A Comparison of GC-Inlets for Simulated Distillation Analyses

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Comparison of GC-Inlets for Simulated Distillation Analyses"

Transcription

1 A Comparison of GC-Inlets for Simulated Distillation Analyses David Grudoski wemeasureit Albany,CA 1

2 A Comparison of GC-Inlets for Simulated Distillation Analyses Abstract: 2013 Gulf Coast Conference,Galveston Texas Presented by David Grudoski Simulated Distillation Methods allow for the use of either Programmable Temperature or Cool-On-Column inlets. The performance of each inlet type for ASTM D2887, D7500 and D7169 analyses is examined with a focus on the operational parameters required for quality analyses.

3 The Purpose of the GC Inlet in SimDis Analysis The function of the inlet is to allow the introduction of a liquid sample to the column of the gas chromatograph. Ideally the inlet provides a complete transfer of the injected sample to the column.

4 Principles to Keep in Mind Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Raoult s Law Bernoulli effect The Joule-Thomson Effect

5 Raoult s Law Raoult's law the partial pressure of a component in an ideal solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction The important consequence of Raoult's law is that the vapor above a boiling mixture is enriched in the lower boiling component.

6 Bernoulli Effect When the speed of horizontal flow through a fluid increases, the pressure decreases A common example used to explain the Bernoulli effect is the flow of fluid through a pipe. If the fluid is moving uniformly through the pipe, then the only forces acting on the fluid are its own weight and the pressure of the fluid itself. Now, if the pipe narrows, the fluid must speed up, because the same amount of fluid is traveling through a smaller space. However, if the fluid is moving uniformly, and the weight has not changed, then the only way in which the fluid will move faster is if the pressure behind the fluid is greater than the pressure in front. Thus, the pressure must decrease as the speed increases. *Info from

7 The Joule-Thomson Effect The Joule-Thomson (JT) effect is a thermodynamic process that occurs when a fluid expands from high pressure to low pressure at constant enthalpy. Such a process can be approximated in the real world by expanding a fluid from high pressure to low pressure across a valve. Under the right conditions, this can cause cooling of the fluid. At room temperature, all gases except hydrogen,helium and neon cool upon expansion by the Joule Thomson process.* *Info from Cryogenic Society of America

8 The Practical Consequences As the sample is ejected from the syringe needle into the inlet, the sample expands and cools due to the Bernouli effect and the Joule Thomson effect. With a straight thru liner; the sample components that boil below the temperature of the inlet would distribute in the vapor phase according to Raoults Law and pass onto the column. The liquid material remaining in the inlet would also vaporize over time also according to Raoults Law.

9 SimDis Methods: Requirements Hardware D2887 C3-C44 D7500 C7-C100 D7169 C1-C110 Inlet SSL,PTV,COC PTV,COC PTV,COC Cryo Optional Optional Required Column 10m,0.53 mm 3.0u 380 max Oven -20:350 40:350 10m,0.53 mm 5 m,0.53 mm 0.15u 400/435 max 0.53 mm 10m 0.15u 5 m 0.15u 400/435 max 40:400-20:425 Solvent Optional Optional Often required Optional Often required

10 SimDis Requirements Setup D2887 D7500 D % Sample Elution Complete Elution Complete Elution Not Required Blank Yes Yes Yes Calibration Yes Yes Yes Reference Optional Optional Required for % Recovery Calc Sample Yes Yes Yes

11 ASTM SimDis Requirements Column starting temperatures below ambient will be required if samples with IBPs of less than 93 C (200 F) are to be analyzed. The sample inlet system must be capable of operating continuously at a temperature equivalent to the maximum column temperature employed, or provide for on-column injection with some means of programming the entire column, including the point of sample introduction, up to the maximum temperature required. Connection of the column to the sample inlet system must be such that no temperature below the column temperature exists. Page 11

12 Challenges For High Temperature SimDis Neat injections are problematic. Increasing Boiling Point usually results in increasing viscosity of the sample and often requires dilution with a solvent. Sample boiling ranges can be narrow or very broad with tailing distributions Page 12

13 Challenges For High Temperature SimDis Cross contamination of samples and solvent can occur if the syringe is not completely washed of sample residue Any region of low or no flow in the inlet stream can deposit high boiling components which can subsequently elute either as peaks or bleed. Resulting in poor quality blanks and memory effects Page 13

14 Challenges For High Temperature SimDis Cold spots in the injection flow path can result in memory effects of the inlet where sample residuals from prior runs elute in later injections, especially for samples diluted in a solvent Back diffusion from the split vent line and or purge vent line can also appear in analyses, especially when operating at high oven and inlet temperatures Page 14

