# Optimal 3D Point Clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning

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1 Optimal 3D Point Clouds from Mobile Laser Scanning The image depicts how our robot Irma3D sees itself in a mirror. The laser looking into itself creates distortions as well as changes in intensity that give the robot a single eye, complete with iris and pupil. Thus, the image is called "Self Portrait with Duckling". Prof. Dr. Andreas Nüchter Robotics and Telematics 1

3 Outline Introduction 3D Mapping with Mobile Robots Mobile Laser Scanning Calibration Semi-rigid Scan Matching Conclusion and Outlook Robotics and Telematics 3

4 Outline Introduction 3D Mapping with Mobile Robots Mobile Laser Scanning Calibration Semi-rigid Scan Matching Conclusion and Outlook Robotics and Telematics 4

5 The Ariadne Robot (2002/2003) First, we used the 3D information for obstacle avoidance. Later of we did initial 3D mapping experiments. The motion of the robot 3 DoF (Video Crash) (Video NoCrash) Robotics and Telematics 5

6 Robotics and Telematics 6

7 The Mobile Robot Irma3D (since 2010) Automation of 3D scanning (video) (video) Combination of terrestrial / kinematic laser scanning Robotics and Telematics 7

8 Outline Introduction 3D Mapping with Mobile Robots Mobile Laser Scanning Calibration Semi-rigid Scan Matching Conclusion and Outlook Robotics and Telematics 8

9 The ICP Algorithm Scan registration Put two independent scans into one frame of reference Iterative Closest Point algorithm [Besl/McKay 1992] For prior point set M ( model set ) and data set D 1. Select point correspondences 2. Minimize for rotation R, translation t 3. Iterate 1. and 2. Four closed form solution for the minimization works in 3 translation plus 3 rotation dimensions Robotics and Telematics 9

10 3D Mapping Examples CMU 3D mapping of abandoned mines RoboCup Rescue 3D reconstruction in the context of medical imaging Robotics and Telematics 10

11 The ICP global Algorithm ICP Algorithm Scan registration Put two independent scans into one frame of reference Iterative Closest Point algorithm [Besl/McKay 1992] For prior point set M ( model set ) and data set D 1. Select point correspondences 2. Minimize for rotation R, translation t 3. Iterate 1. and 2. Four closed form solution for the minimization Global consistent registration Minimize for all rotations R and translations t at the same time Robotics and Telematics 11

12 Example of high-precise registrations Riegl Laser Measurement GmbH (Video courtesy of Riegl) (Video 1) (Video 2) (Video 3) Robotics and Telematics 12

13 Closed Loop Detection and Global Relaxation Robotics and Telematics 13

14 6D SLAM Full Example Leibniz University Hannover (RTS) Robotics and Telematics 14

15 Outline Introduction 3D Mapping with Mobile Robots Mobile Laser Scanning Calibration Semi-rigid Scan Matching Conclusion and Outlook Robotics and Telematics 15

16 Mobile Laser Scanning Systems Experimental Professional Robotics and Telematics 16

17 State of the Art For all sensors determine the position and orientation on the vehicle (calibration) Data Acquisition Extract the trajectory of the vehicle from the sensor data (Kalman-Filter) Unwind the laser measurements with the trajectory to create a 3D point cloud. Robotics and Telematics 17

18 Automatic System Calibration Construct a calibration vector Treat the unwinding as a function The point cloud represents samples from a probability density function Simplified entropy measure Robotics and Telematics 18

19 Efficient Calibration Evaluating the entropy is in O(n²) Reduction of the point cloud n becomes smaller Smaller contribution to the error function in the search space Reduction of point pairs Consider only pairs with minimal time difference Consider only closest points Minimization of the error function where is in O(n log n) (~20 minutes with Powel s algorithm) Robotics and Telematics 19

20 Calibration Experiment (1) Reference model: 3D plane model from terrestrial scanning Compare point cloud with model Robotics and Telematics 20

21 Calibration Experiment (1) Robotics and Telematics 21

22 Calibration Experiment (2) Ostia Antica in Rom Environment less structured No ground truth model available Robotics and Telematics 22

23 Calibration Experiment (2) Robotics and Telematics 23

24 Calibration Experiment (2) Robotics and Telematics 24

25 Calibration Experiment (2) Robotics and Telematics 25

26 Further Sources of Errors no GPS lousy IMU bad GPS no IMU Robotics and Telematics 26

27 Semi-Rigid Registration Goal: Optimize trajectory No or only small time discretization (< 10 ms) Ideal discretization at every point measurement Ansatz: Extension of the global ICP algorithm / Graph-SLAM Modeling Trajectory Every is a vehicle pose at time IMU / odometry estimate GPS estimate Laser scanner / scan matching Robotics and Telematics 27

28 Calculation of Unwind the laser measurements with the trajectory to create an initial 3D point cloud. Compute correspondences using a modified nearestneighbor search Consider the following scenarios: 1 2D scanner 2 2D scanners 1 rot. 3D scanner Robotics and Telematics 28

29 Optimization of the Trajectory Global error function Minimization by Solving by Sparse Choleskey Decomposition by T. Davis Also possible: global ICP Robotics and Telematics 29

30 Overview: Algorithm Semi-Rigid SLAM 1. Calculate the pose estimates and 2. Extract a 3D point cloud from a current trajectory estimate and the system calibration 3. Calculate an oc-tree for storing the 3D points (including the time stamp) 4. Compute closest points and an estimate for 5. Update the trajectory 6. Repeat step 2 5 until convergence Robotics and Telematics 30

31 Experiment I Robotics and Telematics 31

32 Experiment II Data and analysis done by TopScan GmbH, Rheine (Dr. Joachim Lindenberger) Robotics and Telematics 32

33 Experiment II Data and analysis done by TopScan GmbH, Rheine (Dr. Joachim Lindenberger) Robotics and Telematics 33

34 Experiment II Data and analysis done by TopScan GmbH, Rheine (Dr. Joachim Lindenberger) Robotics and Telematics 34

35 Experiment II Robotics and Telematics 35

36 Experiment II Robotics and Telematics 36

37 Experiment II Robotics and Telematics 37

38 Experiment III Robotics and Telematics 38

39 Experiment III Acquired by Riegl GmbH in Salzburg Robotics and Telematics 39

40 Experiment III Acquired by Riegl GmbH in Salzburg Robotics and Telematics 40

41 Outline Introduction 3D Mapping with Mobile Robots Mobile Laser Scanning Calibration Semi-rigid Scan Matching Conclusion and Outlook Robotics and Telematics 41

42 Summary and Outlook Efficient algorithms and data structures for processing 3D point clouds Golbal consistent scan matching Bundle Adjustment for 3D Point Clouds Dense method Robotics and Telematics 42

43 Application: 3D Point Clouds at the Production Line Robotics and Telematics 43

44 References Publications available at Videos are online on our youtube channel Large parts of our software is Open Source 3DTK The 3D Toolkit Robotics and Telematics 44

### Team Information.

Picture of vehicle: Name of vehicle: Kurt3D Picture of team leader: Name of team leader: Andreas Nüchter Team Name: Kurt3D Team E-mail: andreas.nuechter@informatik.uni-osnabrueck.de Website: http://www.informatik.uni-osnabrueck.de/nuechter

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