2 Aims of session To understand the language of phonics. To be able to speak in Robot Talk and spell using phoneme fingers! To know the format of a class phonics session. To understand the expectations in each year group.
3 Learn the terminology Phonics is based on the link between sounds (speech sounds that we can hear) graphemes (written sounds).
4 Speech sounds Spoken words are formed by articulating speech sounds. In the words cat, chat, light, stay there are 3 mouth movements. In the words slip, stick, tent, flight there are 4 mouth movements.
5 How many speech sounds? Each language has a different number of speech sounds: Finnish 21 Spanish 24 Italian 27 English (about) 44
6 Written sounds (graphemes) The principle of the alphabetic writing system is to visually codify speech. Ideally each speech sound is represented with one letter. English, with its 44 speech sounds, has insufficient letters for each sound, so groups of letters have to be combined to make the extra 18! To make it even harder, each sound is written down in more than one way. e.g. f is spelt f, ff, ph ay is spelt ay, ai, a-e, aigh, eigh, eig, ei!
7 Complex Alphabetic Code Unsurprisingly, this is called the complex alphabetic code. Children learning English have over 150 graphemes (groups of letters used to write the sounds) to learn in order to read and spell the 44 sounds!
8 Decoding When we read a word, each letter (or letter group) triggers a speech sound. The speech sounds are then blended into a spoken word. This is called decoding.
9 Encoding When we write a word, we start with the spoken word. We segment the word into speech sounds and write the corresponding grapheme for each sound. This is called encoding.
10 Simple Sounds Chart There are 44 sounds in our language Look at the sounds chart (Sheet 1) It is very important to say the sounds correctly both for reading and for spelling these are called pure sounds. Let s practice saying the pure sounds correctly
11 Stretchy consonant sounds Practice stretching each sound and avoid saying fuh, luh, muh, nuh etc. fffff llllll mmmm nnnn rrrr ssss vvvv zzzz ssshhh tttthhh nnng nnnk Now say the shortest sound you can without an uh! f l m n r s v z th ng nk
12 Bouncy consonant sounds Practise bouncing each sound (avoid saying cuh, puh, tuh, chuh ) c-c-c-c h-h-h-h p-p-p-p t-t-t-t ch-ch-ch-ch k-k-k-k Now say the shortest sound you can without an uh! c h p t ch
13 Challenging bouncy sounds! These are also bouncy sounds, but it is harder not to say uh just do your best! Practise bouncing each sound: b-b-b-b d-d-d-d g-g-g-g j-j-j-j w-w-w-w y-y-y-y Now say the shortest sound you can without an uh! b d g j w y
14 Double consonant sounds x (c s) qu (c w) nk (ng k)
15 Vowel sounds The English language can be confusing because there are only 5 vowel letters (a,e,i,o,u) but 20 vowel sounds. a apple e egg i insect o orange u umbrella more
16 More vowel sounds ay may I play? ee what do you see? igh fly high ow blow the snow oo poo at the zoo oo look at the book ar start the car
17 And more or shut the door air - that s not fair ir whirl and twirl ou shout it out oy toy for a boy
18 Let s say them all! f l m n r s v z sh th c h p t ch b d g j w y x qu nk a e i o u ay ee igh ow oo oo ar or air ir ou oy
19 Graphemes Each of the 44 sounds may be represented by more than one grapheme Eg, f can also be written as ff or ph c can also be written as k, ck or ch igh can also be written as i-e, ie, ie, i, Look at the complex sound chart (Sheet 2) y
20 Each word contains the same number of sounds & graphemes i-n contains 2 sounds and 2 graphemes c-a-t contains 3 sounds and 3 graphemes ch-a-t contains 3 sounds and 3 graphemes l-igh-t contains 3 sounds and 3 graphemes c-r-a-sh contains 4 sounds and 4 graphemes s-t-r-ee-t contains 5 sounds and 5 graphemes
21 Practise Robot Talk and Phoneme fingers Activity 1 (sheet 3) Robot Talk to read the words Phoneme Fingers to spell the words Activity 2 (sheet 4) Practising the vowel sounds
22 More challenging Activity 3 (Sheet 5)! Say the word in Robot Talk (now that you are experts!) Draw a dot under each one-letter grapheme (e.g. a, c, d, g etc.) Draw a dot/dash under each two- or three- letter grapheme (e.g. sh, ch, ai, aw) Draw an arc to join each split grapheme (a-e, i-e, o-e, u-e)
