# Martingale Pricing Theory

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1 IEOR E4707: Financial Engineering: Continuous-Time Models Fall 200 c 200 by Martin Haugh Martingale Pricing Theory These notes develop the modern theory of martingale pricing in a discrete-time, discrete-space framework. This theory is also important for the modern theory of portfolio optimization as the problems of pricing and portfolio optimization are now recognized as being intimately related. We choose to work in a discrete-time and discrete-space environment as this will allow us to quickly develop results using a minimal amount of mathematics: we will use only the basics of linear programming duality and martingale theory. Despite this restriction, the results we obtain hold more generally for continuous-time and continuous-space models once various technical conditions are satisfied. This is not too surprising as one can imagine approximating these latter models using our discrete-time, discrete-space models by simply keeping the time horizon fixed and letting the number of periods and states go to infinity in an appropriate manner. Notation and Definitions for Single-Period Models We first consider a one-period model and introduce the necessary definitions and concepts in this context. We will then extend these definitions to multi-period models. ω ω 2 ω m t = 0 t = Let t = 0 and t = denote the beginning and end, respectively, of the period. At t = 0 we assume that there are N + securities available for trading, and at t = one of m possible states will have occurred. Let S (i) 0 denote the time t = 0 value of the i th security for 0 i N, and let S (i) (ω j) denote its payoff at date t = in the event that ω j occurs. Let P = (p,..., p m ) be the true probability distribution describing the likelihood of each state occurring. We assume that p k > 0 for each k. Arbitrage A type A arbitrage is an investment that produces immediate positive reward at t = 0 and has no future cost at t =. An example of a type A arbitrage would be somebody walking up to you on the street, giving you a

2 Martingale Pricing Theory 2 positive amount of cash, and asking for nothing in return, either then or in the future. A type B arbitrage is an investment that has a non-positive cost at t = 0 but has a positive probability of yielding a positive payoff at t = and zero probability of producing a negative payoff then. An example of a type B arbitrage would be a stock that costs nothing, but that will possibly generate dividend income in the future. In finance we always assume that arbitrage opportunities do not exist since if they did, market forces would quickly act to dispel them. Linear Pricing Definition Let S () 0 and S (2) 0 be the date t = 0 prices of two securities whose payoffs at date t = are d and d 2, respectively 2. We say that linear pricing holds if for all α and α 2, α S () 0 + α 2 S (2) 0 is the value of the security that pays α d + α 2 d 2 at date t =. It is easy to see that absence of type A arbitrage implies that linear pricing holds. As we always assume that arbitrage opportunities do not exist, we also assume that linear pricing always holds. Elementary Securities, Attainability and State Prices Definition 2 An elementary security is a security that has date t = payoff of the form e j = (0,..., 0,, 0,..., 0), where the payoff of occurs in state j. As there are m possible states at t =, there are m elementary securities. Definition 3 A security or contingent claim, X, is said to be attainable if there exists a trading strategy, θ = [θ 0 θ... θ N+ ] T, such that X(ω ). X(ω m ) = S (0) (ω )... S (N) (ω )..... S (0) (ω m)... S (N) (ω m ) θ 0. θ N. () In shorthand we write X = S θ where S is the m (N + ) matrix of date security payoffs. Note that θ j represents the number of units of the j th security purchased at date 0. We call θ the replicating portfolio. Example (An Attainable Claim) Consider the one-period model below where there are 4 possible states of nature and 3 securities, i.e. m = 4 and N = 2. At t = and state ω 3, for example, the values of the 3 securities are.03, 2 and 4, respectively. ω [.03, 3, 2] [.094, , 2.497] ω 2 [.03, 4, ] ω 3 [.03, 2, 4] ω 4 [.03, 5, 2] t = 0 t = The claim X = [ ] T is an attainable claim since X = S θ where θ = [.5 2] T is a replicating portfolio for X. This is often stated as assuming that there is no free lunch. 2 d and d 2 are therefore m vectors.

3 Martingale Pricing Theory 3 Note that the date t = 0 cost of the three securities has nothing to do with whether or not a claim is attainable. We can now give a more formal definition of arbitrage in our one-period models. Definition 4 A type A arbitrage is a trading strategy, θ, such that S 0 θ < 0 and S θ = 0. A type B arbitrage is a trading strategy, θ, such that S 0 θ 0, S θ 0 and S θ 0. Note for example, that if S 0 θ < 0 then θ has negative cost and therefore produces an immediate positive reward if purchased at t = 0. Definition 5 We say that a vector π = (π,..., π m ) > 0 is a vector of state prices if the date t = 0 price, P, of any attainable security, X, satisfies m P = π k X(ω k ). (2) We call π k the k th state 3 price. k= Remark It is important to note that in principle there might be many state price vectors. If the k th elementary security is attainable, then it s price must be π k and the k th component of all possible state price vectors must therefore coincide. Otherwise an arbitrage opportunity would exist. Example 2 (State Prices) Returning to the model of Example we can easily check 4 that [π π 2 π 3 π 4 ] T = [ ] T is a vector of state prices. More generally, however, we can check that π π 2 π 3 = ɛ π is also a vector of state prices for any ɛ such π i > 0 for i 4. Deflating by the Numeraire Security Let us recall that there are N + securities and that S (i) (ω j) denotes the date t = price of the i th security in state ω j. The date t = 0 price of the i th security is denoted by S (i) 0. Definition 6 A numeraire security is a security with a strictly positive price at all times, t. It is often convenient to express the price of a security in units of a chosen numeraire. For example, if the n th security is the numeraire security, then we define t (ω j ) := S(i) t (ω j ) S (i) S (n) t (ω j ) to be the date t, state ω j price (in units of the numeraire security) of the i th security. We say that we are deflating by the n th or numeraire security. Note that the deflated price of the numeraire security is always constant and equal to. 3 We insist that each π j is strictly positive as later we will want to prove that the existence of state prices is equivalent to the absence of arbitrage. 4 See Appendix A for a brief description of how to find such a vector of state prices.

