Flammable and Combustible Liquids

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1 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 1 of 6 HSE-CS-16 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 1.0 Purpose 1.1 The purpose of this (TTI) standard is to define the minimum requirements for proper storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids, and identifying their hazards. This standard supplements, but does not supersede, local, state, or government regulations. 1.2 This standard applies to all TTI employees and contractors. It also applies to TTI businesses where TTI has majority ownership. This standard will be implemented except where prohibited by regulation. 2.0 Definitions 2.1 Aerosol A material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure. 2.2 Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere on the liquid, equal to 212 F (100 C) for water at sea level. 2.3 Closed Container A container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures. (i.e.:5 gallon drums, safety cans, 1 gallon paint cans, etc.) 2.4 Combustible Liquid Any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 F. (37.8 C.) Combustible liquids shall be divided as follows: Class II: Liquids with a flash point at or above 100 F and below 140 F (60 C). Examples: No. 1, 2 and 3 fuel oils, kerosene, and diesel Class IIIA: Liquids with a flash point at or above 140 F and below 200 F (93 C). Examples: aniline, benzaldehyde, butyl cellosolve, nitrobenzene and pine oil Class IIIB: Liquids with a flash point at or above 200 F. Examples: ethylene glycol; lubricating, quenching, and transformer oils; triethanolamine; benzyl alcohol; hydraulic fluids and vegetable oils. 2.5 Flammable Liquid Any liquid having a flashpoint below 100 F. (37.8 C.), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100 F. (37.8 C.) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids. Class I liquids are divided into three classes as follows:

2 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 2 of Class IA: Liquids with a flash point below 73 F (23 C) and a boiling point below 100 F. Examples: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, ethyl chloride, ethyl ether. Flammable aerosols shall be treated as Class IA liquids Class IB: Liquids with flash point below 73 F and a boiling point at or above 100 F. Examples: acetone, benzene, carbon disulfide, ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, gasoline, hexane, isopropanol, methanol, toluene Class IC: Liquids with a flash point between 73 F and 100 F. Examples: amyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, styrene, turpentine, xylene. 2.6 Flashpoint The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough concentrated vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air immediately above the liquid surface. 2.7 Vapor Pressure A measure of the pressure created by a liquid s vapor at a specific temperature. Flammable or combustible liquids with a high vapor pressure at room temperature are more hazardous than liquids with lower vapor pressures because they will produce more flammable vapor without heating. 3.0 Process 3.1 Storage Requirements Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored in designated storage areas at the facility Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored in tanks, drums or closed containers. The tanks, drums and containers must have the appropriate labels to identify their contents, along with the appropriate hazard warning(s) Storage of closed containers must be within storage cabinets or inside storage rooms The total quantity of liquid, including flammable aerosols, that may be located outside a storage cabinet within a building or an inside storage room shall not exceed any one of the following: 25 gallons of liquid, in containers, having a flashpoint below 73ºF; 120 gallons of liquid, in containers, having a flashpoint above 73ºF; 660 gallons of liquid in a single portable tank having a flashpoint above 73ºF Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fireresistive rating for their use Storage cabinets shall meet the following criteria: Not more than 60 gallons of liquid having a flashpoint below 140ºF or more than 120 gallons of liquids having a flash point above 140ºF shall be stored in a storage cabinet. The bottom, top, door, and sides of cabinet shall be at least No. 18 gage sheet iron and double walled with 11/2-inch air space.

3 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 3 of 6 Joints shall be riveted, welded or made tight by some equally effective means. The door shall be provided with a three-point lock. The door sill shall be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet. The cabinet is not required to be vented, but if it is, the following shall apply: The cabinet shall be vented to a safe area outdoors in a manner which will not compromise performance; If the cabinet is not vented but has vent openings, they shall be sealed with a properly fitted flash arrestor. Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering Flammable - Keep Fire Away Flammable and combustible liquids must be segregated and stored separately from incompatible materials such as acids, bases, corrosives and oxidizers Materials other than flammable or combustible liquids will not be stored in a flammable and combustible liquids storage area Empty and partially full containers will be handled and stored like full containers, that is, in an area suitable for flammable liquid storage (e.g., storage room, flammable liquid cabinet) No open flames, smoking, sparks, or welding will be allowed in storage areas with flammable liquids. If the liquid is stored near electrical equipment, the equipment must be explosion proof Suitable fire control devices, such as portable fire extinguishers, shall be available at locations where flammable and combustible liquids are stored Storage areas must utilize secondary containment methods to make sure spills are contained Combustible or flammable liquids must be stored in metal tanks, drums or containers. 3.2 Handling Requirements Flammable liquids shall be kept in closed containers when not actually in use Flammable liquids may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel Flammable or combustible liquids must be drawn from or transferred into vessels, drums, containers or portable tanks within a building only from safety cans, by means of a top drawing device/pump, or from a container or portable tank by gravity through a self closing valve Flammable or combustible liquids will not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container is properly grounded and bonded.

