Chapter 16. Human Circulatory System

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1 Chapter 16 Human Circulatory System

2 Transport Involves the absorption and circulation of materials throughout an organism

3 Human Circulatory System Closed circulatory system- blood is always in blood vessels. Heart which pumps blood. Network of blood vessels which carry blood to and from all cells of the body.

4 Human Circulatory System

5 (I) Three Kinds of Blood Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Capillaries

6 Arteries Thick-walled Smooth muscle Transports blood away from heart Carries oxygenated blood (high levels of O2) Arteries divide into smaller vessels known as arterioles

7 Arteries Thick-walled Smooth muscle Transports blood away from heart Carries oxygenated blood (high levels of O2) Arteries divide into smaller vessels known as arterioles

8 Thin-walled Veins Transports blood to the heart Carries deoxygenated blood Contain valves which help prevent the backflow of blood Divide into smaller vessels known as venules

9 Very thin-walled (one cell thick) Site for the exchange of materials between the blood and body tissue (cells) Arterioles and venules are connected by capillaries Capillaries

10 Very thin-walled (one cell thick) Site for the exchange of materials between the blood and body tissue (cells) Arterioles and venules are connected by capillaries Capillaries

11 Very thin-walled (one cell thick) Site for the exchange of materials between the blood and body tissue (cells) Arterioles and venules are connected by capillaries Capillaries

12 (II) Heart Composed of cardiac muscle It is a 4-chambered pump composed of 2 atria and 2 ventricles The ventricles have thicker walls than the atria The heart pumps blood through the arteries creating a blood pressure

13 Human Heart

14 Human Heart

15 Superior Vena Cava Brings deoxygenated blood from the upper portion of the body and into the right atrium

16 Inferior Vena Cava Brings deoxygenated blood from the lower portion of the body and into the right atrium

17 Right Atrium Receives blood from the inferior and superior vena cava and pumps it into the right atrium

18 Valves A-V valve- separates the atrium from the ventricle Semi-lunar valve- separates ventricles from the arteries

19 Right Ventricle Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery

20 Pulmonary Artery Receives blood from the right ventricle and transports it to the lungs

21 Pulmonary Vein Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and transports it to the left atrium

22 Left Atrium Receives blood from the pulmonary vein and pumps it into the left ventricle

23 Left Ventricle Receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta

24 Aorta Major artery of the body Receives blood from the left ventricle and transports it to the rest of the body

25 Septum Separates the heart into a left side and a right side Left side contains oxygenated blood Right side contains deoxygenated blood

26 (III) Types of Circulation

27 Sphygmomanometer Instrument used to measure the pressure of the blood in the artery of the arm Ex: 120/ = systolic pressure 80 = diastolic pressure

28 (IV) Heartbeat Cycle Diastole (relaxation)- is the period when the ventricles are filling with blood. The A-V valve is open and blood flows from the atrium to the ventricle Systole (contraction)- is the period when the ventricle pumps blood out of the heart. A-V valve closes and the semi-lunar valve opens

29 1. Pulmonary Circulation The pathway from which blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart ( R.V. Pulm. Artery Lungs Pulm. Vein L.A.)

30 2. Systemic Circulation The pathway that carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body with the exception of the lungs

31 3. Coronary Circulation Muscle tissue of the heart is supplied with blood through a system of coronary blood vessels Coronary arteries- supply oxygenated blood to the muscle tissue of the heart

32 Disorders of the Circulatory System

33 Cardiovascular Diseases Are diseases of the heart and blood vessels

34 High Blood Pressure Increased pressure in the arteries due to stress, diet, cigarette smoking, and aging Can lead to damage of the lining of arteries and weakening of the heart muscle

35 Heart Attacks Two Types 1. Coronary Thrombosis 2. Angina Pectoris

36 Coronary Thrombosis Blockage of the coronary artery resulting in oxygen deficiency in the heart muscle

37 Coronary Thrombosis

38 Angina Pectoris Narrowing of the coronary artery causing an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle

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