15 Inlets used for Simulated Distillation Split/Splitless (SSL) Cool-On-Column (COC) Programmed Temperature Vaporizing (PTV) Multi-Mode Inlet (MMI) Cold/Hot Split Cold/Hot Splitless Direct Injection (COC) Solvent Vent

16 COC Advantages/Challenges Advantages Minimal discrimination of light ends Challenges: Injection reproducability Retention Gap/Column Connection Union Bleed of High Boiling material from Retention Gap Page 16

17 COC Injection Port

18 COC Flow Diagram

19 COC Inlet Page 19

20 COC Inlet Page 20

21 COC Inlet (Neat Injection) Carbon # % Conc Difference Mean REL STDEV Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % Page 21

22 PTV Advantages/Challenges Advantages Minimal discrimination of light ends Rapid Heating and Cooling of Inlet-Reduces Cycle Time Self Cleaning Inlet Challenges: Injection Volume limits Memory effects from vent/purge lines Page 22

23 PTV Inlet (circa 1990) Conventional vaporizing injectors are designed with high mass injector bodies and heating blocks to control temperature for large volume inserts. These inlets change temperature slowly, contributing to their temperature stability.

24 PTV Inlet (modern era) Modern vaporizing injectors are designed with low mass injector bodies which allow very rapid heating and cooling of the inlet and permit selective vaporization of the sample in the body of the inlet liner. This allows a pre-separation of the sample prior to introduction to the GC column which can result in a more efficient transfer of the sample to the GC column.

25 PTV Inlet Septum Carrier Gas Cooling Gas Heating Coil Septum Purge Seal Glass Wool / Packing Insert (vaporization Chamber) Cooling Gas Capillary Column Split Line Page 25

26 PTV Inlet Page 26

27 PTV Inlet Page 27

28 PTV Inlet Carbon # % Conc Difference Mean REL STDEV Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % Page 28

29 MMI Advantages/Challenges Advantages Most versatile for injection and sample type Rapid Heating and Cooling of Inlet-Reduces Cycle Time Self Cleaning Inlet Challenges: Parameter setpoints can be complex to set Injection Volume limits Memory effects from vent/purge lines Page 29

30 Agilent Multi Mode Inlet Operational Modes: Cold/Hot Split Cold/Hot Splitless Direct Injection (COC) Solvent Vent

31 MMI Schematic

32 MMI Parameters Operational Mode: Split, Cold Splitless, Injection Volume Hot Splitless, Solvent Vent, Direct Septum Purge Purge Vent Time MMI Temperature Profile

33 MMI Inlet Liners Single Taper with Glass Wool Straight Through Narrow ID MMI Cool-on-Column Inlet Adapter Page 33

34 MMI Inlet (Split Mode 4.5% Solution) Carbon # % Conc Difference Mean REL STDEV Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % MMI Split Mode 70:50:150:200:430 4:1 Split Page 34

35 MMI Inlet (Hot Splitless Mode) Carbon # % Conc Difference Mean %REL STDEV Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % C % Hot Splitless Mode 150:0 min:720: ml purge flow 0.5 min 0.1ul Page 35

36 Inlets Compared (Peak Area %) Means Compared Carbon # PTV COC MMI Split MMI Hot Splitless C C C C C C C C C C C C C Page 36

37 Inlets Compared (Relative Standard Deviation) Relative Standard Deviation Carbon # PTV COC MMI Split MMI Hot Splitless C C C C C C C C C C C C C Page 37

38 Agilent SimDis Calculation Page 38

39 Agilent SimDis Calculation Page 39

40 Agilent SimDis Report Page 40

41 MMI Inlet SimDis Yield % Off Yield % Mean %RelSTDEV Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 IBP: 0.5% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % FBP: 99.5% % Page 41

42 SimDis Yield % Off Temp Compared (Mean Temp) Yield % PTV Mean COC Mean MMI Mean IBP: 0.5% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % FBP: 99.5% Page 42

43 SimDis Yield % Off Temp Compared (% Rel Std Dev) Yield % PTV %Rel StDev COC %Rel StDev MMI %Rel StDev IBP: 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% 5.00% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 10.00% 0.4% 0.2% 0.0% 15.00% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 20.00% 0.2% 6.2% 0.0% 25.00% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 30.00% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 35.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 40.00% 0.1% 3.7% 0.1% 45.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 50.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 55.00% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 60.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 65.00% 0.1% 2.2% 0.2% 70.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 75.00% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 80.00% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 85.00% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 90.00% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 95.00% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% FBP: 99.5% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% Page 43

44 Summary and Conclusion Each of the inlets discussed have advantages for specific sample types. All can reliably perform SimDis Analyses Page 44

Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide

Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide Peter Morgan, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Runcorn, Cheshire, UK Technical Note 20551 Key Words Liner, focus Abstract The liner serves an important function in allowing

