# Introduction to MATLAB

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1 Introduction to MATLAB 1 Lecture Series by CEPSTRUM Presented by Pratik Kotkar & Akash Baid

2 Topics.. What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions 2 APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

3 Topics.. What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions 3 APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

4 MATLAB MATLAB is a program for doing numerical computation. It was originally designed for solving linear algebra type problems using matrices. It s name is derived from MATrix LABoratory. 4 MATLAB has since been expanded and now has built-in functions for solving problems requiring data analysis, signal processing, optimization, and several other types of scientific computations. It also contains functions for 2-D and 3-D graphics and animation.

5 MATLAB 5 Everything in MATLAB is a matrix!

6 MATLAB 6 The MATLAB environment is command oriented somewhat like UNIX. A prompt appears on the screen and a MATLAB statement can be entered. When the <ENTER> key is pressed, the statement is executed, and another prompt appears. If a statement is terminated with a semicolon ( ; ), no results will be displayed. Otherwise results will appear before the next prompt.

7 The MATLAB User Interface 7

8 MATLAB 8 To get started, type one of these commands: helpwin, helpdesk, or demo» a=5;» b=a/2 b = »

9 MATLAB Variable Names Variable names ARE case sensitive 9 Variable names can contain up to 63 characters (as of MATLAB 6.5 and newer) Variable names must start with a letter followed by letters, digits, and underscores.

10 MATLAB Special Variables ans Default variable name for results pi Value of eps Smallest incremental number inf Infinity NaN Not a number e.g. 0/0 i and j i = j = square root of -1 realmin The smallest usable positive real number realmax The largest usable positive real number 10

11 Topics.. What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions 11 APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

12 Math & Assignment Operators Power ^ or.^ a^b or a.^b Multiplication * or.* a*b or a.*b Division / or./ a/b or a./b or \ or.\ b\a or b.\a NOTE: 56/8 = 8\ (unary) + (unary) Addition + a + b Subtraction - a - b Assignment = a = b (assign b to a)

13 Other MATLAB symbols 13 >> prompt... continue statement on next line, separate statements and data % start comment which ends at end of line ; (1) suppress output (2) used as a row separator in a matrix : specify range

14 MATLAB Relational Operators MATLAB supports six relational operators. 14 Less Than < Less Than or Equal <= Greater Than > Greater Than or Equal >= Equal To == Not Equal To ~=

15 MATLAB Logical Operators 15 MATLAB supports three logical operators. not ~ % highest precedence and & % equal precedence with or or % equal precedence with and

16 MATLAB Matrices 16 MATLAB treats all variables as matrices. For our purposes a matrix can be thought of as an array, in fact, that is how it is stored. Vectors are special forms of matrices and contain only one row OR one column. Scalars are matrices with only one row AND one column

17 MATLAB Matrices 17 A matrix with only one row AND one column is a scalar. A scalar can be created in MATLAB as follows:» a_value=23 a_value = 23

18 MATLAB Matrices A matrix with only one row is called a row vector. A row vector can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas): 18» rowvec = [12, 14, 63] rowvec =

19 MATLAB Matrices 19 A matrix with only one column is called a column vector. A column vector can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the semicolons):» colvec = [13 ; 45 ; -2] colvec =

20 MATLAB Matrices 20 A matrix can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas AND semicolons):» matrix = [1, 2, 3 ; 4, 5,6 ; 7, 8, 9] matrix =

21 Extracting a Sub-Matrix 21 A portion of a matrix can be extracted and stored in a smaller matrix by specifying the names of both matrices and the rows and columns to extract. The syntax is: sub_matrix = matrix ( r1 : r2, c1 : c2 ) ; where r1 and r2 specify the beginning and ending rows and c1 and c2 specify the beginning and ending columns to be extracted to make the new matrix.

22 MATLAB Matrices 22 A column vector can be extracted from a matrix. As an example we create a matrix below:» matrix=[1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9] matrix = Here we extract column 2 of the matrix and make a column vector:» col_two=matrix( :, 2) col_two = 2 5 8

23 MATLAB Matrices A row vector can be extracted from a matrix. As an example we create a matrix below:» matrix=[1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9] matrix = Here we extract row 2 of the matrix and make a row vector. Note that the 2:2 specifies the second row and the 1:3 specifies which columns of the row.» rowvec=matrix(2 : 2, 1 : 3) rowvec = 4 5 6

24 Topics.. 24 What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

25 Use of M-File 25 There are two kinds of M-files: Scripts, which do not accept input arguments or return output arguments. They operate on data in the workspace. Functions, which can accept input arguments and return output arguments. Internal variables are local to the function. Click to create a new M-File

26 M-File as script file 26 Save file as filename.m Type what you want to do, eg. Create matrices If you include ; at the end of each statement, result will not be shown immediately Run the file by typing the filename in the command window

27 Reading Data from files MATLAB supports reading an entire file and creating a matrix of the data with one statement. 27 >> load mydata.dat; % loads file into matrix. % The matrix may be a scalar, a vector, or a % matrix with multiple rows and columns. The % matrix will be named mydata. >> size (mydata) % size will return the number % of rows and number of % columns in the matrix >> length (myvector) % length will return the total % no. of elements in myvector

28 Topics.. 28 What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

29 Matlab Selection Structures 29 An if - elseif - else structure in MATLAB. Note that elseif is one word. if expression1 % is true % execute these commands elseif expression2 % is true % execute these commands else % the default % execute these commands end

30 MATLAB Repetition Structures 30 A for loop in MATLAB for x = array for ind = 1:100 b(ind)=sin(ind/10) end while loop in MATLAB while expression while x <= 10 % execute these commands end x=0.1:0.1:10; b=sin(x); - Most of the loops can be avoided!!!

