# CHAPTER 20: OPTIONS MARKETS: INTRODUCTION

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1 CHAPTER 20: OPTIONS MARKETS: INTRODUCTION 1. Cost Profit Call option, X = Put option, X = Call option, X = Put option, X = Call option, X = Put option, X = In terms of dollar returns: Stock price: \$80 \$100 \$110 \$120 All stocks (100 shares) 8,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 All options (1000 options) ,000 20,000 Bills options 9,360 9,360 10,360 11,360 In terms of rate of return, based on a \$10,000 investment: Stock price: \$80 \$100 \$110 \$120 All stocks 20% 0% 10% 20% All options 100% 100% 0% 100% Bills + options 6.4% 6.4% 3.6% 13.6% Rate of return (%) 100 0? All options 110 All stocks Bills plus options?

2 3. a. From put-call parity, P = C S 0 + X/(1 + r f ) T P = /(1.10) 1/4 = \$7.645 b. Purchase a straddle, i.e., both a put and a call on the stock. The total cost of the straddle would be \$10 + \$7.645 = \$17.645, and this is the amount by which the stock would have to move in either direction for the profit on the call or put to cover the investment cost (not including time value of money considerations). Accounting for time value, the stock price would need to swing in either direction by \$ (1.10) 1/4 = \$ a. From put-call parity, C = P + S 0 X/(l + r f ) T C = /(1.10) 1/4 = \$5.18 b. Sell a straddle, i.e., sell a call and a put to realize premium income of \$4 + \$5.18 = \$9.18. If the stock ends up at \$50, both the options will be worthless and your profit will be \$9.18. This is your maximum possible profit since at any other stock price, you will need to pay off on either the call or the put. The stock price can move by \$9.18 in either direction before your profits become negative. c. Buy the call, sell (write) the put, lend \$50/(1.10) 1/4. The payoff is as follows: Position Immediate CF CF in 3 months X > X Call (long) C = Put (short) P = 4.00 (50 ) 0 Lending position 50/(1.10) 1/4 = TOTAL 50 C P /4 = \$50.00 By the put-call parity theorem, the initial outlay equals the stock price, S 0, or \$50. In either scenario, you end up with the same payoff as you would if you bought the stock itself. 5. a. Outcome: X > X Stock + D + D Put X 0 Total X + D + D 20-2

3 b. Outcome: X > X Call 0 X Zeros X + D X + D Total X + D + D The total payoffs for the two strategies are equal whether or not exceeds X. c. The stock-plus-put portfolio costs S 0 + P to establish. The call-plus-zero portfolio costs C + PV(X + D). Therefore, S 0 + P = C + PV(X + D) which is identical to equation a. Butterfly Spread Position < X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 < X 3 X 3 < Long call (X 1 ) 0 X 1 X 1 X 1 Short 2 calls (X 2 ) 0 0 2( X 2 ) 2( X 2 ) Long call (X 3 ) X 3 Total 0 X 1 2X 2 X 1 (X 2 X 1 ) (X 3 X 2 ) = 0 X 2?X 1 X 1 X 2 X

4 b. Vertical combination Position < X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 < Buy call (X 2 ) 0 0 X 2 Buy put (X 1 ) X Total X 1 0 X 2 X 1 X 1 X 2 7. Bearish spread Position < X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 < Buy Call (X 2 ) 0 0 X 2 Sell Call (X 1 ) 0 ( X 1 ) ( X 1 ) Total 0 X 1 X 1 X 2 0 X1 X2 (X2 X1) 20-4