More information

THERMAL DESORPTION. Introduction and Principles. Focusing on Volatiles

THERMAL DESORPTION. Introduction and Principles. Focusing on Volatiles THERMAL DESORPTION Introduction and Principles Thermal Desorption Thermal desorption is a simple extension of the technique of gas chromatography (GC) It involves the use of heat and a flow of inert gas

More information

Split / Splitless Injection for Capillary GC

Split / Splitless Injection for Capillary GC Split / Splitless Injection for Capillary GC Speakers John V Hinshaw CHROMacademy GC Dean GC Connections editor Moderator Tony Taylor CHROMacademy Trainer Technical Director, Crawford Scientific Dave Walsh

More information

23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector

23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector 23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector General Information TCD pneumatics Conditions that prevent the detector from operating Filament passivation Carrier, reference, and makeup gas Negative polarity Analyzing

More information

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 1. Scope Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1. 1 This test method provides for the determination of the carbon number

More information

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax.

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax. Standard Method for Analysis of Benzene and Toluene Content in Hydrocarbon Waxes by Headspace Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 002/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1 Scope 1.1 This test method covers the qualitative

More information

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Background Distillation The previous lab used distillation to separate a mixture of hexane and toluene based on a difference in boiling points. Hexane boils

More information

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology application Note Gas Chromatography Author A. Tipler PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Determination of and in Finished Gasolines Containing Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

More information

Gas Chromatography. Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC.

Gas Chromatography. Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC. Gas Chromatography Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC. Samples in 10mL sealed glass vials were placed in the MPS-2

More information

Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030

Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030 Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030 Meets All Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph Standards - Provides Highly Accurate Analysis Results with Excellent Reproducibility-

More information

The Determination of Low Levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes and Styrene in Olive Oil Using a Turbomatrix HS and a Clarus SQ 8 GC/MS

The Determination of Low Levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes and Styrene in Olive Oil Using a Turbomatrix HS and a Clarus SQ 8 GC/MS application Note Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry Author A. Tipler, Senior Scientist PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Determination of Low Levels of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes

More information

Chemical Analysis. Simulated Distillation Analyzers. A full range of simulated Distillation Analysis Solution. Gas Chromatography.

Chemical Analysis. Simulated Distillation Analyzers. A full range of simulated Distillation Analysis Solution. Gas Chromatography. Chemical Analysis Simulated Distillation Analyzers A full range of simulated Distillation Analysis Solution think forward Gas Chromatography Bruker Simulated Distillation Analyzers Bruker s range of Simulated

More information

Gas Chromatograph GC Consumables. p/n: 220-94898-02

Gas Chromatograph GC Consumables. p/n: 220-94898-02 Gas Chromatograph GC Consumables p/n: 220-94898-02 Diag. # 1) Septum Nut 2) Needle Guide 3) Septum 4) Injection Port A Assy 5) O-ring for Glass Insert 6) Glass Insert 7) Gold Gasket 8) Capillary Adaptor

More information

SCION SQ Series GC-MS

SCION SQ Series GC-MS SCION SQ Series GC-MS The Gas Chromatographers Detector SCION SQ TM GC-MS The SCION SQ series GC-MS systems combine innovative engineering with detailed cutomer requirements to produce a truly innovative

More information

CHROMOCTANE O N LINE ANALYZER

CHROMOCTANE O N LINE ANALYZER GECIL Process GT instruments CHROMOCTANE O N LINE ANALYZER ASTM D6733 DHA and RON and MON on line GC for Reformer unit Automatic Chromatographic system for analysis of naphta feeds and reforming gasolines

More information

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014 Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS July 2014 Samples Appropriate for GC-MS Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds Rule of thumb,

More information

Waters Corporation. Waters 2690/5 USER & TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

Waters Corporation. Waters 2690/5 USER & TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE Waters Corporation Waters 2690/5 USER & TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE Contents 2690/5 Theory Setup procedures. Troubleshooting the 2690/5 User maintenance of the 2690/5 Spare Parts 2 2690/5 Theory 2690/5 Solvent

More information

EPA Method RSK 175 Dissolved Gasses in Water Matrices using the Teledyne Tekmar HT3 Headspace Analyzer. HT3 Application Note.

