# Forwards, Swaps and Futures

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1 IEOR E4706: Financial Engineering: Discrete-Time Models c 2010 by Martin Haugh Forwards, Swaps and Futures These notes 1 introduce forwards, swaps and futures, and the basic mechanics of their associated markets. We will also see how to price forwards and swaps, but we will defer the pricing of futures contracts until after we have studied martingale pricing. While the underlying probability structure of the financial market plays only a small role in these notes, you should not be under the impression that the results we derive only hold for deterministic models and are therefore limited in scope. On the contrary, these results are general and hold irrespective of the underlying probability structure that we might find ourselves working with. Finally, we mention that it is easy to compute the value of a deterministic cash flow given the current term-structure of interest rates and we will often make use of this observation when pricing forwards and swaps. Pricing securities with stochastic cash-flows is more complicated and requires more sophisticated no-arbitrage, or even equilibrium, methods. We will study these more sophisticated arbitrage methods when we study martingale pricing. While the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is an example of a (single-period) equilibrium-based model that you should be familiar with, we will not study equilibrium models in this course as it is generally too difficult 2 to solve realistic instances of these models for (derivative) security prices. Forwards Definition 1 A forward contract on a security (or commodity) is a contract agreed upon at date t = 0 to purchase or sell the security at date T for a price, F, that is specified at t = 0. When the forward contract is established at date t = 0, the forward price, F, is set in such a way that the initial value of the forward contract, f 0, satisfies f 0 = 0. At the maturity date, T, the value of the contract is given 3 by f T = ±(S T F ) where S T is the time T value of the underlying security (or commodity). It is very important to realize that there are two prices or values associated with a forward contract at time t: f t and F. When we use the term contract value or forward value we will always be referring to f t, whereas when we use the term contract price or forward price we will always be referring to F. That said, there should never be any ambiguity since f t is fixed (equal to zero) at t = 0, and F is fixed for all t > 0 so the particular quantity in question should be clear from the context. Note that f t need not be (and generally is not) equal to zero for t > 0. Examples of forward contracts include: A forward contract for delivery (i.e. purchase) of a non-dividend paying stock with maturity 6 months. A forward contract for delivery of a 9-month T-Bill with maturity 3 months. (This means that upon delivery, the T-Bill has 9 months to maturity.) A forward contract for the sale of gold with maturity 1 year. A forward contract for delivery of 10m Euro (in exchange for dollars) with maturity 6 months. 1 The notes draw heavily from David Luenberger s Investment Science (Oxford University Press, 1997). 2 Financial economists often solve stylized equilibrium models to gain insight about how markets and economies behave. They do not believe that the resulting security prices are necessarily accurate estimates of real-world prices, a topic of greater interest to financial engineers. For example, the value of the CAPM lies in the economic insights it provides rather than in its use as a practical tool for pricing securities. 3 If the contact specifies a purchase of the security then the date T payoff is S T F whereas if the contact specifies a sale of the security then the payoff is F S T.