31 Scalar - Matrix Addition» a=3;» b=[1, 2, 3;4, 5, 6] b = » c= b+a % Add a to each element of b c =

32 Scalar - Matrix Subtraction 32» a=3;» b=[1, 2, 3;4, 5, 6] b = » c = b - a %Subtract a from each element of b c =

33 Scalar - Matrix Multiplication 33» a=3;» b=[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6] b = » c = a * b % Multiply each element of b by a c =

34 Scalar - Matrix Division 34» a=3;» b=[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6] b = » c = b / a % Divide each element of b by a c =

35 The use of. Element Operation 35 Given A: Divide each element of A by 2 Multiply each element of A by 3 Square each element of A

36 Topics.. 36 What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

37 Plot PLOT Linear plot. PLOT(X,Y) plots vector Y versus vector X PLOT(Y) plots the columns of Y versus their index PLOT(X,Y,S) with plot symbols and colors See also SEMILOGX, SEMILOGY, TITLE, XLABEL, YLABEL, AXIS, AXES, HOLD, COLORDEF, LEGEND, SUBPLOT... Example x = [ ]; y1 = (x.^2) -1; plot(x, y1,'bo-.'); 37

38 Plot Properties Example XLABEL X-axis label. XLABEL('text') adds text beside the X-axis on the current axis.... xlabel('x values'); ylabel('y values'); YLABEL Y-axis label. YLABEL('text') adds text beside the Y-axis on the current axis. 38

39 Hold HOLD Hold current graph. HOLD ON holds the current plot and all axis properties so that subsequent graphing commands add to the existing graph. HOLD OFF returns to the default mode HOLD, by itself, toggles the hold state. Example... hold on; y2 = x + 2; plot(x, y2, 'g+:'); 39

40 Subplot SUBPLOT Create axes in tiled positions. SUBPLOT(m,n,p), or SUBPLOT(mnp), breaks the Figure window into an m-by-n matrix of small axes Example x = [ ]; y1 = (x.^2) -1; % Plot y1 on the top subplot(2,1,1); plot(x, y1,'bo-.'); xlabel('x values'); ylabel('y values'); % Plot y2 on the bottom subplot(2,1,2); y2 = x + 2; plot(x, y2, 'g+:'); 40

41 Figure FIGURE Create figure window. FIGURE, by itself, creates a new figure window, and returns its handle. Example x = [ ]; y1 = (x.^2) -1; % Plot y1 in the 1 st Figure plot(x, y1,'bo-.'); xlabel('x values'); ylabel('y values'); % Plot y2 in the 2 nd Figure figure y2 = x + 2; plot(x, y2, 'g+:'); 41

42 Surface Plot x = 0:0.1:2; y = 0:0.1:2; [xx, yy] = meshgrid(x,y); zz=sin(xx.^2+yy.^2); surf(xx,yy,zz) xlabel('x axes') ylabel('y axes') 42

43 3 D Surface Plot contourf-colorbar-plot3-waterfall-contour3-mesh-surf 43

44 Topics.. 44 What is MATLAB?? Basic Matrix Operations Script Files and M-files Some more Operations and Functions APPLICATIONS: Plotting functions.. Image Processing Basics.. Robotics Applications.. GUI Design and Programming

45 Image Processing Toolbox 45 The Image Processing Toolbox is a collection of functions that extend the capability of the MATLAB numeric computing environment. The toolbox supports a wide range of image processing operations, including: Geometric operations Neighborhood and block operations Linear filtering and filter design Transforms Image analysis and enhancement Binary image operations Region of interest operations

46 MATLAB Image Types 46 Intensity images : [0,1] or uint8 Binary images : {0,1} RGB images : m-by-n-by-3

47 Intensity Images» image = ind2gray(x,map);» imshow(image); 47

48 Binary Images» imshow(edge(image)); 48

49 RGB Images 49

50 Image Display image 50 - create and display image object imagesc - scale and display as image imshow - display image colorbar - display colorbar getimage- get image data from axes truesize - adjust display size of image zoom - zoom in and zoom out of 2D plot

51 Image Conversion 51 Gray2ind im2bw Im2double Im2uint8 Im2uint16 Ind2gray mat2gray rgb2gray rgb2ind - intensity image to index image - image to binary - image to double precision - image to 8-bit unsigned integers - image to 16-bit unsigned integers - indexed image to intensity image - matrix to intensity image - RGB image to grayscale - RGB image to indexed image

52 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT 52 Adjust intensity imadjust histeq >>im2 = histeq(im); >>imshow(im2) Noise removal linear filtering median filtering adaptive filtering

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