4 Martingale Pricing Theory 4 Definition 7 The cash account is a particular security that earns interest at the risk-free rate of interest. In a single period model, the date t = value of the cash account is + r (assuming that \$ had been deposited at date t = 0), regardless of the terminal state and where r is the one-period interest rate that prevailed at t = 0. In practice, we often deflate by the cash account if it is available. Note that deflating by the cash account is then equivalent to the usual process of discounting. We will use the zero th security with price process, S (0) t, to denote the cash account whenever it is available. Example 3 (Numeraire and Cash Account) Note that any security in Example could serve as a numeraire security since each of the 3 securities has a strictly positive price process. It is also clear that the zero th security in that example is actually the cash account. Equivalent Martingale Measures (EMMs) We assume that we have chosen a specific numeraire security with price process, S (n) t. Definition 8 An equivalent martingale measure (EMM) or risk-neutral probability measure is a set of probabilities, Q = (q,..., q m ) such that. q k > 0 for all k. 2. The deflated security prices are martingales. That is S (i) 0 := S(i) 0 S (n) 0 = E Q 0 [ ] S (i) S (n) =: E Q 0 [ S (i) ] for all i where E Q 0 [.] denotes expectation with respect to the risk-neutral probability measure, Q. Remark 2 Note that a set of risk-neutral probabilities, or EMM, is specific to the chosen numeraire security,. In fact it would be more accurate to speak of an EMM-numeraire pair. S (n) t Complete Markets We now assume that there are no arbitrage opportunities. If there is a full set of m elementary securities available (i.e. they are all attainable), then we can use the state prices to compute the date t = 0 price, S 0, of any security. To see this, let x = (x,..., x m ) be the vector of possible date t = payoffs of a particular security. We may then write m x = x i e i and use linear pricing to obtain S 0 = m i= x iπ i. If a full set of elementary securities exists, then as we have just seen, we can construct and price every possible security. We have the following definition. Definition 9 If every random variable X is attainable, then we say that we have a complete market. Otherwise we have an incomplete market. Note that if a full set of elementary securities is available, then the market is complete. Exercise Is the model of Example complete or incomplete? i=

5 Martingale Pricing Theory 5 2 Martingale Pricing Theory: Single-Period Models We are now ready to derive the main results of martingale pricing theory for single period models. Proposition If an equivalent martingale measure, Q, exists, then there can be no arbitrage opportunities. Exercise 2 Prove Proposition. Exercise 3 Convince yourself that if we did not insist on each q k being strictly positive in Definition 8 then Proposition would not hold. Theorem 2 Assume there is a security with a strictly positive price process 5, S (n) t. If there is a set of positive state prices, then a risk-neutral probability measure, Q, exists with S (n) t as the numeraire security. Moreover, there is a one-to-one correspondence between sets of positive state prices and risk-neutral probability measures. Proof: Suppose a set of positive state prices, π = (π,..., π m ), exists. For all j we then have (by linear pricing) S (j) 0 = = m k= ( m l= π k S (j) (ω k) π l S (n) (ω l ) ) m k= π k S (n) (ω k ) m l= π ls (n) (ω l ) S (j) (ω k) S (n) (ω k ). (3) Now observe that m l= π ls (n) (ω l ) = S (n) 0 and that if we define q k := π k S (n) (ω k ) m l= π ls (n) (ω l ), (4) then Q := (q,..., q m ) defines a probability measure. Equation (3) then implies [ ] S (j) m 0 S (j) = q (ω k) S (n) k 0 S (n) (ω k ) = S (j) EQ 0 S (n) k= and so Q is a risk-neutral probability measure, as desired. The one-to-one correspondence between sets of positive state prices and risk-neutral probability measures is clear from (4). Remark 3 The true real-world probabilities, P = (p,..., p m ), are almost irrelevant here. The only connection between P and Q is that they must be equivalent. That is p k > 0 q k > 0. Note that in the statement of Theorem 2 we assumed that the set of state prices was positive. This and equation (4)implied that each q k > 0 so that Q is indeed equivalent to P. (Recall it was assumed at the beginning that each p k > 0.) Absence of Arbitrage Existence of Positive State Prices Existence of EMM Before we establish the main result, we first need the following theorem which we will prove using the theory of linear programming. Theorem 3 Let A be an m n matrix and suppose that the matrix equation Ax = p for p 0 cannot be solved except for the case p = 0. Then there exists a vector y > 0 such that A T y = 0. Proof: We will use the following result from the theory of linear programming: 5 If a cash account is available then this assumption is automatically satisfied. (5)