2 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 2 Computing Forward Prices We first consider forward contracts on securities that can be stored at zero cost. The origin of the term stored is that of forward contracts on commodities such as gold or oil which typically are costly to store. However, we will also use the term when referring to financial securities. For example, while non-dividend paying stocks and zero-coupon bonds may be stored at zero cost, it is also the case that dividend paying stocks and coupon paying bonds can be stored at a negative cost. Forward Price for a Security that Can Be Stored at Zero Cost: Suppose a security can be stored at zero cost and that short 4 selling is allowed. Then the forward price, F, at t = 0 for delivery of that security at date T is given by F = S/d(0, T ) (1) where S is the current spot price of the security and d(0, T ) is the discount factor applying to the interval [0, T ]. Proof: The proof works by constructing an arbitrage portfolio if F S/d(0, T ). Case (i): F < S/d(0, T ): Consider the portfolio that at date t = 0 is short one unit of the security, lends S until date T, and is long one forward contract. The initial cost of this portfolio is 0 and it has a positive payoff, S/d(0, T ) F, at date T. Hence it is an arbitrage. Case (i): F > S/d(0, T ): In this case, construct the reverse portfolio and again obtain an arbitrage opportunity. Example 1 (A Forward on a Non-Dividend Paying Stock) Consider a forward contract on a non-dividend paying stock that matures in 6 months. The current stock price is \$50 and the 6-month interest rate is 4% per annum. Compute the forward price, F. Solution: Assuming semi-annual compounding, the discount factor is given by d(0,.5) = 1/1.02 = Equation (1) then implies that F = 50/ = Suppose now that we wish to compute the forward price of a security that has non-zero storage costs. We will assume that we are working in a multi-period 5 setting and that the security has a deterministic holding cost of c(j) in period j, payable at the beginning of the period. Note that for a commodity, c(j) will generally represent a true holding cost, whereas for a stock or bond, c(j) will be a negative cost and represent a dividend or coupon payment. Forward Price for a Security with Non-Zero Storage Costs: Suppose a security can be stored for period j at a cost of c(j), payable at the beginning of the period. Assuming that the security may also be sold short, then the forward price, F, for delivery of that security at date T (assumed to be M periods away) is given by F = M 1 S d(0, M) + j=0 c(j) d(j, M) where S is the current spot price of the security and d(j, M) is the discount factor between dates j and M. Proof: As before, we could prove (2) using an arbitrage argument. An alternative proof 6 is to consider the strategy of buying one unit of the security on the spot market at t = 0, and simultaneously entering a forward contract to deliver it at time T. The cash-flow associated with this strategy is ( S c(0), c(1),..., c(j),..., c(m 1), F ) 4 The act of short-selling a security is achieved by first borrowing the security from somebody and then selling it in the market. Eventually the security is repurchased and returned to the original lender. Note that a profit (loss) is made if the security price fell (rose) in value between the times it was sold and purchased in the market. 5 Analogous pricing formulae are available for settings that use continuous time and/or compounding. 6 See, for example, Luenberger Chapter 10. (2)

3 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 3 and its present value must (why?) be equal to zero. Since the cash-flow is deterministic we know how to compute its present value and we easily obtain (2). Example 2 (A Bond Forward) Consider a forward contract on a 4-year bond with maturity 1 year. The current value of the bond is \$ , it has a face value of \$1000 and a coupon rate of 10% per annum. A coupon has just been paid on the bond and further coupons will be paid after 6 months and after 1 year, just prior to delivery. Interest rates for 1 year out are flat at 8%. Compute the forward price of the bond. Solution: Note that in this problem, the storage costs (i.e. the coupon payments) are paid at the end of the period, which in this example is of length 6 months. As a result, we need to adjust (2) slightly to obtain F = M 1 S d(0, M) + c(j) d(j + 1, M). j=0 In particular, we now obtain F = d(0, 2) where d(0, 2) = and d(1, 2) = d(0, 2)/d(0, 1) = d(1, 2) 50 Computing the Value of a Forward Contract when t > 0 So far we have discussed how to compute F = F 0, the forward price at date 0 for delivery of a security at date T. We now concentrate on computing the forward value, f t, for t > 0. (Recall that by construction, f 0 = 0.) Let F t be the current forward price at date t for delivery of the same security at the same maturity date, T. Then we have f t = (F t F 0 ) d(t, T ). (3) Proof: Consider a portfolio that at date t goes long one unit of a forward contract with price F t and maturity T, and short one unit of a forward contract with price F 0 and maturity T. This portfolio has a deterministic cash-flow of F 0 F t at date T and a deterministic cash-flow of f t at date t. The present value at date t of this cash-flow stream, (f t, F 0 F t ) must be zero (why?) and hence we obtain (3). Tight Markets Examination of equation (2) implies that the forward price for a commodity with positive storage costs should be increasing in M. Frequently, however, this is not the case and yet it turns out that arbitrage opportunities do not exist. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that it is not always possible to short commodities, either because they are in scarce supply, or because holders of the commodity are not willing to lend them to would-be short sellers. The latter situation might occur, for example, if the commodity has a utility value over and beyond its spot market value. If short selling is not allowed, then the arbitrage argument used to derive (2) is no longer valid. In particular, we can only conclude that M 1 S F d(0, M) + c(j) d(j, M). (4) j=0 Exercise 1 Convince 7 yourself that we can indeed only conclude that (4) is true if short-selling is not permitted. 7 See Luenberger, Chapter 10, for a discussion of tight markets.