24 Phonics lessons 1 Recap and Review Flash initial sounds/digraphs Hear and Repeat T says words containing a new sound north, corn, porch, for, storm, torn, Hear and Blend T robots using robot arms or phoneme fingers and blending arm n-or-th ; children blend using blending arm
25 Phonics Lesson 2 Hear and Identify T says porch and then asks chn for 1 st sound p ; 2 nd sound or and 3 rd sound ch. Hear and Segment T says word e.g. corn ; Children robot using robot arms or phoneme fingers and blending arm c-or-n
26 Read T reveals word, one phoneme at a time e.g p-or-ch Children blend sounds together Apply A reading or writing activity using the new digraph The storm went north. As children say each word they tap the sentence on their head, shoulders, tummy then count the words in the sentence. They then write on whiteboards.
27 Mantras When reading our mantra is: Look at the word, make the sounds, blend the sounds together. When writing our mantra is: Say the word, robot the word, write the word.
28 EXPECTATIONS IN THE YEAR GROUPS From the beginning of Reception to the end of Year 2
29 Early skills in Reception Phase 1 Working on: Showing awareness of rhyme and alliteration, distinguishing between different sounds in the environment and phonemes, exploring and experimenting with sounds and words and discriminating speech sounds in words. Beginning to orally blend and segment phonemes.
30 By the end of Reception Phase 2 Working on: Using common consonants and vowels Blending for reading and segmenting for spelling simple CVC words. Working on: Knowing that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemes. Letter progression: Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss Set 4: ck, e, u, r Set 3: g, o, c, k Set 2: i, n, m, d Set 1: s, a, t, p
31 End of Reception, into Year 1 Phase 3 Working on: Knowing one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes Working on: Reading and spelling a wide range of CVC words using all letters and less frequent consonant digraphs and some long vowel phonemes. Graphemes: ear, air, ure, er, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ai, ee, igh, oa, oo Working on: Reading and spelling CVC words using a wider range of letters, short vowels, some consonant digraphs and double letters. Consonant digraphs ch, sh, th, ng Working on: Reading and spelling CVC words using letters and short vowels. Letter progression Set 7: y, z, zz, qu Set 6: j, v, w, x
32 Year 1 Phase 4 (YR/Y1) Working on: Segmenting adjacent consonants in words and apply this in spelling. Working on: Blending adjacent consonants in words and applying this skill when reading unfamiliar texts.
33 End of Year 1, into Year 2 Phase 5 (Yr 1) Working on: Reading phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words. Working on: Using alternative ways of pronouncing and spelling the graphemes corresponding to the long vowel phonemes. Working on: Spelling complex words using phonically plausible attempts.
34 Year 2 Phase 6 Working on: Recognising phonic irregularities. and becoming more secure with less common graphemephoneme correspondences Working on: Applying phonic skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex words.
35 End of Year 1 Phonics Test Statutory assessment that takes place at the end of Year 1. Children read a range of real and nonsense words to test their ability to read phonic sounds in words. Pass mark is around 32 out of 40. Parents are informed of the result and we tell you exactly which words were read correctly/incorrectly. If a child does not pass we use the assessment information to help inform our planning in Year 2 (i.e. focus on the phonic sounds that they found tricky in Yr1) and these children are retested in Year 2.
36 Revisiting the aims of the session. To understand the language of phonics. To be able to speak in Robot Talk and spell using phoneme fingers! To know the format of a class phonics session. To understand the expectations in each year group.
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