6 Martingale Pricing Theory 6 If a primal linear program, P, is infeasible then its dual linear program, D, is either also infeasible, or it has an unbounded objective function. Now consider the following sequence of linear programs, P i, for i =,... m: subject to min 0 T x (P i ) Ax ɛ i where ɛ i has a in the i th position and 0 everywhere else. The dual, D i, of each primal problem, P i is max y i (D i ) subject to A T y = 0 y 0 By assumption, each of the primal problems, P i, is infeasible. It is also clear that each of the dual problems are feasible (take y equal to the zero vector). By the LP result above, it is therefore the case that each D i has an unbounded objective function. This implies, in particular, that corresponding to each D i, there exists a vector y i 0 with A T y i = 0 and y i i > 0, i.e. the ith component of y i is strictly positive. Now taking y = we clearly see that A T y = 0 and y is strictly positive. m y i, i= We now prove the following important result regarding absence of arbitrage and existence of positive state prices. Theorem 4 In the one-period model there is no arbitrage if and only if there exists a set of positive state prices. Proof: (i) Suppose first that there is a set of positive state prices, π := (π,..., π m ). If x 0 is the date t = payoff of an attainable security, then the price, S, of the security is given by m S = π j x j 0. If some x j > 0 then S > 0, and if x = 0 then S = 0. Therefore 6 there is no arbitrage opportunity. (ii)suppose now that there is no arbitrage. Consider the (m + ) (N + ) matrix, A, defined by S (0) (ω )... S (N) (ω ) A = S (0) (ω m)... S (N) (ω m ) S (0) 0... S (N) 0 j= and observe (convince yourself) that the absence of arbitrage opportunities implies the non-existence of an N-vector, x, with Ax 0 and Ax 0. In this context, the i th component of x represents the number of units of the i th security that was purchased or sold at t = 0. Theorem 3 then assures us of the existence of a strictly positive vector π that satisfies A T π = 0. We can normalize π so that π m+ = and we then obtain S (i) 0 = m j= π j S (i) (ω j). 6 This result is really the same as Proposition in light of the equivalence of positive state prices and risk-neutral probabilities that was shown in Theorem 2.

7 Martingale Pricing Theory 7 That is, π := (π,..., π m ) is a vector of positive state prices. Theorems 2 and 4 imply the following theorem which encapsulates the principal results for our single-period model. Theorem 5 (Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing: Part ) Assume there exists a security with strictly positive price process. Then the absence of arbitrage, the existence of positive state prices and the existence of an EMM, Q, are all equivalent. Example 4 (An Arbitrage-Free Market) The model in Example is arbitrage-free since we saw in Example 2 that a vector of positive state prices exists for this market Example 5 (A Market with Arbitrage Opportunities) Consider the one-period, 2-state model below. ω [.05, 2, 3] [,.957, ] ω 2 [.05,, 2] t = 0 t = No positive state price vector exists for this model so there must be an arbitrage opportunity. Exercise 4 Find an arbitrage strategy, θ, in the model of Example 5. Complete Markets Unique EMM We now turn to the important question of completeness and we have the following formulation that is equivalent to Definition 9. We state this as a theorem but the proof is immediate given our original definition. Theorem 6 Assume that there are no arbitrage opportunities. Then the market is complete if and only if the matrix of date t = payoffs, S, has rank m. Example 6 (An Incomplete Market) The model of Example is arbitrage-free by Theorem 4 since we saw in Example 2 that a vector of positive state prices exists for this model. However the model is incomplete since the rank of the payoff matrix, S, can be at most 3 which is less than the number of possible states, 4. Example 7 (A Complete Market) Consider the one-period model below where there are 4 possible states of nature and 4 securities, i.e. m = 4 and N = 3.

8 Martingale Pricing Theory 8 ω [.03, 3, 2, ] [.094, , 2.497,.548] ω 2 [.03, 4,, 2] ω 3 [.03, 2, 4, ] t = 0 t = ω 4 [.03, 5, 2, 2] We can easily check 7 that rank(s ) = 4 = m, so that this model is indeed complete. (We can also confirm that this model is arbitrage free by Theorem 4 and noting that the state price vector of Example 2 is a (unique) state price vector here.) Exercise 5 Show that if a market is incomplete, then at least one elementary security is not attainable. Suppose now that the market is incomplete so that at least one elementary security, say e j, is not attainable. By Theorem 4, however, we can still define a set of positive state prices if there are no arbitrage opportunities. In particular, we can define the state price π j > 0 even though the j th elementary security is not attainable. A number of interesting questions arise regarding the uniqueness of state price and risk-neutral probability measures, and whether or not markets are complete. The following theorem addresses these questions. Theorem 7 (Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing: Part 2) Assume there exists a security with strictly positive price process and there are no arbitrage opportunities. Then the market is complete if and only if there exists exactly one equivalent martingale measure (or equivalently, one vector of positive state prices). Proof: (i) Suppose first that the market is complete. Then there exists a unique set of positive state prices, and therefore by Theorem 2, a unique risk-neutral probability measure. (ii) Suppose now that there exists exactly one risk-neutral probability measure. We will derive a contradiction by assuming that the market is not complete. Suppose then that the random variable X = (X,..., X m ) is not attainable. This implies that there does not exist an (N + )-vector, θ, such that S θ = X. Therefore, using a technique 8 similar to that in the proof of Theorem 3, we can show there exists a vector, h, such that h T S = 0 and h T X > 0. Let Q be some risk-neutral probability measure 9 and define Q by Q(ω j ) = Q(ω j ) + λh j S (n) (ω j ) where S (n) is the date t = price of the numeraire security and λ > 0 is chosen so that Q(ω j ) > 0 for all j. Note Q is a probability measure since h T S = 0 implies j h js (n) (ω j ) = 0. It is also easy to see (check) that since Q is an equivalent probability measure, so too is Q and Q Q. Therefore we have a contradiction and so the market must be complete. Remark: It is easy to check that the price of X under Q is different to the price of X under Q in Theorem 7. This could not be the case if X was attainable. Why? 7 This is a trivial task using Matlab or other suitable software. 8 Consider the linear program: min θ 0 subject to S θ = X and formulate its dual. 9 We know such a Q exists since there are no arbitrage opportunities.