4 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 4 In such circumstances, we say that the market is tight. An artifice that is often used to restore equality in (4) is that of the convenience yield. The convenience yield, y, is defined in such a way that the following equation is satisfied. F = M 1 S d(0, M) + j=0 c(j) y d(j, M). (5) The convenience yield may be thought of as a negative holding cost that measures the convenience per period of having the commodity on hand. Swaps Another important class of derivative security are swaps, perhaps the most common of which are interest rate swaps and currency swaps. Other types of swaps include equity and commodity swaps. A plain vanilla swap usually involves one party swapping a series of fixed level payments for a series of variable payments. Swaps were introduced primarily for their use in risk-management. For example, it is often the case that a party faces a stream of obligations that are floating or stochastic, but that it will have to meet these obligations with a stream of fixed payments. Because of this mismatch between floating and fixed, there is no guarantee that the party will be able to meet its obligations. However, if the present value of the fixed stream is greater than or equal to the present value of the floating stream, then it could purchase an appropriate swap and thereby ensure than it can meet its obligations. Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap In a plain vanilla interest rate swap, there is a maturity date, T, a notional principal, P, and a fixed 8 number of periods, M. There are two parties, A and B say, to the swap. Every period party A makes a payment to party B corresponding to a fixed rate of interest on P. Similarly, in every period party B makes a payment to party A that corresponds to a floating rate of interest on the same notional principal, P. It is important to note that the principal itself, P, is never exchanged. Moreover, it is also important to specify whether the payments occur at the end or the beginning of each period. For example, assuming cash payments are made at the end of periods, i.e. in arrears, the cash flow that party A receives 9 is given by C = (0, S 0 X } {{ } At end of 1 st period,..., S M 1 X } {{ } At end of M th period ) where X = r f P is constant, and S i = r i P is the interest payment that occurs at the end of period i based on the interest rate that prevailed at the beginning of period i, r i. In general, r i will be stochastic and so the swap s cash-flow, C, will also be stochastic. As is the case with forward contracts, the value X (equivalently r f ) is usually chosen in such a way that the initial value of the swap is zero. Even though the initial value of the swap is zero, we say that party A is long the swap and party B is short the swap. Exercise 2 Make sure you understand how to use the terms long and short when referring to a swap. Currency Swaps A simple type of currency swap would be an agreement between two parties to exchange fixed rate interest payments and the principal on a loan in one currency for fixed rate interest payments and the principal on a loan in another currency. Note that for such a swap, the uncertainty in the cash flow is due to uncertainty in the currency exchange rate. In a Dollar/Euro swap, for example, a US company may receive the Euro payments of 8 It is assumed that the date of the terminal payment coincides with the maturity date, T. 9 Party B receives C.

