Answer key for the exercises in the lesson

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1 Exercises for Summative Assessment I. Distinguish between: 1. Plantation and shifting agriculture Plantation agriculture 1. Plantation agriculture refers to the type of cultivation in which vast lands are brought under a single crop. This type of agriculture was introduced by Europeans in their colonies situated in tropical regions. 2. Modern methods and technology are used. 3. Involves huge capital. 4. The crop is either processed for sale or sold as raw materials to other industries. Some farm products are exported too. 5. Major plantations found in the tropical regions are rubber plantations in West Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc. Answer key for the exercises in the lesson Shifting agriculture 1. Shifting cultivation, also known as slash and burn agriculture, is an agricultural process, where a small area of a forest is cleared by cutting down all the trees and the area is burnt. The ashes are mixed with the soil and this land is used for growing crops. After a couple of years when the land becomes less fertile, the land is abandoned. Later, another such area is identified to be cleared for cultivation. 2. Primitive in nature, generally practised in regions with heavy rainfall where forests gets regenerated quickly. 3. There is no considerable capital at stake. 4. Crop is produced for their domestic use at subsistence level. 5. This type of farming is practised mainly in thick forests of north-eastern states of India, southeast Asia and the Amazon basin.

2 2. Primary and tertiary activity Primary activity 1. Primary activities are those which are connected with the extraction and production of raw materials and natural resources. 2. Some of the primary activities are agriculture, fishing, food gathering, hunting, lumbering, herding, etc. 3. Mixed farming and ranching Tertiary activity 1. Tertiary activities are connected with the provision of support services to all the sectors and people of the economy. 2. Some of the tertiary activities are transport, trade, banking, insurance, education, hospitality, health services, advertisements, etc. Mixed farming Ranching 1. Mixed farming refers to cultivation of food crop, 1. Ranching refers to raising livestock with the use fodder crop, and the rearing of livestock at the of some public lands. same time, on the same land. 2. The huge stock of cattle grazes on public land. 2. The combination of different primary activities Controlled grazing will keep the soil fertile and here is complementary to each other and adds to also sustain pasture lands for future need. the farmer s profitability. 3. The practice is common in Australia, western 3. It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, USA and Tibet. In India, ranching is prevalent, to southeast Australia, New Zealand, west Africa and some extent, in the hilly regions that are rich in South Africa. pastures and grazing lands. 4. Wheat crop and rice crop Wheat crop 1. Wheat is the third most produced cereal in the world after maize and rice. It is the second most important crop of India. 2. This is a rabi crop, grown in winter. 3. Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during the growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening and harvest. It requires a temperature of less than 250 C and an annual rainfall of about 50 cm to 75 cm. 4. It thrives best in well drained, loamy soil. 5. Wheat is a staple crop. It is grown in a very large scale in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. II. Name the following: 1. Name a few factors on which agricultural development depends. Soil, climate, irrigation, size of land holding, techniques and methods of farming are some factors on which agricultural development depend. 2. Any three natural inputs that support agriculture. Slope of the land, fertile soil, rainfall, organic manure (dung of animals), sunshine, earth worms which loosen the soil, and microorganisms which nitrate the soil, are natural inputs that support agriculture. Rice crop 1. Rice is one of the major food crops of the world. It is the staple diet of people in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. 2. This is a kharif crop, grown in summer. 3. Rice needs a high temperature, of about 250C, high humidity and an annual rainfall of over 100 cm. 4. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water. 5. Rice is a staple crop. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt. West Bengal and Bangladesh grow two or three crops a year. 3. Any four places where wheat crop is grown. USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India are places where wheat is grown. 4. List out five agro products. Crops, dairy products, wool, timber, fish, meat, chicken, and eggs are some agro products. 5. Name any three types of farming. Nomadic farming, subsistence farming and commercial farming. III. Give reasons. 1. Efforts have been made to increase farm production.