EPA Method RSK 175 Dissolved Gasses in Water Matrices using the Teledyne Tekmar HT3 Headspace Analyzer. HT3 Application Note. EPA Method RSK 175 Dissolved Gasses in Water Matrices using the Teledyne Tekmar HT3 Headspace Analyzer HT3 Application Note Introduction The analysis of dissolved gases in ground water is important in

More information

Process Instrumentation

Process Instrumentation Process Instrumentation Analysis by Gas Chromatography Engineered Solutions, Guaranteed Results. WASSON - ECE INSTRUMENTATION Process Gas Chromatography Features of Process Chromatographs Agilent 7890A

More information

Multiple Pre Flash Design of Crude Fractionation Units

Multiple Pre Flash Design of Crude Fractionation Units Multiple Pre Flash Design of Crude Fractionation Units Technical Report Submitted to: Dr. Miguel Bagajewicz University of Oklahoma School of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering Senior Capstone

More information

Clarus 580 Gas Chromatograph

Clarus 580 Gas Chromatograph S P E C I F I C A T I O N S Gas Chromatography Clarus 580 Gas Chromatograph The PerkinElmer Clarus 580 Gas Chromatograph (GC) is a fully automated gas chromatograph. The system offers the capabilities

More information

Conversion of Agilent EI GC/MSD Systems To Hydrogen Carrier Gas. Agilent Technologies

Conversion of Agilent EI GC/MSD Systems To Hydrogen Carrier Gas. Agilent Technologies Conversion of Agilent EI GC/MSD Systems To Hydrogen Carrier Gas Agilent Technologies 1 Introduction: Converting From He To H 2 Many GC/MS users are considering changing from helium to hydrogen carrier

More information

Everest. Leaders in Vacuum Booster Technology

Everest. Leaders in Vacuum Booster Technology This article has been compiled to understand the process of Solvent Recovery process generally carried out at low temperatures and vacuum. In many chemical processes solute is to be concentrated to high

More information

The Characterization of Perfume Fragrances Using GC/MS, Headspace Trap and Olfactory Port

The Characterization of Perfume Fragrances Using GC/MS, Headspace Trap and Olfactory Port APPLICATION NOTE Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry Authors: Andrew Tipler Sheila Eletto PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT The Characterization of Perfume Fragrances Using GC/MS, Headspace Trap and Olfactory

More information

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire.

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1 DISTILLATION NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. The most common methods of distillation are simple distillation

More information

Analysis of Liquid Samples on the Agilent GC-MS

Analysis of Liquid Samples on the Agilent GC-MS Analysis of Liquid Samples on the Agilent GC-MS I. Sample Preparation A. Solvent selection. 1. Boiling point. Low boiling solvents (i.e. b.p. < 30 o C) may be problematic. High boiling solvents (b.p. >

More information

GC Troubleshooting 10. How to use this Troubleshooting Help system... 10. GC Troubleshooting - Top Level... 10 Generic problem descriptions...

GC Troubleshooting 10. How to use this Troubleshooting Help system... 10. GC Troubleshooting - Top Level... 10 Generic problem descriptions... Table of Contents GC Troubleshooting 10 How to use this Troubleshooting Help system... 10 GC Troubleshooting - Top Level... 10 Generic problem descriptions... 11 Baseline related problems... 11 Peak related

More information

ORGANIC SAMPLE PREPARATION

ORGANIC SAMPLE PREPARATION ORGANIC SAMPLE PREPARATION W W W.LA BT E C H S R L.CO M WSPE MANUAL VACUUM MANIFOLD SPE Process control of the flow rate is critical to guarantee reproducible extractions. Differently then any other systems,

More information

GC/MS Analysis of Phthalates in Children s Products

GC/MS Analysis of Phthalates in Children s Products GC/MS Analysis of Phthalates in Children s Products Introduction Plastic is a well suited material for the manufacture of a wide range of products. Children s products, from plates and cups to mattress

More information

Gas Chromatography notes

Gas Chromatography notes Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the lab manual. Gas Chromatography notes Application: Gas Chromatography (GC) provides a quick, accurate and relatively inexpensive way to analyze

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC Considerations

Mass Spectrometry. Fundamental GC-MS. GC Considerations Mass Spectrometry Fundamental GC-MS GC Considerations i Wherever you see this symbol, it is important to access the on-line course as there is interactive material that cannot be fully shown in this reference

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO HEADSPACE SAMPLING IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY. Andrew Tipler

AN INTRODUCTION TO HEADSPACE SAMPLING IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY. Andrew Tipler AN INTRODUCTION TO HEADSPACE SAMPLING IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY Andrew Tipler Chromatography Research and Technology Manager PerkinElmer, Inc. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Fundamental

More information

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography)

ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) ACETA.02-1 ACETALDEHYDE and ISOVALERALDEHYDE (Gas Chromatography) PRINCIPLE Isovaleraldehyde (IVA) and acetaldehyde are released from the syrup with the aid of dilute phosphoric acid and heat. The liberated

More information

#13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710

#13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710 #13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710 INTRODUCTION To close the yellow note, click once to select