5 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 5 the swap while a German company might receive the dollar payments. Note that the value of the swap to each party will vary as the USD/Euro exchange rate varies. As a result, the companies are exposed to foreign exchange risk but if necessary this risk can be hedged by trading in the forward foreign exchange market. Why might the US and German companies enter such a transaction? A possible explanation might be that the US company wishes to invest in the Eurozone while the German country wishes to invest in the U.S. Each company therefore needs foreign currency. However, they may have a comparative advantage borrowing in their domestic currency at home as opposed to borrowing in a foreign currency abroad. If this is the case, it makes sense to borrow domestic currency at home and use a swap to convert it into the foreign currency. Pricing Swaps Pricing swaps is quite straightforward. For example, in the currency swap described above, it is easily seen that the swap cash-flow is equivalent to being long a bond in one currency and short the bond in another currency. Therefore, all that is needed to price 10 the swap is the term structure of interest rates in each currency (to price the bonds) and the spot currency exchange rate. More generally, we will see that the cash-flow stream of a swap can often be considered as a stream of forward contracts. Since we can price forward contracts, we will be able to price 11 swaps. We will see how to do this by way of the first example below where we price a commodity swap. Example 3 (Pricing a Commodity Swap) Let S i be the spot price of a commodity at the beginning of period i. Party A receives the spot price for N units of the commodity and pays a fixed amount, X, per period. We will assume that payments take place at the beginning of the period and there will be a total of M payments, beginning one period from now. The cash-flow as seen by the party that is long the swap is C = N (0, S 1 X, S 2 X,..., S M X). Note that this cash-flow is stochastic and so we cannot compute its present value directly by discounting. However, we can decompose C into a stream of fixed payments (of NX) that we can easily price, and a stochastic stream, N(0, S 1, S 2,..., S M ). The stochastic stream is easily seen to be equivalent to a stream of forward contacts on N units of the commodity. We then see that receiving NS i at period i has the same value of receiving NF i at period i where F i is the date 0 forward price for delivery of one unit of the commodity at date i. As the forward prices, F i, are deterministic and known at date 0, we can see that the value of the commodity swap is given by M V = N d(0, i)(f i X). i=1 X is usually chosen so that the initial value of V is zero. Example 4 (Pricing an Interest Rate Swap) Party A agrees to make payments of a fixed rate of interest, r, on a notional principal, P, while receiving floating rate payments on P for M periods. We assume that the payments are made at the end of each period and that the floating rate payment will be based on the short rate that prevailed at the beginning of the period. The cash-flow corresponding to the long side of the swap is then given by C = P (0, c 0 r, c 1 r,..., c M 1 r). where c i is the short rate for the period beginning at date i. Again this cash flow can be decomposed into a series of fixed payments that can be easily priced, and a stochastic stream, P (0, c 0, c 1,..., c M 1 ). We can 10 As mentioned above, the fixed payment stream of a swap is usually chosen so that the initial swap value is zero. However, once the swap is established its value will then vary stochastically and will not in general be zero. 11 Later in the course we will develop the theory of martingale pricing. Then we will be able to price swaps directly, without needing to decompose it into a series of of forward contracts.

6 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 6 value the stochastic stream either using an arbitrage argument (see the next example) or by recalling that the price of a floating rate bond is always par at any reset point. Note that the stochastic stream is exactly the stream of coupon payments corresponding to a floating rate bond with face value P. Hence the value of the stochastic stream must be (why?) P (1 d(0, M)) and so the value of the swap is given by [ ] M V = P 1 d(0, M) r d(0, i). (6) As before, r is usually chosen so that the initial value of the swap is zero. i=1 Remark: The example below is quite tricky: the key with these types of questions is to construct a portfolio that includes the security you wish to price as well as other securities whose prices are already known. If the price of the resulting portfolio is also known then you should have enough information to price the security of interest. Example 5 (Luenberger Exercise 10.10) The floating rate portion of a plain vanilla interest swap with yearly payments and a notional principal of one unit has cash flows at the end of each year defining a stream starting at time t = 1 of (c 0, c 1, c 2,..., c M 1 ), where c i is the actual short rate at the beginning of year i, Using the concepts of forwards, argue that the value at time zero of c i to be received at time i + 1 is d(0, i + 1)r i, where r i is the short rate for time i implied by the current (time zero) term structure and d(0, i + 1) is the implied discount factor to time i + 1. The value of the stream is therefore M 1 i=0 d(0, i + 1)r i. Show that this reduces to the required term in the formula for V in (6). Solution: Let W be the time 0 value of the contract in question, i.e., the security that pays c i at time i + 1. Now consider the following portfolio strategy: A: Borrow \$1 today until data i. Then at date i borrow again the principal and resulting interest until date i + 1 at the prevailing short rate, c i. B: Lend \$1 today until date i + 1. C: Purchase d(0, i) 1 contracts today. We then have the following cash-flows: t = 0 t = i t = i + 1 A 1 0 d(0, i) 1 (1 + c i ) B 1 0 d(0, i + 1) 1 C d(0, i) 1 W 0 d(0, i) 1 c i Total d(0, i) 1 W 0 d(0, i + 1) 1 d(0, i) 1 Note that the row marked Total consists only of deterministic cash flows. We therefore have that implying that as required. In the last line we used the fact that r i satisfies d(0, i) 1 W = d(0, i + 1) ( d(0, i + 1) 1 d(0, i) 1) ( ) d(0, i) W = d(0, i + 1) 1 d(0, i + 1) = r i d(0, i + 1) r i = d(0, i) d(0, i + 1) 1

