# Figure 1. A typical Laboratory Thermometer graduated in C.

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2 Celsius degrees. When this thermometer is placed in an ice bath at 0 C, it reads -1 C and when placed in boiling water at 100 C, it reads 99 C. This thermometer has been roughly calibrated over a 100 temperature range and has been found to be 1 in error. As a correction factor, 1 must be added to all temperature readings in this temperature range. It would be better, however, to check the thermometer at several different temperatures within this range to verify that the error is indeed linear before the uniform application of the correction factor at all temperatures. Figure 2 A meter stick graduated in centimeters. The graduations are sufficiently far apart that it is relatively easy to estimate the length of the object shown above it. The length of the object is estimated to be 26.3±0.1 cm. The doubtful or uncertain digit here is the last one recorded. Figure 3 A meter stick graduated in millimeters. The graduations are close enough together that it is difficult to estimate to the nearest tenth of a millimeter. In reporting the length of the object shown above the meter stick, it is sufficient to report it to the nearest millimeter. Thus the length is reported to be 26.3±0.1 cm. The uncertain digit here is the smallest -graduation on the meter stick, ±0.1 cm (or ±1 mm). When using a meter stick, even one that is finely machined, there is enough unevenness in the object being measured, the meter stick itself, and the difficulty in placing it on the item to be measured to make it pointless to attempt to estimate tenths of a millimeter. Even under ideal conditions, estimation of anything less than one-half a millimeter becomes more of a guess than a measurement. Whether the information from a series of measurements is obtained first-hand or second hand through another source, the number of significant figures must be determined in order to keep all the results meaningful. The rules for writing and identifying significant figures are: 1. All nonzero digits (digits from 1 to 9) are significant. 254 contains three significant figures 4.55 contains three significant figures contains six significant figures 2

3 2. Zero digits that occur between nonzero digits are significant. 202 contains three significant figures In these examples, the zeros contains four significant figures are part of a measurement contains six significant figures 3. Zeros at the beginning of a number (i.e., on the left-hand side) are considered to be placeholders and are not significant contains two significant figures In these examples, the zeros contains three significant figures on the left are placeholders contains three significant figures It is common practice to place a zero in front of the decimal point preceding a decimal fraction. It acts as a placeholder only. 4. Zeros that occur at the end of a number (i.e., on the right-hand side) that include an expressed decimal point are significant. The presence of the decimal point is taken as an indication that the measurement is exact to the places indicated contains five significant figures contains four significant figures In these examples, the zeros contains four significant figures on the right express part of a contains five significant figures. measurement contains four significant figures 5. Zeros that occur at the end of a number (i.e., on the right-hand side) without an expressed decimal point are ambiguous (i.e., we have no information on wether they are significant or not) and are not considered to be significant contains three significant figures In these examples, the zeros may only be 2000 contains one significant figure placeholders. Do not count them unless contains four significant figures a decimal point is present. One way of indicating that some or all the zeros are significant is to write the number in scientific notation form (See Section 6). For example, a number such as 2000 would be written as 2 x 10 3 if it contains one significant figure, and as 2.0 x 10 3 if it contains two significant figures. Problems: Significant Figures State the number of significant figures in each of the following measurements. a) 230 cm ans. a) b) 34.0 ml b) c) g c) d) g d) e) km e) f) ml f)

4 g) m g) h) g h) 2. ROUNDING-OFF NUMBERS When dealing with significant figures, it is often necessary to round-off numbers in order to keep the results of calculations significant. To round-off a number such as to three significant figures means to express it as the nearest three digit number. Since is between 64.8 and 64.9, but closer to 64.8, then the result of the round-off is A number such as is equally close to 64.8 and In this case and in similar cases, the rule to observe is to round off to the nearest even number which is This rule assumes that in a series of numbers which are to be rounded off, there will be approximately the same number of times that you would have to roundoff upward to the nearest even number as you would have to round-off downward. 1. Round off to three significant figures. Answer: is between 75.5 and Since is closer to 75.5, then the answer is Round off to two decimal places. Answer: When expressed to two decimal places, falls between 9.08 and Since it is closer to 9.08, then the answer is Round off to a whole number. Answer: is between 1345 and The number, is closer to 1346, thus, the answer is Round off to three significant figures. Answer: To round off , use the first three significant figures. Therefore, is between and , but it is closer to The zeros must be maintained as placeholders. The answer is Round off to two significant figures. Answer: is between and Since it is equally close to both these numbers, then it will be rounded off to the nearest even number. Round off upward to Problems: Rounding-off numbers Round off each of the following numbers to three significant figures. a) ans. a) b) b) c) c)