More information

Background Information

Background Information 1 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS/MS) Background Information Instructions for the Operation of the Varian CP-3800 Gas Chromatograph/ Varian Saturn 2200 GC/MS/MS See the Cary Eclipse Software

More information

ECH 4224L Unit Operations Lab I Thin Film Evaporator. Introduction. Objective

ECH 4224L Unit Operations Lab I Thin Film Evaporator. Introduction. Objective Introduction In this experiment, you will use thin-film evaporator (TFE) to separate a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG). In a TFE a mixture of two fluids runs down a heated inner wall of a cylindrical

More information

FOR RISK ASSESSMENT. Analysis of mineral oil: Manual pre-separation, followed by LV-GC/FID Off-line HPLC-GC/FID FEDERAL INSTITUTE.

FOR RISK ASSESSMENT. Analysis of mineral oil: Manual pre-separation, followed by LV-GC/FID Off-line HPLC-GC/FID FEDERAL INSTITUTE. FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR RISK ASSESSMENT Analysis of mineral oil: Manual pre-separation, followed by LV-GC/FID Off-line HPLC-GC/FID Christoph Hutzler Topics Design of the manual methods Large Volume GC injections

More information

GC-xt. The most flexible GC /GC-MS liquid sample injector

GC-xt. The most flexible GC /GC-MS liquid sample injector GC-xt Prep and Load Platform The most flexible GC /GC-MS liquid sample injector Environmental Foods/Beverages Consumer Products Forensics Petrochemicals/Polymers Pharmaceuticals GC-xt Liquid mode Prep

More information

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis accord. to IEC 567/ASTM 3612 Online-Monitoring of transformers Automatic on-line analysis of 11 gases The analysis is done in 2 steps with high selectivity and accuracy fully

More information

Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Lecture 14 Properties of Mixtures Raoult s Law Henry s Law Activity NC State University

Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Lecture 14 Properties of Mixtures Raoult s Law Henry s Law Activity NC State University Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 14 Properties of Mixtures Raoult s Law Henry s Law Activity NC State University Measures of concentration There are three measures of concentration: molar concentration

More information

TechNote 3/2002. The Use of Different PTV Inlet Liner Types for Trapping Alkanes, Aromatics and Oxygenated Compounds During Thermal Desorption

TechNote 3/2002. The Use of Different PTV Inlet Liner Types for Trapping Alkanes, Aromatics and Oxygenated Compounds During Thermal Desorption TechNote 3/22 The Use of Different PTV Inlet Liner Types for Trapping Alkanes, Aromatics and Oxygenated Compounds During Thermal Desorption Bita Kolahgar Gerstel GmbH & Co. KG, Eberhard-Gerstel-Platz 1,

More information

EnAlgae SOP: Biogas analysis

EnAlgae SOP: Biogas analysis Table of content 1. PURPOSE... 2 2. PRINCIPLE... 2 3. REQUIREMENTS... 3 3.1. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS... 3 3.2. REAGENTS... 3 3.3. PREPARATION OF MEASUREMENT... 3 4. PROCEDURE... 4 4.1. SAMPLE MEASUREMENT...

More information

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed: Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams

More information

Addressing the World Helium Shortage For Gas Chromatography

Addressing the World Helium Shortage For Gas Chromatography Addressing the World Helium Shortage For Gas Chromatography Helium Conservation and Converting GC Methods to Nitrogen and Hydrogen Carrier Gas James D. McCurry, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Agilent Technologies

More information

Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams

Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams We are now ready to begin talking about phase diagrams involving two components. Our first few phase diagrams will involve only the liquid and gas (or vapor)

More information

Thermal Conductivity Detector

Thermal Conductivity Detector Thermal Conductivity Detector Troubleshooting Tips The thermal conductivity detector (TCD) detects the difference in thermal conductivity between column effluent flow (carrier gas + sample components)

More information

Agilent 7697A Headspace Sampler Data Sheet

Agilent 7697A Headspace Sampler Data Sheet Agilent 7697A Headspace Sampler Data Sheet Overview The Agilent 7697A Headspace Sampler is part of Agilent s line of gas chromtography products. The 7697A based on the architecture of the market-leading

More information

GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE

GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE ACTA CHROMATOGRAPHICA, NO. 13, 2003 GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE A. Pavlova and R. Ivanova Refining and Petrochemistry Institute, Analytical Department, Lukoil-Neftochim-Bourgas

More information

A VISION to On-Line SPE PTV GC MS Determination of Organic Micro Pollutants in Surface Water

A VISION to On-Line SPE PTV GC MS Determination of Organic Micro Pollutants in Surface Water A VISION to On-Line SPE PTV GC MS Determination of Organic Micro Pollutants in Surface Water Sjaak de Koning 1, Mark van Lieshout 2, Hans-Gerd Janssen 2 and Wil van Egmond 1 1 ATAS, De Run 4334, PO Box