4 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 4 of If using a pump to transfer liquids, hand pumps are preferred. Motorized pumps are to be used only if it is explosion proof and grounded. Plastic Pumps may be used as well Use only spark-proof tools, such as drum wrenches, around flammable or combustible liquids Perform transfers of liquids only in well-ventilated areas away from all ignition sources Transferring flammable or combustible liquids by means of gas or air pressure on the container or portable tanks is prohibited Use only approved containers for handling small amounts of liquids. These must be fire-resistant safety containers with self-closing lids. Never use glass containers for flammable liquids. Plastic containers shall not be used to collect, store or transfer flammable liquids unless fluids would react with a metal container Close containers when not in use. This helps prevent flammable vapors from building up Put rags soaked with flammable or combustible liquids in approved, closed containers. The containers must be kept closed to prevent vapor buildup Do not weld or torch-cut containers that once held flammable liquids. There may still be vapors in the drum that can ignite and cause an explosion. 3.3 Hazard Identification The degree of hazard risk for a flammable or combustible liquid is determined by: The flashpoint of the liquid. A lower flashpoint means a greater risk of fire or explosion; The vapor s concentration in the air - the higher the concentration, the greater the hazard (Note: it s the vapors that actually catch fire or explode, not the liquid); Flammable and combustible liquids vaporize and form flammable mixtures with air when: Exposed to air (containers are left open); Leaks or spills occur; Heated or aerosolized. The presence of potential ignition sources - the more ignition sources in the area obviously mean a greater risk There are many potential sources of ignition for flammable and combustible liquids. These include:

5 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 5 of Training Lit cigarettes; Welding and cutting operations will never be conducted near flammable or combustible liquids; Sparks from machinery such as grinders; Internal combustion engines such as forklifts; Hot surfaces or machinery; Static electricity is another source of ignition. Special precautions must be taken when dispensing flammable liquids, such as grounding objects that could carry a static electricity charge; Any sort of electrical equipment, such as panels, conduits, outlets, and wires that might be the location of a short circuit or otherwise produce a spark. Note: Most flammable vapors are heavier than air. They can travel to a distant source of ignition and flash back Material safety data sheets (MSDS) are the primary source for obtaining information on Flammable and Combustible Liquids. MSDS s have several sections containing fire and explosion data as well as: Special storage and handling precautions; Dispensing instructions that may include using proper bonding and grounding techniques; The upper and lower flammability limits; Reactivity hazards - the types of materials that the flammable/combustible liquid must not be stored with; Types of fire-fighting equipment and methods Smoking will be prohibited throughout the facility except in designated smoking areas. No Smoking signs must be conspicuously posted where hazards from flammable liquid vapors is normally present Warning signs must be used to identify areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, dispensed, and used. All personnel shall receive information and training on flammable and combustible liquids in their work area at the time of their initial assignment and whenever a new physical or health hazard is introduced into the work area. Other training in relation to flammable and combustible liquids may also be necessary depending on the type of work activities to be performed. The HSE Training Standard s matrix in Element 7 must be reviewed. Under no circumstances may an employee use, handle, or store flammable or combustible liquids until he/she has successfully completed TTI's training program. This includes all new employees, regardless of claimed previous experience.

6 HSE-CS-16 TETRA Health Safety and Environmental Management System Page 6 of Training provider 5.0 Recordkeeping Personnel providing this training will have a thorough knowledge of the relevant regulations and this standard, understand the specific application of this program to the training audience, and be effective communicators (see Element 7 - Training). 5.1 A copy of the course completion certification or equal must be maintained in accordance with TETRA s Record Retention Guidelines. 5.2 Copies of MSDS s for all flammable and combustible Liquids being stored and used at the facility will be kept on file as defined by Element 3, Attachment C,

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