5 d) d) e) e) f) f) g) g) h) h) 3. NUMERICAL OPERATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FIGURES A. Addition and subtraction When adding (or subtracting) approximate numbers, round off the sum (or difference) to the last column in which each number has a significant figure. 1. Add the following numbers: Answer: First arrange the numbers in a column: The sum is Applying the rule for addition of significant figures, it is observed that the last column in which every one of the four numbers has a significant figure is the tenths column (the first decimal place). Thus the sum must be rounded off to one decimal place. The answer would properly be reported as (6 significant figures) 2. Subtract the following numbers: Answer: Set up the subtraction problem: The difference is The last column in which both of these numbers contain a significant figure is the tenths column. Round off the answer to one decimal place. The difference is properly reported as (4 significant figures)

6 B. Multiplication and division When multiplying (or dividing) approximate numbers, round off the product (or -quotient) so that the final answer contains only as many significant figures as the least approximate number involved in the calculation. 1. Multiply the following numbers: 3.01 x 1.4 x Answer: The product of multiplication is: 3.01 x 1.4 x = The process of multiplication can result in many more digits in the answer than in any of the original numbers in the problem. If we examine each of the initial numbers in the problem, we find 3.01 contains 3 significant figures; 1.4 contains 2 significant figures; and contains 4 significant figures. The number of significant figures in the answer will be determined by the least approximate number, the 1.4 which contains 2 significant figures. The final product is rounded off and reported as 3100 (2 significant figures) 2. Divide the following numbers: / 6.01 Answer: The quotient of this division problem is: / 6.01 = Examining the initial numbers, you will observe that contains 5 significant figures and 6.01 contains 3 significant figures. Thus, 6.01 is the least approximate number and the quotient is rounded off to 3 significant figures. The final quotient will be reported as (3 significant figures) Problems: Numerical operations with significant figures Perform the indicated mathematical operations in each of the following. Round off the answers to the proper number of significant figures. a) g g g b) cm cm c) 75.5 m x 8.66 m x 44 m d) g/ 3.45 g e) 2334 cm x cm x 21.2 cm

7 f) 8.6 ml ml ml g) L/ L h) cm mm 4. EXPONENTS Occasionally, in scientific work, we encounter a product in which the same number is used more than once as a factor, as in the following two examples: 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 or 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 This method of writing such numbers is cumbersome and in order to simplify this, we use exponential notation. The two examples given above can be written in exponential notation as: The answers to these examples are: 2 4 where the 4 means that there are four 2 s to be multiplied together. 3 6 where the 6 means that six 3 s are to be multiplied together. 2 4 = 16 and 3 6 = 729 In general form an exponential number is given as: a n = a x a x a x a x a... x a (n times) where the symbol a n is read as the n th power of a or a to the n th. The repeated factor, a, is called the base and the number of factors to be multiplied together, n, is called the exponent. Two exponents have common names: and a 2 is usually read as a squared a 3 is usually read as a cubed The types of exponents that you will be encountering in scientific work will be described in the following sections. In most cases, we will be mainly concerned with exponential powers of ten. A. Positive Exponents If the exponent, n, is a positive integer, then a n denotes the product of n factors where each factor is equal to a. This can be written in the general form: a n = a x a x a x a... x a (n times)

8 4 3 can be written as the product of three fours: 4 3 = 4 x 4 x 4 = can be written as the product of three tens: 10 3 = 10 x 10 x 10 = can be written as the product of six tens: 10 6 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = A summary of some positive powers of ten are given below: 10 1 = = = = = = = = = Examining the numbers above, you may observe that there is a relationship between the positive exponent of ten and the number of zeros in the product. This can be summarized as: For powers of ten where the exponent is a positive integer, n, the product can be written as a 1 with n zeros following it. Occasionally, one encounters fractions that are raised to a power. An example of this is: x 2 x 2 8 ( ) = = x 3 x 3 27 B. Zero Exponents If the exponent, n, is zero, then by definition, any number raised to the zero power is equal to unity (i.e., 1) = = = 1 (4 x 10 3 ) 0 = 1

9 C. Negative Exponents If the exponent, n, is a negative quantity, then the expression a -n can be written as shown below: 1 1 a -n = ( ) n = a a n Note that when the number with a negative exponent is rewritten in fractional form, the sign of the exponent becomes positive. 3-2 can be evaluated as shown below: = = = 3 3 x can be rewritten and evaluated as shown below: = = can be written and evaluated as shown below: = = = = x 10 x A summary of some negative powers of ten are given below: 10-1 = = = = = = = = = Examining the numbers above, you may observe that there is a relationship between the negative exponent of ten and the number of zeros in the product. This can be summarized as: For powers of ten where the exponent is a negative integer, -n, the product can be written as a decimal fraction with (n-1) zeros between the decimal point and the 1. Occasionally, one encounters fractions that are raised to a negative power. An example of this is: x 3 x 3 27 ( ) -3 = ( ) 3 = = x 2 x 2 8

