations To learn about intensive physical properties. To learn how to measure the density of substances. To learn how to characterize

### Juice Titration. Background. Acid/Base Titration

Juice Titration Background Acids in Juice Juice contains both citric and ascorbic acids. Citric acid is used as a natural preservative and provides a sour taste. Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin

### Key. Name: OBJECTIVES

Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: observation, inference, classification, percent deviation, density, rate of change, cyclic change, dynamic equilibrium, interface, mass, volume GRAPHICAL RELATIONSHIPS

### Pre-Algebra Lecture 6

Pre-Algebra Lecture 6 Today we will discuss Decimals and Percentages. Outline: 1. Decimals 2. Ordering Decimals 3. Rounding Decimals 4. Adding and subtracting Decimals 5. Multiplying and Dividing Decimals

### Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors

Chapter 1 Units, Physical Quantities and Vectors 1.1 Nature of physics Mathematics. Math is the language we use to discuss science (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, engineering, etc.) Not all of the

### Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide A Redox Titration

Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide A Redox Titration Introduction Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an "environmentally friendly" alternative to chlorine for water purification and wastewater treatment. Because

### Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets Procedure Each Part of lab requires a separate data table. You might want to put each table on a separate page so you can leave room to show equations and calculations.

### Neutralizing an Acid and a Base

Balancing Act Teacher Information Objectives In this activity, students neutralize a base with an acid. Students determine the point of neutralization of an acid mixed with a base while they: Recognize

### Acid Base Titrations

Acid Base Titrations Introduction A common question chemists have to answer is how much of something is present in a sample or a product. If the product contains an acid or base, this question is usually

### REVIEW SHEETS INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL SCIENCE MATH 52

REVIEW SHEETS INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL SCIENCE MATH 52 A Summary of Concepts Needed to be Successful in Mathematics The following sheets list the key concepts which are taught in the specified math course.

### UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,

### Chapter 3 Review Math 1030

Section A.1: Three Ways of Using Percentages Using percentages We can use percentages in three different ways: To express a fraction of something. For example, A total of 10, 000 newspaper employees, 2.6%

### Partner: Jack 17 November 2011. Determination of the Molar Mass of Volatile Liquids

Partner: Jack 17 November 2011 Determination of the Molar Mass of Volatile Liquids Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of three volatile liquids. The liquid is vaporized

### To Multiply Decimals

4.3 Multiplying Decimals 4.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Multiply two or more decimals 2. Use multiplication of decimals to solve application problems 3. Multiply a decimal by a power of ten 4. Use multiplication by

### GA/7 Potentiometric Titration

Rev. 7/99 7-1 INTRODUCTION GA/7 Potentiometric Titration The potentiometric titration is a useful means of characterizing an acid. The ph of a solution is measured as a function of the amount of titrant

### Using Proportions to Solve Percent Problems I

RP7-1 Using Proportions to Solve Percent Problems I Pages 46 48 Standards: 7.RP.A. Goals: Students will write equivalent statements for proportions by keeping track of the part and the whole, and by solving

### Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware In this laboratory exercise, we will calibrate the three types of glassware typically used by an analytical chemist;

### Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 314 318)

Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 34 38) Any side of a parallelogram or triangle can be used as a base. The altitude of a parallelogram is a line segment perpendicular to the base

### Determination of a Chemical Formula

1 Determination of a Chemical Formula Introduction Molar Ratios Elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds. For example, consider the compound TiCl 4 (titanium chloride). Each molecule of TiCl

### The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant

The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant Computer 10 Chemical reactions occur to reach a state of equilibrium. The equilibrium state can be characterized by quantitatively defining its equilibrium

### EXPERIMENTAL ERROR AND DATA ANALYSIS

EXPERIMENTAL ERROR AND DATA ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION: Laboratory experiments involve taking measurements of physical quantities. No measurement of any physical quantity is ever perfectly accurate, except

### Sample problems: A. What s the concentration of a solution containing 0.1 moles of NaCl in 0.25 liters of water?

EEWWWW. CHEMISTRY!! Or, dumb math problems Dr. Moss says I gotta know how to do for lab. I m not going to collect these assignments and grade them. However, there WILL be at least one math question on

### Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams

### 1.2 ERRORS AND UNCERTAINTIES Notes

1.2 ERRORS AND UNCERTAINTIES Notes I. UNCERTAINTY AND ERROR IN MEASUREMENT A. PRECISION AND ACCURACY B. RANDOM AND SYSTEMATIC ERRORS C. REPORTING A SINGLE MEASUREMENT D. REPORTING YOUR BEST ESTIMATE OF