8 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 8 An initial balance of \$10, 000 is assumed and this balance earns interest at a rate of.005% per day. It is also important to note that when the futures position is initially adopted the cost is zero, i.e. initially there is no exchange of cash. Remark 1 You should make sure that you fully understand the mechanics of this futures market as these are the same mechanics used by other futures markets. CRICKET FUTURES CONTRACTS Date Price Position Profit Interest Balance June ,000 June ,184 June ,153 June ,190 June ,669 June ,006 June , ,248 Any explanation? June ,328 June , ,708 June , ,060 June , ,630 June ,718 June , ,561 Test Match Begins June ,353 June ,293 June , ,669 June , ,963 Test Match Ends Total -6,042 3,963 In Example 6 we did not discuss the details of margin requirements which are intended to protect against the risk of default. A typical margin requirement would be that the futures trader maintain a minimum balance in her trading account. This minimum balance will often be a function of the contract value (perhaps 5% to 10%) multiplied by the position, i.e., the number of contracts that the trader is long or short. When the balance drops below this minimum level a margin call is made after which the trader must deposit enough funds so as to meet the balance requirement. Failure to satisfy this margin call will result in the futures position being closed out See Luenberger Section 10.6 for further details.

9 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 9 Strengths and Weaknesses of Futures Markets Futures markets are useful for a number of reasons: It is easy to take a position using futures markets without having to purchase the underlying asset. Indeed, it is not even possible to buy the underlying asset in some cases, e.g., interest rates, cricket matches and presidential elections. Futures markets allow you to leverage your position. That is, you can dramatically increase your exposure to the underlying security by using the futures market instead of the spot market. They are well organized and designed to eliminate counter-party risk as well as the double-coincidence-of-wants problem. The mechanics of a futures market are generally independent of the underlying security so they are easy to operate and easily understood by investors. Futures markets also have some weaknesses: The fact that they are so useful for leveraging a position also makes them dangerous for unsophisticated and/or rogue investors. Futures prices are (more or less) linear in the price of the underlying security. This limits the types of risks that can be perfectly hedged using futures markets. Nonetheless, non-linear risks can still be partially hedged using futures. See, for instance, Example 8 below. Relationship of Futures Prices to Forward and Spot Prices While forwards and futures prices are clearly closely related, they are not equal in general. One important case where they do coincide is when interest rates are deterministic and a proof of this may be found in Section 10.7 of Luenberger. However, we will see a more general proof of this and related results after we have studied martingale pricing. When interest rates are stochastic, as they are in the real world, forwards and futures prices will generally not coincide. In particular, when movements in interest rates are positively correlated with price movements in the asset underlying the futures contract, futures prices will tend to be higher than the corresponding forward price. Similarly, when the correlation is negative, the futures price will tend to be lower than the forward price. We will see an explanation for this after we have studied martingale pricing. Another interesting question that arises is the relationship between F and E[S T ], where S T is the price of the underlying asset at the expiration date, T. In particular, we would like to know whether F < E[S T ], F = E[S T ] or F > E[S T ]. We can already guess at the answer to this question. Using the language of the CAPM 16, for example, we would expect (why?) F < E[S T ] if the underlying security has positive systematic risk, i.e., a positive beta. Hedging Using Futures Markets: the Perfect and Minimum-Variance Hedges Futures markets are of great importance for hedging against risk. They are particularly suited to hedging risk that is linear in the underlying asset. This is because the final payoff at time T from holding a futures contract is linear 17 in the terminal price of the underlying security, S T. In this case we can achieve a perfect hedge by taking an equal and opposite position in the futures contract. 16 Recall that the CAPM states that the expected return on a risky security, E[r] say, satisfies E[r] r f = β(e[r m ] r f ) where r f is the risk-free interest rate, r m is the return on the market portfolio and β = Cov(r, r m )/Var(r m ). 17 The final payoff is ±x(f T F 0 ) = ±x(s T F 0 ) depending on whether or not we are long or short x futures contracts and this position is held for the entire period, [0, T ]. This assumes that we are ignoring the costs and interest payments associated with the margin account. As they are of of secondary importance, we usually do this when determining what hedging positions to take.