10 D. Fractional Exponents m If the exponent is a fraction of the form, where m and n are integers, then an n exponential number such as a m/n is read as take the n th root of a and raise it to the m th power. This can be written in the form: _ a m/n = ( n a ) m 10 1/2 can be rewritten and evaluated as shown below: 10 1/2 = 10 = /3 is evaluated as shown below: _ 1/4 8 2/3 = ( 3 8 ) 2 = (2) 2 = ( ) 1/4 is evaluated: 1 ( ) 81 1/ = = = Problems: Exponents Evaluate the following exponential numbers: a) 3 4 b) 5 3 c) 10 2 d) 10 5 e) f) ( ) 2 4 g) 3-2 h) 2-5 i) 10-2

11 j) 10-5 k) l) ( ) -2 4 m) 64 2/3 o) 4-3/2 5. MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NUMBERS This tutorial will address multiplication, division, and powers with exponential numbers. Addition and subtraction with exponential numbers is not commonly encountered in chemistry courses. A. Multiplication To multiply two exponential numbers having the same base, add the exponents: a n x a m = a (n+m) Evaluate 3 2 x x 3 3 = 3 (2+3) = 3 5 = 243 Evaluate 3 2 x x 3-3 = 3 2+(-3) = 3-1 = 3 Note: If one or more of the exponents have a negative sign, addition of exponents is with respect to sign. Evaluate 10 2 x 10 3 x x 10 3 x 10 4 = = 10 9 = Evaluate 10 2 x 10-3 x x 10-3 x 10-4 = 10 2+(-3)+(-4) = 10-5 =

12 B. Division To find the quotient of two exponential numbers having the same base, subtract the exponent of the denominator form the exponent of the numerator: a n a m = a n-m Evaluate 5 6 / /5 3 = = = 5 3 = Evaluate 5 3 / /5-2 = = 5 3-(-2) = = 5 5 = Evaluate 10 8 / /10 12 = = = 10-4 = C. Raising to Powers To raise a exponential number to a power, multiply the exponents: (a n ) m = a n m Evaluate (2 3 ) 2 (2 3 ) 2 = = 2 6 = 64 Evaluate (10 4 ) 3 (10 4 ) 3 = = = Evaluate (10-3 ) 2 (10-3 ) 2 = 10 (-3) 2 = 10-6 = Evaluate (10 1/2 ) 8 (10 1/2 ) 8 = 10 (1/2) 8 = 10 4 =

13 Problems: Mathematical operations with exponential numbers Evaluate each of the following: a) 2 3 x 2 2 b) 4 5 x 4-3 c) 2-5 / 2-3 d) 4 3 /4 5 e) (2-2 ) 2 f) (4 2 ) 5 g) 10 2 x 10 6 h) 10 3 x 10 5 x 10-4 i) 10-3 x 10-2 j) 10 4 /10 7 h) 10 2 /10-5 l) 10-4 /10-7 m) (10 3 ) 2 n) (10 3 ) -4 o) (10-3 ) -2 (10-2 x 10 6 ) p) 10 8

14 6. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION In chemistry, we frequently have to deal with very large or very small numbers. For example, one mole of any substance contains approximately particles of that substance. If we consider a substance such as gold, one atom of gold will weigh grams Numbers such as these are difficult to write and are even more difficult to work with, especially in calculations where the number may have to be used a few times. To simplify working with these numbers, we use what is known as scientific notation. In scientific notation we make the assumption that a number such as can be written as the product of two numbers 2.5 and To further simplify this expression, the number can be written in exponential form. Thus, this number, in scientific notation becomes = 2.5 x 10 7 In proper scientific notation form, the significant figures are written so that the decimal point is located between the first and second significant figures (counting from left to right). The power of ten is the indicator of how many spaces the decimal point had to be moved to place it between the first two significant figures. In the first number, the number of particles in a mole, given above, in order to place the decimal point between the first two significant figures (the 6 and the 0) the decimal point must be moved twenty-three spaces form the right to the left. The number of spaces the decimal point is moved will be expressed as a positive integer. In proper scientific notation form, the number of particles in a mole is 6.02 x particles In the second number, the number of grams in one atom of gold, the decimal point must be moved twenty-two spaces form the left to the right. The number of spaces the decimal point was moved will be expressed as a negative exponent. The weight of one atom of gold, expressed in scientific notation x gram As you can observe, these two numbers are easier to manage in scientific notation. Some more examples of numbers written in scientific notation are: 4500 = 4.5 x 10 3 (decimal point moved 3 spaces to the left) = 3.05 x 10 5 (decimal point moved 5 spaces to the left) = 2.50 x 10-3 (decimal point moved 3 spaces to the right)