5 8. a. By writing covered call options, Jones takes in premium income of \$30,000. If the price of the stock in January is less than or equal to \$45, he will have his stock plus the premium income. But the most he can have is \$450,000 + \$30,000 because the stock will be called away from him if its price exceeds \$45. (We are ignoring interest earned on the premium income from writing the option over this short time period.) The payoff structure is: Stock price Portfolio value less than \$45 10,000 times stock price + \$30,000 more than \$45 \$450,000 + \$30,000 = \$480,000 This strategy offers some extra premium income but leaves substantial downside risk. At an extreme, if the stock price fell to zero, Jones would be left with only \$30,000. The strategy also puts a cap on the final value at \$480,000, but this is more than sufficient to purchase the house. b. By buying put options with a \$35 exercise price, Jones will be paying \$30,000 in premiums to insure a minimum level for the final value of his position. That minimum value is \$35 10,000 \$30,000 = \$320,000. This strategy allows for upside gain, but exposes Jones to the possibility of a moderate loss equal to the cost of the puts. The payoff structure is: Stock price Portfolio value less than \$35 \$350,000 \$30,000 = \$320,000 more than \$35 10,000 times stock price \$30,000 c. The net cost of the collar is zero. The value of the portfolio will be as follows: Stock price Portfolio value less than \$35 \$350,000 between \$35 and \$45 10,000 times stock price more than \$45 \$450,000 If the stock price is less than or equal to \$35, the collar preserves the \$350,000 in principal. If the price exceeds \$45 Jones gains up to a cap of \$450,000. In between, his proceeds equal 10,000 times the stock price. The best strategy in this case would be (c) since it satisfies the two requirements of preserving the \$350,000 in principal while offering a chance of getting \$450,000. Strategy (a) seems ruled out since it leaves Jones exposed to the risk of substantial loss of principal. Our ranking would be: (1) c (2) b (3) a 20-5

6 9. a. Protective Put 780 > 780 Stock Put Total 780 Bills and Call 840 > 840 Bills Call Total 840 Bills plus calls Protective put strategy b. The bills plus call strategy has a greater payoff for some values of and never a lower payoff. Since its payoffs are always at least as attractive and sometimes greater, it must be more costly to purchase. c. The initial cost of the stock plus put position is 906; that of the bills plus call position is

7 = 700 = 840 = 900 = 960 Stock Put Profit Bill Call Profit Profit Protective put Bills plus calls d. The stock and put strategy is riskier. It does worse when the market is down and better when the market is up. Therefore, its beta is higher. e. Parity is not violated because these options have different exercise prices. Parity applies only to puts and calls with the same exercise price and expiration date. 10. The farmer has the option to sell the crop to the government for a guaranteed minimum price if the market price is too low. If the support price is denoted P S and the market price P m then the farmer has a put option to sell the crop (the asset) at an exercise price of P S even if the price of the underlying asset, P, is less than P S. 20-7

8 11. The bondholders have in effect made a loan which requires repayment of B dollars, where B is the face value of bonds. If, however, the value of the firm, V, is less than B, the loan is satisfied by the bondholders taking over the firm. In this way, the bondholders are forced to pay B (in the sense that the loan is cancelled) in return for an asset worth only V. It is as though the bondholders wrote a put on an asset worth V with exercise price B. Alternatively, one may view the bondholders as giving the right to the equityholders to reclaim the firm by paying off the B dollar debt. They ve issued a call to the equity holders. 12. The manager gets a bonus if the stock price exceeds a certain value and gets nothing otherwise. This is the same as the payoff to a call option. 13. a. If one buys a call option and writes a put option on a T-bond, the total payoff to the position at maturity is X, where is the price of the T-bond at the maturity date, time T. This is equivalent to the profits on a forward or futures position with futures price X. If you choose an exercise price, X, equal to the current T-bond futures price, the profit on the portfolio will replicate that of market-traded futures. b. Such a position will increase the portfolio duration, just as adding a T-bond futures contract would increase duration. As interest rates fall, the portfolio gains additional value, so duration is longer than it was before the synthetic futures position was established. c. Futures can be bought and sold very cheaply and quickly. They give the manager flexibility to pursue strategies or particular bonds that seem attractively priced without worrying about the impact on portfolio duration. The futures can be used to make any adjustments to duration necessitated by other portfolio actions. 14. a. < > 110 Written Call 0 0 ( 110) Written Put (105 ) 0 0 Total