9 Martingale Pricing Theory 9 3 Notation and Definitions for Multi-Period Models Before extending our single-period results to multi-period models, we first need to extend some of our single-period definitions and introduce the concept of trading strategies and self-financing trading strategies. We will assume 0 for now that none of the securities in our multi-period models pay dividends. (We will return to the case where they do pay dividends at the end of these notes.) As before we will assume that there are N + securities, m possible states of nature and that the true probability measure is denoted by P = (p,..., p m ). We assume that the investment horizon is [0, T ] and that there are a total of T trading periods. Securities may therefore be purchased or sold at any date t for t = 0,,..., T. Figure below shows a typical multi-period model with T = 2 and m = 9 possible states. The manner in which information is revealed as time elapses is clear from this model. For example, at node I 4,5 the available information tells us that the true state of the world is either ω 4 or ω 5. In particular, no other state is possible at I 4,5. Figure ω 2 I,2,3 ω 3 ω 4 ω 5 I 0 I 4,5 ω ω 6 ω 7 I 6,7,8,9 ω 8 ω 9 t = 0 t = t = 2 Note that the multi-period model is composed of a series of single-period models. At date t = 0 in Figure, for example, there is a single one-period model corresponding to node I 0. Similarly at date t = there are three possible one-period models corresponding to nodes I,2,3, I 4,5 and I 6,7,8,9, respectively. The particular one-period model that prevails at t = will depend on the true state of nature. Given a probability measure, P = (p,..., p m ), we can easily compute the conditional probabilities of each state. In Figure, for example, P(ω I,2,3 ) = p /(p + p 2 + p 3 ). These conditional probabilities can be interpreted as probabilities in the corresponding single-period models. For example, p = P(I,2,3 I 0 ) P(ω I,2,3 ). This observation (applied to risk-neutral probabilities) will allow us to easily generalize our single-period results to multi-period models. 0 This assumption can easily be relaxed at the expense of extra book-keeping. The existence of an equivalent martingale measure, Q, under no arbitrage assumptions will still hold as will the results regarding market completeness. Deflated security prices will no longer be Q-martingales, however, if they pay dividends. Instead, deflated gains processes will be Q-martingales where the gains process of a security at time t is the time t value of the security plus dividends that have been paid up to time t.

10 Martingale Pricing Theory 0 Trading Strategies and Self-Financing Trading Strategies Definition 0 A predictable stochastic process is a process whose time t value, X t say, is known at time t given all the information that is available at time t. Definition A trading strategy is a vector, θ t = (θ (0) t (ω),..., θ (N) t (ω)), of predictable stochastic processes that describes the number of units of each security held just before trading at time t, as a function of t and ω. For example, θ (i) t (ω) is the number of units of the i th security held between times t and t in state ω. We will sometimes write θ (i) t, omitting the explicit dependence on ω. Note that θ t is known at date t as we insisted in Definition that θ t be predictable. In our financial context, predictable means that θ t cannot depend on information that is not yet available at time t. Example 8 (Constraints Imposed by Predictability of Trading Strategies) Referring to Figure, it must be the case that for all i = 0,..., N, θ (i) 2 (ω ) = θ (i) 2 (ω 2) = θ (i) 2 (ω 3) θ (i) 2 (ω 4) = θ (i) 2 (ω 5) θ (i) 2 (ω 6) = θ (i) 2 (ω 7) = θ (i) 2 (ω 8) = θ (i) 2 (ω 9). Exercise 6 What can you say about the relationship between the θ (i) (ω j) s for j =,..., m? Definition 2 The value process, V t (θ), associated with a trading strategy, θ t, is defined by N i=0 θ(i) S(i) 0 for t = 0 V t = N i=0 θ(i) t S (i) t for t. Definition 3 A self-financing trading strategy is a strategy, θ t, where changes in V t are due entirely to trading gains or losses, rather than the addition or withdrawal of cash funds. In particular, a self-financing strategy satisfies V t = N i=0 θ (i) t+ S(i) t for t =,..., T. Definition 3 states that the value of a self-financing portfolio just before trading or re-balancing is equal to the value of the portfolio just after trading, i.e., no additional funds have been deposited or withdrawn. Exercise 7 Show that if a trading strategy, θ t, is self-financing then the corresponding value process, V t, satisfies N ( ) V t+ V t = θ (i) t+ S (i) t+ S(i) t. (6) i=0 Clearly then changes in the value of the portfolio are due to capital gains or losses and are not due to the injection or withdrawal of funds. Note that we can also write (6) as dv t = θ T t ds t, which anticipates our continuous-time definition of a self-financing trading strategy. We can now extend the one-period definitions of arbitrage opportunities, attainable claims and completeness. If θ (i) t is negative then it corresponds to the number of units sold short.

11 Martingale Pricing Theory Arbitrage Definition 4 We define a type A arbitrage opportunity to be a self-financing trading strategy, θ t, such that V 0 (θ) < 0 and V T (θ) = 0. Similarly, a type B arbitrage opportunity is defined to be a self-financing trading strategy, θ t, such that V 0 (θ) = 0, V T (θ) 0 and E P 0 [V T (θ)] > 0. Attainability and Complete Markets Definition 5 A contingent claim, C, is a random variable whose value at time T is known at that time given the information available then. It can be interpreted as the time T value of a security (or, depending on the context, the time t value if this value is known by time t < T ). Definition 6 We say that the contingent claim C is attainable if there exists a self-financing trading strategy, θ t, whose value process, V T, satisfies V T = C. Note that the value of the claim, C, in Definition 6 must equal the initial value of the replicating portfolio, V 0, if there are no arbitrage opportunities available. We can now extend our definition of completeness. Definition 7 We say that the market is complete if every contingent claim is attainable. Otherwise the market is said to be incomplete. Note that the above definitions of attainability and (in)completeness are consistent with our definitions for single-period models. With our definitions of a numeraire security and the cash account remaining unchanged, we can now define what we mean by an equivalent martingale measure (EMM), or set of risk-neutral probabilities. Equivalent Martingale Measures (EMMs) We assume again that we have in mind a specific numeraire security with price process, S (n) t. Definition 8 An equivalent martingale measure (EMM), Q = (q,..., q m ), is a set of probabilities such that. q i > 0 for all i =,..., m. 2. The deflated security prices are martingales. That is S (i) t := S(i) t S (n) t = E Q t [ ] (i) S t+s S (n) t+s =: E Q t [ ] S (i) t+s for s, t 0, for all i = 0,..., N, and where E Q t [.] denotes the expectation under Q conditional on information available at time t. (We also refer to Q as a set of risk-neutral probabilities.)