More information

Request for Quotes Goods/Trade Services RFQ for Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) (PCS# 600000-1621-RFQ)

Request for Quotes Goods/Trade Services RFQ for Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) (PCS# 600000-1621-RFQ) Request for Quotes Goods/Trade Services RFQ for Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Closing Date and Time: Wednesday, April 13, 2016 at 5:00 p.m. (Pacific Time) Contact: Aaron Galloway Fax: 541-888-3250

More information

Distillation Experiment

Distillation Experiment Distillation Experiment CHM226 Background The distillation process is a very important technique used to separate compounds based on their boiling points. A substance will boil only when the vapor pressure

More information

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Version 1.1 An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages In this laboratory exercise we will perform a separation of the components of diet soft drinks using reversed-phase

More information

AC DHA Solutions. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of Light Petroleum Streams & Light End in Crude Oils. ASTM D 5134, D 6729, D 6730, D 6733 Compliance

AC DHA Solutions. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of Light Petroleum Streams & Light End in Crude Oils. ASTM D 5134, D 6729, D 6730, D 6733 Compliance AC DHA Solutions Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of Light Petroleum Streams & Light End in Crude Oils ASTM D 5134, D 6729, D 6730, D 6733 Compliance Signal Alignment Automated with LineUp TM Tool Compatible

More information

An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols.

An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols. An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols. Jaap de Zeeuw, Ron Stricek and Gary Stidsen Restek Corp Bellefonte, USA To analyze basic compounds at

More information

Diffusion and Fluid Flow

Diffusion and Fluid Flow Diffusion and Fluid Flow What determines the diffusion coefficient? What determines fluid flow? 1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a concentration gradient. ΔS>0 Mass

More information

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water Using Automated Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water Using Automated Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection Determination of Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water Using Automated Solid-Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection Application Note 1097 Liu Qian, Zheng Hongguo and

More information

Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of EPA Method 1694 for Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Large Volume Water Samples

Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of EPA Method 1694 for Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Large Volume Water Samples Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of EPA Method 1694 for Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Large Volume Water Samples Keywords Application Note ENV0212 This collaboration study was performed

More information

Expectations for GC-MS Lab

Expectations for GC-MS Lab Expectations for GC-MS Lab Since this is the first year for GC-MS to be used in Dr. Lamp s CHEM 322, the lab experiment is somewhat unstructured. As you move through the two weeks, I expect that you will

More information

Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography

Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography In this experiment we will study the method of gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most important analytical tools that the chemist has.

More information

Calibration. EOH 466B Evaluating the Occupational Environment Spring 2008. Measurement of air concentration

Calibration. EOH 466B Evaluating the Occupational Environment Spring 2008. Measurement of air concentration Calibration EOH 466B Evaluating the Occupational Environment Spring 2008 Calibration Measurement of air concentration Requires knowledge of volume of air sampled and amount of material collected Monitoring

More information

C ons u ma ble s. Shimadzu Gas Chromatography

C ons u ma ble s. Shimadzu Gas Chromatography AO C - 2 0 i Au toi n j e c t o r & AO C - 2 0 S A u t o s a m p l e r C ons u ma ble s Shimadzu Gas Chromatography Description Part No. Qty Plug type Septa, for all Models of GC and all Injection Ports

More information

AC SIMDIS Solutions. True Boiling Point Distribution up to C120. Compliance with Global Standard Test Methods

AC SIMDIS Solutions. True Boiling Point Distribution up to C120. Compliance with Global Standard Test Methods AC SIMDIS Solutions True Boiling Point Distribution up to C120 Compliance with Global Standard Test Methods Unique Solutions include AC 8634 & Crude Oil Analyzer Dedicated Correlations & Calculations ONE

More information

Bringing Innovations to Standards AC Analytical Controls by PAC All In One Biodiesel Analyzer

Bringing Innovations to Standards AC Analytical Controls by PAC All In One Biodiesel Analyzer Bringing Innovations to Standards AC Analytical Controls by PAC All In One Biodiesel Analyzer www.paclp.com Background Biodiesel offers an alternative to fossil diesel fuel & contributes to the reduction

More information

The Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph All the elements for perfect chemistry. Our measure is your success.

The Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph All the elements for perfect chemistry. Our measure is your success. The Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph All the elements for perfect chemistry. Our measure is your success. Introducing the Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph. Step up to a higher level of GC reliability, productivity

More information

Full Technical Catalog For Closed-loop Sampling System

Full Technical Catalog For Closed-loop Sampling System Full Technical Catalog For Closed-loop Sampling System Full Technical Catalog For Closed-loop Sampling System FITOK Group FITOK GmbH (Headquarter) Sprendlinger Landstr. 115, 63069 Offenbach am Main, Germany

More information

Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers. Dr Amir Amini Group Heat Transfer Solution May 2013

Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers. Dr Amir Amini Group Heat Transfer Solution May 2013 Dr Amir Amini Group Heat Transfer Solution May 2013 Heat pipe comprises : Tube filled with a working fluid, Wick Structures : Sintered, Groove and Mesh Using the latent capacity of the fluid, we can transfer

More information

At-Column Dilution Application Notes

At-Column Dilution Application Notes At-Column Dilution Application Notes 34 Maple Street Milford, MA 01757 71500078010, Revision A NOTICE The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as

More information

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed.

With proper calibration, the upper limit may be extended as needed. While we have taken steps to ensure the accuracy of this Internet version of the document, it is not the official version. Please refer to the official version in the FR publication, which appears on the

More information

Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography

Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography Exercise 14 Page 1 Illinois Central College CHEMISTRY 130 Laboratory Section: Name: Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography Objectives In this experiment we will effect a separation of a mixture

More information

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Chromatography is a technique that is used to separate and to identify components of a mixture. This analytical technique has a wide range of applications in the real

More information

C184-E014D GC-2014. Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph System

C184-E014D GC-2014. Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph System C184-E014D GC-2014 Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph System Big Performance & Small Space GC-2014 GC-2014 Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph System High Performance and Expandability Merged at a higher level High Performance

More information

High-Throughput 3-D Chromatography Through Ion Exchange SPE

High-Throughput 3-D Chromatography Through Ion Exchange SPE High-Throughput 3-D Chromatography Through Ion Exchange SPE Application Note 205 Luke Roenneburg and Alan Hamstra (Gilson, Inc.) Introduction 2-dimensional (2-D) separation is the separation of a sample

More information

Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography. CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography. Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder

Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography. CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography. Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder Outline Introduction Instrument overview Carrier gas Sample

More information

Gerstel Field Service Manual Cooled Injection System - CIS4

Gerstel Field Service Manual Cooled Injection System - CIS4 Gerstel Field Service Manual Cooled Injection System - CIS4 CIS 4 Cooled Injection System Field Service Manual 1 Field Service Manual 2 CIS 4 Cooled Injection System Contents list 1. Site Preparation...

More information

Extraction of Cannabinoids in Marijuana and Edibles by QuEChERS

Extraction of Cannabinoids in Marijuana and Edibles by QuEChERS Extraction of Cannabinoids in Marijuana and Edibles by QuEChERS UCT Part Numbers: ECQUEU750CT-MP - QuEChERS, Mylar packs containing 4 g magnesium sulfate, 1 g sodium chloride, 0.5 g sodium citrate dibasic

More information

AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT. A. Using a manifold

AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT. A. Using a manifold AIRFREE TECHNIQUE AND SENSITIVE REAGENTS S ECTI O N 1: GLASS W ARE A ND E Q UIP M ENT Some organic compounds are air sensitive. They can react with the water vapor or oxygen in the air. In order to perform

More information

Automation of Solid Phase Extraction and Column Chromatographic Cleanup

Automation of Solid Phase Extraction and Column Chromatographic Cleanup Automation of Solid Phase Extraction and Column Chromatographic Cleanup Haibin Wan Ltd. Problems with Manual Operation 1. Unstable flow rate affects reproducibility and throughput. 2. Not convenient for

More information

Chemical Analysis. Natural Gas Analyzer. A Family of optimized GC Solutions. Gas Chromatography. think forward

Chemical Analysis. Natural Gas Analyzer. A Family of optimized GC Solutions. Gas Chromatography. think forward Chemical Analysis Natural Gas Analyzer A Family of optimized GC Solutions think forward Gas Chromatography Bruker Natural Gas Analyzers Natural gas is bought and sold as a bulk commodity with price based

More information

How does solar air conditioning work?

How does solar air conditioning work? How does solar air conditioning work? In a conventional air conditioning system; The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor is powered by electricity to squeeze

More information

Facts About. Industrial gases for better injection molding. This article appeared in the trade journal Kunststoffe plast europe, issue 12/2004.

Facts About. Industrial gases for better injection molding. This article appeared in the trade journal Kunststoffe plast europe, issue 12/2004. Facts About. Industrial gases for better injection molding. This article appeared in the trade journal Kunststoffe plast europe, issue 12/2004. 2 Industrial gases for better injection molding Gas injection

More information

Application. Gas Chromatography September 1997

Application. Gas Chromatography September 1997 Trace Level Pesticide Analysis by GC/MS Using Large-Volume Injection Application Gas Chromatography September 1997 Author Philip L. Wylie Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2850 Centerville Road Wilmington, DE

More information

Micro Cryo-Trap Model 971

Micro Cryo-Trap Model 971 Micro Cryo-Trap Model 971 for Liquid CO2 Cooling Scientific Instrument Services, Inc. 1027 Old York Road Ringoes, NJ 08551 Phone (908) 788-5550 Part #951001M revised 10/ /98 Notice The information in this

More information

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Lecture No.