10 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 10 Example 7 (Perfect Hedge) Suppose a wheat producer knows that he will have 100, 000 bushels of wheat available to sell in three months time. He is concerned that the spot price of wheat will move against him (i.e. fall) in the intervening three months and so he decides to lock in the sale price now by hedging in the futures markets. Since each wheat futures contract is for 5, 000 bushels, he therefore decides to sell 20 three-month futures contracts. Note that as a result, the wheat producer has a perfectly hedged position. In general, perfect hedges are not available for a number of reasons: 1. None of the expiration dates of available futures contracts may exactly match the expiration date of the payoff, P T, that we want to hedge. 2. P T may not correspond exactly to an integer number of futures contracts. 3. The security underlying the futures contract may be different to the security underlying P T. 4. P T may be a non-linear function of the security price underlying the futures contract. 5. Combinations of all the above are also possible. When perfect hedges are not available, we often use the minimum-variance hedge to identify a good hedging position in the futures markets. To derive the minimum-variance hedge, we let Z T be the cash flow that occurs at date T that we wish to hedge, and we let F t be the time t price of the futures contract. At date t = 0 we adopt a position 18 of h in the futures contract and hold this position until time T. Since the initial cost of a futures position is zero, we can (if we ignore issues related to interest on the margin account) write the terminal cash-flow, Y T, as Our objective then is to minimize Y T = Z T + h(f T F 0 ). Var(Y T ) = Var(Z T ) + h 2 Var(F T ) + 2hCov(Z T, F T ) and we find that the minimizing h and minimum variance are given by h = Cov(Z T, F T ) Var(F T ) Var(YT ) = Var(Z T ) Cov(Z T, F T ) 2. Var(F T ) Such static hedging strategies are often used in practice, even when dynamic hedging strategies are capable of achieving a smaller variance. Note also, that unless E[F T ] = F 0, it will not be the case that E[Z T ] = E[YT ]. It is also worth noting that the mean-variance hedge is not in general the same as the equal-and-opposite hedge 19. Example 8 (Luenberger Exercise 10.14) Assume that cash flow is given by y = S T W + (F T F 0 )h. Let σ 2 S = Var(F T ), and σ ST = Cov(S T, F T ). In an equal and opposite hedge, h is taken to be an opposite equivalent dollar value of the hedging instrument. Therefore h = kw, where k is the price ratio between the asset and the hedging instrument. Express the standard deviation of y with the equal and opposite hedge in the form σ y = W σ s B. (That is, find B.) 18 A positive value of h implies that we are long the futures contract while a negative value implies that we are short. More generally, we could allow h to vary stochastically as a function of time. We might want to do this, for example, if Z T is path dependent or if it is a non-linear function of the security price underlying the futures contract. When we allow h to vary stochastically, we say that we are using a dynamic hedging strategy. Such strategies are often used for hedging options and other derivative securities with non-linear payoffs. 19 See Example of Luenberger and Example 8 above.