12 Martingale Pricing Theory 2 4 Martingale Pricing Theory: Multi-Period Models We will now generalize the results for single-period models to multi-period models. This is easily done using our single-period results and requires very little extra work. Absence of Arbitrage Existence of EMM We begin with two propositions that enable us to generalize Proposition. Proposition 8 If an equivalent martingale measure, Q, exists, then the deflated value process, V t, of any self-financing trading strategy is a Q-martingale. Proof: Let θ t be the self-financing trading strategy and let V t+ := V t+ /S (n) t+ denote the deflated value process. We then have [ E Q [ ] N ] t V t+ = E Q t = = N i=0 N i=0 = V t demonstrating that V t is indeed a martingale, as claimed. i=0 θ (i) t+ EQ t θ (i) t+ S(i) t θ (i) t+ S(i) t+ [ ] S (i) t+ Remark 4 Note that Proposition 8 implies that the deflated price of any attainable security can be computed as the Q-expectation of the terminal deflated value of the security. Proposition 9 If an equivalent martingale measure, Q, exists, then there can be no arbitrage opportunities. Proof: The proof follows almost immediately from Proposition 8. We can now now state our principal result for multi-period models, assuming as usual that a numeraire security exists. Theorem 0 (Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing: Part ) In the multi-period model there is no arbitrage if and only if there exists an EMM, Q. Proof: (i) Suppose first that there is no arbitrage as defined by Definition 4. Then we can easily argue there is no arbitrage (as defined by Definition 4) in any of the embedded one-period models. Theorem 5 then implies that each of the the embedded one-period models has a set of risk-neutral probabilities. By multiplying these probabilities as described in the paragraph immediately following Figure, we can construct an EMM, Q, as defined by Definition 8. (ii) Suppose there exists an EMM, Q. Then Proposition 9 gives the result.

13 Martingale Pricing Theory 3 Complete Markets Unique EMM As was the case with single-period models, it is also true that multi-period models are complete if and only if the EMM is unique. (We are assuming here that there is no arbitrage so that an EMM is guaranteed to exist.) Proposition The market is complete if and only if every embedded one-period model is complete. Exercise 8 Prove Proposition We have the following theorem. Theorem 2 (Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing: Part 2) Assume there exists a security with strictly positive price process and that there are no arbitrage opportunities. Then the market is complete if and only if there exists exactly one risk-neutral martingale measure, Q. Proof: (i) Suppose the market is complete. Then by Proposition every embedded one-period model is complete so we can apply Theorem 7 to show that the EMM, Q, (which must exist since there is no arbitrage) is unique. (ii) Suppose now Q is unique. Then the risk-neutral probability measure corresponding to each one-period model is also unique. Now apply Theorem 7 again to obtain that the multi-period model is complete. State Prices As in the single-period models, we also have an equivalence between equivalent martingale measures, Q, and sets of state prices. We will use π {t+s} t (Λ) to denote the time t price of a security that pays \$ at time t + s in the event that ω Λ. We are implicity assuming that we can tell at time t + s whether or not ω Λ. In Figure, for example, π {} 0 (ω 4, ω 5 ) is a valid expression whereas π {} 0 (ω 4 ) is not. Why is Absence of Arbitrage Existence of an EMM? Let us now develop some intuition for why the discounted price process, Sj t/st i, should be a Q-martingale if there are no arbitrage opportunities. First, it is clear that we should not expect a non-deflated price process to be a martingale under the true probability measure, P. After all, if a cash account is available, then it will always grow in value as long as the risk-free rate of interest is positive. It cannot therefore be a P -martingale. It makes sense then that we should compare the price processes of securities relative to one another rather than examine them on an absolute basis. This is why we deflate by some positive security. Even after deflating, however, it is still not reasonable to expect deflated price processes to be P -martingales. After all, some securities are riskier than others and since investors are generally risk averse it makes sense that riskier securities should have higher expected rates of return. However, if we change to an equivalent martingale measure, Q, where probabilities are adjusted to reflect the riskiness of the various states, then we can expect deflated price processes to be martingales under Q. The vital point here is that each q k must be strictly positive since we have assumed that each p k is strictly positive. As a further aid to developing some intuition, we might consider the following three scenarios:

14 Martingale Pricing Theory 4 Scenario Imagine a multi-period model with two assets, both of whose price processes, X t and Y t say, are deterministic and positive. Convince yourself that in this model it must be the case that X t /Y t is a martingale if there are to be no arbitrage opportunities. (A martingale in a deterministic model must be a constant process. Moreover, in a deterministic model a risk-neutral measure, Q, must coincide with the true probability measure, P.) Scenario 2 Generalize scenario to a deterministic model with n assets, each of which has a positive price process. Note that you can choose to deflate by any process you choose. Again it should be clear that deflated security price processes are (deterministic) martingales. Scenario 3 Now consider a one period stochastic model that runs from date t = 0 to date t =. There are only two possible outcomes at date t = and we assume there are only two assets, S () t and S (2) t. Again, convince yourself that if there are to be no arbitrage opportunities, then it must be the case that there is probability measure, Q, such that S () t /S (2) t is a Q-martingale. Of course we have already given a proof of this result (and much more), but it helps intuition to look at this very simple case and see directly why an EMM must exist if there is no arbitrage. Once these simple cases are understood, it is no longer surprising that the result (equivalence of absence of arbitrage and existence of an EMM) extends to multiple periods, multiple assets and even continuous time. You can also see that the numeraire asset can actually be any asset with a strictly positive price process. Of course we commonly deflate by the cash account in practice as it is often very convenient to do so, but it is important to note that our results hold if we deflate by other positive price processes. We now consider some examples that will use the various concepts and results that we have developed. Example 9 (A Complete Market) There are two time periods and three securities. We will use S (i) t (ω k ) to denote the value of the i th security in state ω k at date t for i = 0,, 2, for k =,..., 9 and for t = 0,, 2. These values are given in the tree above, so for example, the value of the 0 th security at date t = 2 satisfies S (0) 2 (ω k) =.235, for k =, 2, 3.025, for k = 4, 5, 6.085, for k = 7, 8, 9. Note that the zero th security is equivalent to a cash account that earns money at the risk-free interest rate. We will use R t (ω k ) to denote the gross risk-free rate at date t, state ω k. The properties of the cash account imply that R satisfies R 0 (ω k ) =.05 for all i, and 2.07, for k =, 2, 3 R (ω k ) =.05, for k = 4, 5, 6.03, for k = 7, 8, 9. 2 Of course the value of R 2 is unknown and irrelevant as it would only apply to cash-flows between t = 2 and t = 3.

15 Martingale Pricing Theory 5 ω [.235, 2, ] Key: [S (0) t, S () t, S (2) t ] ω 2 [.235, 2, 3] [.05,.4346,.9692] I,2,3 ω 3 [.235,, 2] ω 4 [.025, 2, 3] [, 2.273, 2.303] [.05,.957, ] ω 5 [.025,, 2] I 0 I 4,5,6 ω 6 [.025, 3, 2] ω 7 [.085, 4, ] [.05, , 2.497] I 7,8,9 ω 8 [.085, 2, 4] ω 9 [.085, 5, 2] t = 0 t = t = 2 Q: Are there any arbitrage opportunities in this market? Solution: No, because there exists a set of state prices or equivalently, risk-neutral probabilities. (Recall that by definition, risk neutral probabilities are strictly positive.) We can confirm this by checking that in each embedded one-period model there is a strictly positive solution to S t = π t S t+ where S t is the vector of security prices at a particular time t node and S t+ is the matrix of date t = prices at the successor nodes. Q2: If not, is this a complete or incomplete market? Solution: Complete, because we have a unique set of state prices or equivalently a unique equivalent martingale measure. We can check this by confirming that each embedded one-period model has a payoff matrix of full rank. Q3: Compute the state prices in this model. Solution: First compute (how?) the prices at date of \$ to be paid in each of the terminal states at date 2. These are the state prices at date, π {2}, and we find π {2} (ω ) =.2, π {2} (ω 2 ) =.3 and π {2} (ω 3 ) = at I,2,3 π {2} (ω 4 ) =.3, π {2} (ω 5 ) =.3 and π {2} (ω 6 ) = at I 4,5,6 π {2} (ω 7 ) =.25, π {2} (ω 8 ) =.4 and π {2} (ω 9 d) = at I 7,8,9 The value at date 0 of \$ at nodes I,2,3, I 4,5,6 and I 7,8,9, respectively, is given by π {} 0 (I,2,3 ) =.3, π {} 0 (I 4,5,6 ) =.3 and π {} 0 (I 7,8,9 ) = Therefore the state prices at date t = 0 are (why?)

16 Martingale Pricing Theory 6 π {2} 0 (ω ) =.06, π {2} 0 (ω 2 ) =.09, π {2} 0 (ω 3 ) = 0.304, π {2} 0 (ω 4 ) =.09, π {2} 0 (ω 5 ) =.09 π {2} 0 (ω 6 ) = 0.057, π {2} 0 (ω 7 ) = 0.088, π {2} 0 (ω 8 ) = 0.40, π {2} 0 (ω 9 ) = 0.3. We can easily check that these state prices do indeed correctly price (subject to rounding errors) the three securities at date t = 0. Q4: Compute the risk-neutral or martingale probabilities when we discount by the cash account, i.e., the zero th security. Solution: When we deflate by the cash account the risk-neutral probabilities for the nine possible paths at time 0 may be computed using the expression q k = π{2} 0 (ω k )S (0) 2 (ω k) {2} π 0 (ω j )S (0) 2 (ω j). (7) We have not shown that the expression in (7) is in fact correct, though note that it generalizes the one-period expression in (4). Exercise 9 Check that (7) is indeed correct. (You may do this by deriving it in exactly the same manner as (4). Alternatively, it may be derived by using equation (4) to compute the risk-neutral probabilities of the embedded one-period models and multiplying them appropriately to obtain the q k s. Note that the risk-neutral probabilities in the one-period models are conditional risk-neutral probabilities of the multi-period model.) We therefore have q q 2 q 3 q 4 q 5 q 6 q 7 q 8 q Q5: Compute the risk-neutral probabilities (i.e. the martingale measure) when we discount by the second security. Solution: Similarly, when we deflate by the second asset, the risk-neutral probabilities are given by: q q 2 q 3 q 4 q 5 q 6 q 7 q 8 q Q6: Using the state prices, find the price of a call option on the the first asset with strike k = 2 and expiration date t = 2. Solution: The payoffs of the call option and the state prices are given by: State Payoff State Price The price of the option is therefore (why?) given by (2.088) + (3.3) =.622. Q7: Confirm your answer in (6) by recomputing the option price using the martingale measure of (5). Solution: Using the risk-neutral probabilities when we deflate by the second asset we have:

17 Martingale Pricing Theory 7 State Deflated Payoff /2 2/ 0 3/2 Risk-Neutral Probabilities The price of the option deflated by the initial price of the second asset is therefore given by ( ) + (2.044) + (3/2).062 =.297. And so the option price is given by =.624, which is the same answer (modulo rounding errors) as we obtained in (6). In Example 9 we computed the option price by working directly from the date t = 2 payoffs to the date t = 0 price. Another method for pricing derivative securities is to iterate the price backwards through the tree. That is we first compute the price at the date t = nodes and then use the date t = price to compute the date t = 0 price. This technique of course, is also implemented using the risk-neutral probabilities or equivalently, the state prices. Exercise 0 Repeat Question 6 of Example 9, this time using dynamic programming to compute the option price. Remark 5 While R t was stochastic in Example 9, we still refer to it as a risk-free interest rate. This interpretation is valid since we know for certain at date i the date i + value of \$ invested in the cash account at date i. Example 0 (An Incomplete Market) Consider the same tree as in Example 9 only now state ω 6 is a successor state to node I 6,7,8,9 instead of node I 4,5. We have also changed the payoff of the zeroth asset in this state so that our interpretation of the the zero th asset as a cash account remains appropriate. The new tree is displayed on the following page. Q: Is this model arbitrage free? Solution: We know the absence of arbitrage is equivalent to the existence of positive state prices or, equivalently, risk-neutral probabilities. Moreover, if the model is arbitrage free then so is every one-period sub-market so all we need to do is see if we can construct positive state prices for each of the four one-period markets represented by the nodes I,2,3, I 4,5, I6,7,8,9 and I 0. First, it is clear that the one-period market beginning at I,2,3 is arbitrage-free since this is the same as the corresponding one-period model in Example 9. For the subproblem beginning at I 6,7,8,9 we can take (check) [π {2} (ω 6 ) π {2} (ω 7 ) π {2} (ω 8 ) π {2} (ω 9 )] = [ ] so this sub-market is also arbitrage free. (Note that other vectors will also work.) However, it is not possible to find a state price vector, [π {2} (ω 4 ) π {2} (ω 5 )], for the one-period market beginning at I 4,5. In particular, this implies there is an arbitrage opportunity there and so we can conclude3 that the model is not arbitrage-free. Q2: Suppose the prices of the three securities were such that there were no arbitrage opportunities. Without bothering to compute such prices, do you think the model would then be a complete or incomplete model? Solution: The model is incomplete as the rank of the payoff matrix in the one-period model beginning at I 6,7,8,9 is less than 4. Q3: Suppose again that the security prices were such that there were no arbitrage opportunities. Give a simple 3 You can check the one-period model beginning at node I 0 if you like!

18 Martingale Pricing Theory 8 argument for why forward contracts are attainable. (We can therefore price them in this model.) Solution: This is left as an exercise. (However we will return to this issue and the pricing of futures contracts in Section 0.) ω [.235, 2, ] Key: [S (0) t, S () t, S (2) t ] ω 2 [.05,.4346,.9692] [.235, 2, 3] I,2,3 ω 3 [.235,, 2] ω 4 [.025, 2, 3] [.05,.957, ] ω 5 [.025,, 2] [, 2.273, 2.303] I 0 I 4,5 ω 6 [.085, 3, 2] ω 7 [.085, 4, ] [.05, , 2.497] I 6,7,8,9 ω 8 [.085, 2, 4] ω 9 [.085, 5, 2] t = 0 t = t = 2 Exercise Find an arbitrage opportunity in the one-period model beginning at node I 4,5 in Example 0. 5 Dividends and Intermediate Cash-Flows Thus far, we have assumed that none of the securities pay intermediate cash-flows. An example of such a security is a dividend-paying stock. This is not an issue in the single period models since any such cash-flows are captured in the date t = value of the securities. For multi-period models, however, we sometimes need to explicitly model these intermediate cash payments. All of the results that we have derived in these notes still go through, however, as long as we make suitable adjustments to our price processes and are careful with our bookkeeping. In particular, deflated cumulative gains processes rather than deflated security prices are now Q-martingales. The cumulative gain process, G t, of a security at time t is equal to value of the security at time t plus accumulated cash payments that result from holding the security. Consider our discrete-time, discrete-space framework where a particular security pays dividends. Then if the

19 Martingale Pricing Theory 9 model is arbitrage-free there exists an EMM, Q, such that S t = E Q t t+s j=t+ D j + S t+s where D j is the time j dividend that you receive if you hold one unit of the security, and S t is its time t ex-dividend price. This result is easy to derive using our earlier results. All we have to do is view each dividend as a separate security with S t then interpreted as the price of the portfolio consisting of these individual securities as well as a security that is worth S t+s at date t + s. The definitions of complete and incomplete markets are unchanged and the associated results we derived earlier still hold when we also account for the dividends in the various payoff matrices. For example, if θ t is a self-financing strategy in a model with dividends then V t, the corresponding value process, should satisfy V t+ V t = N i=0 ( ) θ (i) t+ S (i) t+ + D(i) t+ S(i) t. (8) Note that the time t dividends, D (i) t, do not appear in (8) since we assume that V t is the value of the portfolio just after dividends have been paid. This interpretation is consistent with taking S t to be the time t ex-dividend price of the security. The various definitions of complete and incomplete markets, state prices, arbitrage etc. are all unchanged when securities can pay dividends. As mentioned earlier, the First Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing now states that deflated cumulative gains processes rather than deflated security prices are now Q-martingales. The second fundamental theorem goes through unchanged. Using a Dividend-Paying Security as the Numeraire Until now we have always assumed that the numeraire security does not pay any dividends. If a security pays dividends then we cannot use it as a numeraire. Instead we can use the security s cumulative gains process as the numeraire as long as this gains process is strictly positive. This makes intuitive sense as it is the gains process that represents the true value dynamics of holding the security. In continuous-time models of equities it is common to assume that the equity pays a continuous dividend yield of q so that qs t dt represent the dividend paid in the time interval (t, t + dt]. The cumulative gains process corresponding to this stock price is then G t := e qt S t and it is this quantity that can be used as a numeraire. 6 Put-Call Parity and Some Arbitrage Bounds for Option Prices Now that we have studied martingale pricing, we can easily price options when markets are complete or, more generally, when the options payoffs are replicable. In this section, we discuss some results that are specific to European options. We begin with the famous put-call parity equation that relates European call option prices to the corresponding European put option prices. Theorem 3 (Put-Call Parity) The call and put options prices, C t and P t respectively, satisfy S t = C t P t + d(t, T )K (9) where d(t, T ) is the discount factor for lending between dates t and the expiration date of the options, T. K is the strike of both the call option and the put option, and the security is assumed to pay no intermediate dividends. Proof: Consider two portfolios: at date t the first portfolio is long a call option, short a put option and invests \$d(t, T )K at the risk-free rate until T. At date t the second portfolio is long a single share of stock. It is easy