9 Write put Write call b. Proceeds from writing options: Call = \$2.85 Put = 4.40 Total = \$7.25 If IBM sells at \$107, both options expire out of the money, and profit = \$7.25. If IBM sells at \$120 the call written results in a cash outflow of \$10 at maturity, and an overall profit of \$7.25 \$10 = \$2.75. c. You break even when either the put or the call written results in a cash outflow of \$ For the put, this would require that 7.25 = 105 S, or S = \$ For the call this would require that \$7.25 = S 110, or S = \$ d. The investor is betting that IBM stock price will have low volatility. This position is similar to a straddle. 15. The put with the higher exercise price must cost more. Therefore, the net outlay to establish the portfolio is positive. The payoff and profit diagram is: 5 Net outlay to establish position Profit 20-9

10 16. Buy the X = 62 put (which should cost more but does not) and write the X = 60 put. Your net outlay is zero, since the options have the same price. Your proceeds at maturity may be positive, but cannot be negative. < > 62 Buy put (X = 62) Write put (X = 60) (60 ) 0 0 TOTAL = Profit (because net investment = 0) According to put-call parity (assuming no dividends), the present value of a payment of \$110 can be calculated using the options with March maturity and exercise price of \$110. PV(X) = S 0 + P C PV(110) = = \$ The following payoff table shows that the portfolio is riskless with time-t value equal to \$10. Therefore, the risk-free rate must be \$10/\$ =.0526 or 5.26%. 10 > 10 Buy stock Write call 0 ( 10) Buy put 10 0 Total

11 19. From put-call parity, C P = S 0 X/(l + r f ) T If the options are at the money, then S 0 = X and therefore, C P = X X/(l + r f ) T which must be positive. Therefore, the right-hand side of the equation is positive, and we conclude that C > P. 20. a.b. < > 110 Buy put (X=110) Write put (X=100) (100 ) 0 0 at expiration The net outlay to establish this position is positive. The put that you buy has a higher exercise price and therefore must cost more than the one that you write. Therefore, net profits will be less than the payoff at time T Profit c. The value of this portfolio generally decreases with the stock price. Its beta therefore is negative

12 21. a. Joe s strategy Cost < 400 > 400 Stock index 400 S Put option (X=400) Total S Profit = payoff Sally s Strategy Cost < 390 > 390 Stock index 400 Put option (X=390) Total S Profit = payoff Profit Sally Joe b. Sally does better when the stock price is high, but worse when the stock price is low. (The break-even point occurs at S = \$395, when both positions provide losses of \$20.) c. Sally s strategy has greater systematic risk. Profits are more sensitive to the value of the stock index. 22. This strategy is a bear spread. The initial proceeds are \$9 \$3 = \$6. The ultimate payoff is either negative or zero: 20-12

13 < > 60 Buy call (X = 60) Write call (X = 50) 0 ( 50) ( 50) TOTAL 0 ( 50) 10 c. Breakeven occurs when the payoff offsets the initial proceeds of \$6, which occurs at a stock price of = \$56. The investor must be bearish: the position does worse when the stock price increases Profit Buy a share of stock, write a call with X = 50, write a call with X = 60, and buy a call with X = 110. < < 110 > 110 Buy share of stock Write call (X = 50) 0 ( 50) ( 50) ( 50) Write call (X = 60) 0 0 ( 60) ( 60) Buy call (X = 110) TOTAL The investor is making a volatility bet. Profits will be highest when volatility is low and the stock price ends up in the interval between \$50 and \$

14 24. a. (i) b. (ii) [Profit = ] c. (ii) [Conversion premium is \$200, which is 25% of \$800] d. (i) e. (ii) [2 \$(55 45) (2 \$5) \$4] f. (i) 20-14

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