11 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 11 Solution We have y = S T W (F T F 0 )W k where k = S 0 /F 0. Note that h is determined at date 0 and is therefore a function of date 0 information only. It is easy to obtain σ 2 y = W 2 σ 2 S + W 2 S 2 0 F 2 0 σ 2 F 2 W 2 S 0 F 0 σ S,F σ y = W σ S 1 + ( ) 2 S0 σ F 2 S 0σ S,F F 0 σ S F 0 σs 2 which implicitly defines B. As a check, suppose that S T and F T are perfectly correlated. We then obtain (check) that ( σ y = W σ S 1 S ) 0σ F F 0 σ S which is not in general equal to 0! However, if F t and S t are scaled appropriately (alternatively we could scale h), then we can obtain a perfect hedge. Example 9 (Hedging Operating Profits) A corporation manufactures a particular type of widget. It has orders to supply D 1 and D 2 of these widgets at dates t 1 and t 2, respectively. The revenue, R, of the corporation may then be written as R = D 1 P 1 + D 2 P 2 where P i represents the price per widget at time t i. We assume that P i is stochastic and that it will depend in part on the general state of the economy at date t i. In particular, we assume P i = as i e ɛi + c where a and c are constants, S i is the time t i value of the market index, and ɛ 1 and ɛ 2 are independent random variables that are also independent of S i. Furthermore, they satisfy E[e ɛ i ] = 1 for each i. The manufacturer wishes to hedge the revenue, R, by taking a position h at t = 0 in a futures contract that expires at date t 2 and where the market index is the underlying security. The date t 2 payoff, Y, is then given by Y = D 1 (as 1 e ɛ1 + c) + D 2 (as 2 e ɛ2 + c) + h(s 2 F 0 ). If we assume that S t is a geometric Brownian motion so that S t = S 0 exp ( (µ σ 2 /2)t + σb t ) where Bt is a standard Brownian motion, we can easily find the minimum variance hedge, h = Cov(R, S 2 )/Var(S 2 ). Exercise 3 Compute h and the variance reduction that is achieved. Remark: A more sophisticated hedge would be to choose a position of size h 1 at date t = 0 and then to update this position to h 2 at date t 1 where h 1 and h 2 are constants that are chosen at date t = 0. In this case the resulting hedging strategy is still a static hedging strategy. Note, however, that since h 2 need not be chosen until date t 1, it makes sense to allow h 2 to be a function of available information at date t 1. In particular, we could allow h 2 to depend on P 1 and S 1, thereby obtaining a dynamic hedging strategy, (h 1, h 2 (P 1, S 1 )). Such a strategy should be able to eliminate most of the uncertainty in R. Exercise 4 How would you go about solving for the optimal (h 1, h 2(P 1, S 1 ))? Would you need to make an assumption regarding F 1? Note that the most general class of dynamic hedging strategy would allow you to adjust h stochastically at every date in [0, t 2 ) and not just at dates t 0 and t 1.

12 Forwards, Swaps and Futures 12 Final Remarks As stated earlier, futures markets generally work in much the same way, regardless of the underlying asset. Popular futures markets include interest rate futures and equity index futures. Interest futures, for example, can be used to immunize bond portfolios by matching durations and/or convexities. Index futures are used in place of the actual index itself for hedging index options. Of course, interest rate and index futures are also used for many other reasons. Sometimes the expiration dates of available futures contracts are sooner than the expiration date of some obligation or security that needs to be hedged. In such circumstances, it is often common to roll the hedge forward. That is, a hedging position in an available futures contract is adopted until that futures contract expires. At this point the futures position is closed out and a new position in a different (and newly available) futures contract is adopted. This procedure continues until the expiration date of the obligation or security. Exercise 5 What types of risk do you encounter when you roll the hedge forward? In order to answer Exercise 5, assume you will have a particular asset available to sell at time T 2. Today, at time t = 0, you would like to hedge your time T 2 cash-flow by selling a single futures contract that expires at time T 2 with the given asset as the underlying security. Such a futures contract, however, is not yet available though there is a futures contract available at t = 0 that expires at time T 1 < T 2. Moreover, upon expiration of this contract the futures contract with expiration T 2 will become available. You therefore decide to adopt the following strategy: at t = 0 you sell one unit of the futures contract that expires at time T 1. At T 1 you close out this contract and then sell one unit of the newly available futures contract that expires at time T 2. What is your net cash-flow, i.e. after selling the asset and closing out the futures contract, at time T 2? Note that we have only discussed the mechanics of futures markets and how they can be used to hedge linear and non-linear risks. We have not seen how to compute the futures price, F t, but instead will return to this after we have studied martingale pricing.

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