20 Martingale Pricing Theory 20 to see that at time T, the value of both portfolios is exactly equal to S T, the terminal stock price. This means that both portfolios must have the same value at date t for otherwise there would be an arbitrage opportunity. In particular, this implies (9). As with put-call parity, simple applications of the no-arbitrage assumption often allow us to derive results that must hold independently of the underlying probability model. Example provides some other instances of these applications. Example (Luenberger Exercise 2.4) Consider a family of call options on a non-dividend paying stock, each option being identical except for its strike price. The value of a call option with strike price K is denoted by C(K). Prove the following three general relations using arbitrage arguments. (a) K 2 > K implies C(K ) C(K 2 ). (b) K 2 > K implies K 2 K C(K ) C(K 2 ). (b) K 3 > K 2 > K implies ( ) K3 K 2 C(K 2 ) C(K ) + K 3 K Solution ( K2 K K 3 K ) C(K 3 ). (a) is trivial and (b) is also very simple if you consider the maximum possible difference in value at maturity of two options with strikes K and K 2. (c) Perhaps the easiest way to show this (and solve other problems like it) is to construct a portfolio whose properties imply the desired inequality. For example, if a portfolio s value at maturity is non-negative in every possible state of nature, then the value of the portfolio today must be also be non-negative. Otherwise, there would be an arbitrage opportunity. What would it be? We will use this observation to solve this question. Construct a portfolio as follows: short one option with strike K 2, go long (K 3 K 2 )/(K 3 K ) options with strike K, and go long (K 2 K )/(K 3 K ) options with strike K 3. Now check that the value of this portfolio is non-negative in every possible state of nature, i.e., for every possible value of the terminal stock price. As a result, the value of the portfolio must be non-negative today and that gives us the desired inequality. 7 The Binomial Model for Security Prices The binomial model is a discrete-time, discrete space model that describes the price evolution of a single risky stock 4 that does not pay dividends. If the stock price at the beginning of a period is S then it will either increase to us or decrease to ds at the beginning of the next period. In Figure above we have set S 0 = 00, u =.06 and d = /u. The binomial model assumes that there is also a cash account available that earns risk-free interest at a gross rate of R per period. We assume R is constant 5 and that the two securities (stock and cash account) may be purchased or sold 6 short. We let B k = R k denote the value at time k of \$ that was invested in the cash 4 Binomial models are often used to model commodity and foreign exchange prices, as well as dividend-paying stock prices and interest rate dynamics. 5 This assumption may easily be relaxed. See the model in Example 9, for example, where the risk-free rate was stochastic. 6 Recall that short selling the cash account is equivalent to borrowing.

21 Martingale Pricing Theory 2 account at date Figure t = 0 t = t = 2 t = 3 Martingale Pricing in the Binomial Model We have the following result which we will prove using martingale pricing. It is also possible to derive this result using replicating 7 arguments. Proposition 4 In order to avoid arbitrage opportunities, it must be the case that d < R < u. (0) Proof: If there is no arbitrage then the first fundamental theorem implies that that there must be a q satisfying 0 < q < such that [ ] S t R t = E Q St+ t R t+ = q us t R t+ + ( q) ds t. () Rt+ Solving (), we find that q = (R d)/(u d) and q = (u R)/(u d). The result now follows. Note that the q we obtained in the above Proposition was both unique and node independent. These two observations imply that each of the embedded one-period models in the binomial model are identical and, if (0) is satisfied, arbitrage-free and complete 8. Therefore the binomial model itself is arbitrage-free and complete if (0) is satisfied and we will always assume this to be the case. We will usually use the cash account, B k, as the numeraire security so that the price of any security can be computed as the discounted expected payoff of the security under Q. Thus the time t price of a security 9 that is worth X T at time T (and does not provide any cash flows in between) is given by X t = B t E Q t [ XT B T ] = R T t EQ t [X T ]. (2) The binomial model is one of the workhorses of financial engineering. In addition to being a complete model, it is also recombining. For example, an up-move followed by a down-move leads to the same node as a down-move followed by an up-move. This recombining feature implies that the number of nodes in the tree grows linearly 7 Indeed, most treatments of the binomial model use replicating arguments to show that (0) must hold in order to rule out arbitrage. 8 We could also have argued completeness by observing that the matrix of payoffs corresponding to each embedded one-period model has rank 2 which is equal to the number of possible outcomes. 9 X t is also the time t value of a self-financing trading strategy that replicates X T.

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