3 Efforts have been taken to increase agricultural production in order to increase farm production and meet the growing demand of increasing population. This agricultural development was the result of the application of scientific inputs in agriculture, such as improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds and the use of modern agricultural machines (tractors, seed drillers, sprayers, harvesters, etc.). The efforts mainly strive to increase food security. 2. Subsistence farming is carried out by a farmer to satisfy just the needs of his family alone. Farmers engaged in subsistence farming use primitive methods and archaic technology in the field and do not use hired labour. Only the members of the farmer s household work on the field and the output depends on just the natural factors. Invariably, the harvest is just enough for the farmers household use and nothing is left for sale. IV. Answer the following questions. 1. What are the three types of economic activities? The three types of economic activities are primary activities, secondary activities and tertiary activities. 2. Define agriculture. Agriculture can be defined as the process of preparing the land for the cultivation of crops. It also includes the rearing of livestock. Agriculture, also known as farming, is one of the oldest occupations known to humans. 3. Mention the activities which are involved in harvesting a crop. There are several important activities which a farmer has to perform, in order to harvest a good crop. A farmer has to plough the field, sow the seeds, irrigate the land, apply fertilizers, guard the crop from pests, weed out unwanted plants, harvest and store, and then transport the crop to the market for selling. 4. Define secondary activities. Give a few examples. Secondary activities are connected with manufacturing finished goods by processing the raw materials got from nature. Some of the agro-based secondary activities are production of bread, sugar, and cotton or jute textiles. 5. Describe in detail any four types of farming and explain with examples. Shifting cultivation, terrace farming, mixed farming, and commercial farming are four of the many different types of farming. Shifting cultivation involves the burning of trees to clear the area for cultivation. It is practised in the north-eastern forests of India and in the forests along the Amazon basin. Terrace farming, the cultivation on the hilly stretches along the contour lines, also known as contour ploughing, is practised on the hills of Assam and on the Western Ghats in peninsular India. Mixed farming refers to the cultivation of crops and rearing of cattle at the same time. It is practised in Europe, eastern USA and western Africa, etc. Growing crops and raising animals on a large scale for sale, using modern machines and methods is called commercial farming. It is practised in North America, Mexico, and Eurasia etc. 6. Explain commercial farming. In commercial farming the farmer cultivates crops and rears animals for commercial purposes i.e., for selling. The main motive of the farmer here is making profit. Most of the work is done by machines and the areas under cultivation as well as the capital involved are very huge. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, plantations and mixed farming. Crops like wheat and maize are grown on a large scale under commercial grain farming or extensive farming mainly in the temperate grasslands of North America, Mexico, Europe and Eurasia. These farms are spread over hundreds of hectares and are thinly populated. Massive machines like seed drillers, combine harvesters and thrashers are used. However, due to severe winters only one crop can be harvested, during summers. Plantation agriculture was introduced by the Europeans in their colonies. Here vast lands are brought under a single crop. Some examples are the rubber plantations in west Malaysia, and the tea estates in India and Sri Lanka. Lastly, mixed farming refers to the

4 cultivation of food crops, fodder crops and the rearing of livestock at the same time, on the same land. It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, etc. 7. What is meant by transhumance? The seasonal migration of the herders along with their cattle up the hills in summer and down to plains in the winter is called transhumance. 8. What practices should we adopt for agricultural development? It is important to encourage scientific inputs in agriculture such as improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilizers and high yielding varieties of seeds. It is also necessary to adopt mechanization, i.e., the use of tractors, seed drillers, weeders, sprayers, harvesters, etc, and produce optimally for sustained agricultural development. It is important to refrain from exploitative methods. 9. Briefly explain the climatic condition suitable for production of tea. Tea requires a cool, frost free climate with abundant rainfall, well distributed throughout the year, for a good crop. It also needs well drained loamy soils and gentle slopes that can be terraced for cultivation. It is a labour intensive crop and requires large numbers of skilled labour to pluck the leaves. 10. Write a brief note on the agriculture in India Almost 75 percent of India s population is dependent on agriculture. The size of an average land-holding in India is just 2.3 hectares. The small size of holdings is a result of fragmentation of farms, generation after generation. The poor farmers do not have enough capital to effectively utilise the modern inputs in agriculture. Lack of awareness and rural indebtedness is another disturbing feature of Indian agriculture. This situation leads to exploitation of farmers by the local money lenders. Many poor farmers and landless labourers end up as bonded labourers. However, the government of India has taken many steps to improve the life of farmers. Irrigation projects have been provided. Fragmented lands have been consolidated. Better quality seeds, pesticides, fertilisers have been made available. Farmers are given loans through nationalised and co-operative banks at a low interest. The government also fixes support prices for the farmer s products and gives subsidies to buy inputs. 11. Compare farming in India with that in the USA Students should discuss the case studies and answer this question in their own words. The following key points can be considered. Land size: USA extensive, vast holdings India intensive, small holdings Type of farming: USA commercial India subsistence Capital involved: USA very high India low Objective: USA for export and processing India for food security and sustainability Can also include types of crop grown. Multiple Choice Questions 1. a 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. a 7. d 8. a 9. c 10. d 11. a 12. d Value-based question Being hardworking and determined Having an open mind and willing to try new techniques Showing perseverance Having a sense of responsibility

5 Answer key for the worksheet I. 1. d 2. b and c 3. d 4. a 5. a 6. d II. 1. e 2. f 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. c III. 1. Rural indebtedness is where marginal farmers and landless labourers take money on loan from local money lenders at very high rates of interest and are unable to return the money. Sometimes they pledge their land or cattle to take these loans. Most of the farmers are unable to repay these loans and end up losing their land and working as bonded labourers. In some cases, desperate farmers end up taking their own lives. 2. The government of India has started many irrigation projects that has helped reduce the dependence on the monsoon for the farmers. Fragmented pieces of land have been joined to make them viable for farming. The government has made better quality seeds, pesticides and fertilisers available to the farmers at low rates. District officers train the farmers in new and better methods of cultivation. Nationalised banks extend loans to the farmers at low rates of interest. 3. Farmers in India 1. Most of the farmers carry out subsistence farming. 2. Most of the farmers use archaic tools for tilling, sowing and harvesting. 3. Do not have storage facilities and hence sell the grains at the price quoted by local traders. Farmers in the USA 1. Most of the farmers carry out commercial farming. 2. Most of the farmers use modern machinery like seed drillers, combine harvesters and threshers. 3. Use modern storage facilities and so can store the grains till he gets the correct price.

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