15 Remember, if the decimal point was moved from the right to the left in order to place it between the first two significant figures, the exponent will be positive. If the decimal point had to be moved from the left to the right, the exponent will be negative. Another advantage of scientific notation is that only the significant figures are kept, all placeholders are contained in the power of ten. This eliminates zeros which are ambiguous. For example, if the number is rounded off to three significant figures, the result would be Only the zero following the 4 should be significant, the other zeros are place holders. It is not apparent from looking at the number that one of the zeros is significant while the others are not. In scientific notation, this number would be written as 2.40 x 10 4 Thus, the significant zero is included, but the placeholders are not. Problems: Scientific notation 1. Write the following numbers in proper scientific notation form: a) ans. a) b) b) c) c) d) 9800 d) e) 2025 x 10 3 e) f) x 10-2 f) 2. Round off the following numbers as indicated and write the answer in scientific notation form: a) Round off to 3 significant figures ans. a) b) Round off to 4 significant figures b) c) Round off to 3 significant figures c) d) Round off to 3 significant figures d) 3. Express the following exponential numbers in non-exponential form: a) 7.90 x 10 5 ans. a) b) 5.70 x 10-4 b) c) x 10-9 c) d) x 10 8 d) e) 9.09 x 10-3 e)

16 7. NUMERICAL OPERATIONS WITH SCIENTIFIC NOTATION NUMBERS A. Multiplication To multiply two (or more) numbers written in scientific notation form, first rearrange the numbers grouping the non-exponential parts of the numbers together and grouping the powers of ten together. The non-exponential numbers are multiplied together and the exponential numbers are added. Multiply: (3 x ) x (2 x 10 6 ) Answer: (3 x ) x (2 x 10 6 ) = 3 x x 2 x 10 6 = 3 x 2 x x 10 6 (rearrange) = 6 x (multiply) = 6 x Multiply: (4.50 x 10-8 ) x (3.00 x 10 4 ) Answer: (4.50 x 10-8 ) x (3.00 x 10 4 ) = 4.50 x 10-8 x 3.00 x 10 4 = 4.50 x 3.00 x 10-8 x 10 4 = 13.5 x = 13.5 x 10-4 = 1.35 x 10-3 Do not forget to put the final answer in proper scientific notation form (i.e., one number in front of the decimal place.) B. Division To divide two numbers written in scientific notation, first rearrange them to group the non-exponential numbers together and the powers of ten together. The non-exponential numbers are divided and the powers of ten are subtracted. Divide: (3.0 x ) / (2.0 x ) Answer: 3.0 x = x (rearrange) 2.0 x = 1.5 x (divide) = 1.5 x 10-4

17 Divide: (6.60 x 10-3 ) / (2.20 x 10 4 ) Answer: 6.60 x = x 2.20 x = 3.00 x 10-3-(4) = 3.00 x 10-7 C. Raising to a Power To raise a number in scientific notation to a power, separate the non-exponential part from the power of ten, raise the non-exponetial part to the required power, and multiply the exponents. Example: Evaluate (3.0 x 10 2 ) 3 Answer: (3.0 x 10 2 ) 3 = (3.0) 3 x (10 2 ) 3 = 27 x = 27 x 10 6 = 2.7 x 10 7 Problems: Numerical operations with scientific notation numbers Evaluate each of the following and express the answers in proper scientific notation form. a) (4.50 x 10 6 ) x (2.1 x 10-2 ) b) (5.50 x 10-3 ) x (3.50 x 10-4 ) c) (1.5 x 10 3 ) x (6.6 x 10 4 ) d) 9000 / (2.5 x 10 2 ) e) (4.48 x 10-3 ) / (6.60 x 10 2 ) f) (8.5 x 10-5 ) / (3.5 x 10-8 ) g) (2.00 x 10-3 ) 4 h) (3.0 x 10 4 ) 3 i) (1.60 x 10-5 ) x x 150 j) x 4200 x k) ( ) 2/3

18 ( ) 3 x (6000) 2 l) ( ) 4 x (400) 1/2 m) ( ) x ( ) n) 4000 / (2.12 x 10-3 ) 0

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