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Lecture No. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 16 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration systems (contd.) Welcome

More information

CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY. S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc. BEI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ABSTRACT

CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY. S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc. BEI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ABSTRACT CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc EI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ASTRACT Eliminating or reduction of contamination is essential for the success of cryocoolers

More information

Metrology for LNG Conference th October 2013 Delft, the Netherlands. Metrology for LNG Conference, th Oct Delft, the Netherlands

Metrology for LNG Conference th October 2013 Delft, the Netherlands. Metrology for LNG Conference, th Oct Delft, the Netherlands Metrology for LNG Conference 17-18 th October 2013 Delft, the Netherlands LNG Sampling System Jorg Udo Gramlich Advisor(Measurements) OTD Maintenance Engineering Agenda Qatar / Ras Laffan / RasGas Company

More information

TECHNIQUES FOR NATURAL GAS SAMPLING A DISCUSSION OF FIELD METHODS FOR OBTAINING SPOT SAMPLES. Randall Messman SW Regional Sales Manager

TECHNIQUES FOR NATURAL GAS SAMPLING A DISCUSSION OF FIELD METHODS FOR OBTAINING SPOT SAMPLES. Randall Messman SW Regional Sales Manager TECHNIQUES FOR NATURAL GAS SAMPLING A DISCUSSION OF FIELD METHODS FOR OBTAINING SPOT SAMPLES Randall Messman SW Regional Sales Manager PGI International 16101 Vallen Drive Houston, TX 77041 Purpose Natural

More information

Transformer Oil Gas Analysis

Transformer Oil Gas Analysis Get on the Analyzer FAST TRACK Transformer Oil Gas Analysis Helping customers protect the environment! 1 Why Analyzers Value to Customers Alleviates Resource Pressure Facilitates Configuration Use Advanced

More information

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plants. Presented By Brian McNamara

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plants. Presented By Brian McNamara Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plants Presented By Brian McNamara bmcnamara@kentlaw.edu What is CO2 Capture? A process consisting of separating CO2 from energy-related sources before

More information

Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose

Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose Edward J. Staples, Electronic Sensor Technology Electronic Noses Conventional electronic noses (enoses) produce a recognizable response

More information

ADU 5. Automatic Distillation Unit

ADU 5. Automatic Distillation Unit ADU 5 Automatic Distillation Unit Atmospheric Distillation Distillation tests are used to characterize the volatility of petrochemical products. These volatility characteristics are a critical measurement

More information

Theory of Chromatography

Theory of Chromatography Theory of Chromatography The Chromatogram A chromatogram is a graph showing the detector response as a function of elution time. The retention time, t R, for each component is the time needed after injection

More information

Precision Mass Flow Metering For CVD Applications.

Precision Mass Flow Metering For CVD Applications. Precision Mass Flow Metering For CVD Applications. Ir. H.J. Boer Research Department of Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. Nijverheidsstraat 1A, 7261 AK Ruurlo The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)573 458800 Fax: +31 (0)573

More information

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Determination of the Molar Mass of a Compound by Freezing Point Depression. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of an unknown

More information

The Electron Capture Detector (ECD)

The Electron Capture Detector (ECD) Theory of operation The ECD is based on the phenomenon that electronegative species can react with thermal electrons present to form negatively charged ions. The loss of such electrons is related to the

More information

Gas sensors need to be calibrated and periodically

Gas sensors need to be calibrated and periodically Chapter 11 Gas sensors need to be calibrated and periodically checked to ensure sensor accuracy and system integrity. It is important to install stationary sensors in locations where the calibration can

More information

Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation. External Pool Fire Scenario

Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation. External Pool Fire Scenario Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation External Pool Fire Scenario By Rame Sulaiman Process Engineer Process Engineering Associates, LLC Copyright 2009 Process Engineering Associates, LLC. All rights reserved.

More information

Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction

Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction i Wherever you see this symbol, it is important to access the on-line course as there is interactive material that cannot be fully shown in this reference

More information

DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: )

DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: ) INTRODUCTION DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: 5-18-93) Chromatography is a separation technique that was first used by the Russian botanist Mikhal Tsvet. Around the turn of

More information

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Objectives Known and unknown solutions of the metal ions Ag +, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ will be analyzed using paper chromatography.

More information