FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS COMPLIANCE NOTE

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1 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 1 of 7 COMPLIANCE NOTE INTRODUCTION This document provides additional guidance to support the Arrangement on Flammable Liquids (Ref No. CYC/HS/A27) CONTENTS Section Topic Page 1 Safety Management System Arrangement Details 2 2 Definitions 2 3 Possible Risks 3 4 Control Measures Ventilation Ignition Containment Dispensing and Decanting Exchange Separation Storage in the Workplace Storage in Open Air 6 5 Training & Instruction 6 6 Emergency Action 7 7 Smoking 7

2 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 2 of 7 SECTION 1 SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SMS) ARRANGEMENT DETAILS Policy & Objectives To effectively manage the risks associated with flammable liquids. Scope The arrangement applies to all: CYC employees Contractors employed by CYC Others affected by CYC activities Specific Requirements An assessment is made of all the risks associated with flammable liquids; and that adequate control measures are subsequently put in place to reduce these risks Work instructions are in place to ensure all employees working for, or on behalf, of CYC are aware of the safe handling, use, and storage of flammable liquids including action to take in case of emergency All employees working with flammable liquids for, or on behalf of, CYC are appropriately trained Reporting mechanisms are in place to ensure that any incidents are immediately notified CYC Smoking at Work Policy must be followed at all times to minimise the risk of explosion and/or fire. SECTION 2 DEFINITIONS Flashpoint the minimum liquid temperature at which vapour above the liquid will ignite in air. The lower the flashpoint of a liquid, the more flammable it is. Flammable liquid a liquid that has a flashpoint below 55 C This definition also includes: All liquids classified as flammable, highly flammable or extremely flammable for supply according to the Chemicals (Hazard, Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 Highly flammable liquids as defined in the Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquefied Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972 Examples of common flammable liquids include petrol, paint thinners, meths etc. The adjacent sign must be displayed on all containers of flammable liquids.

3 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 3 of 7 SECTION 3 POSSIBLE RISKS The identified risks associated with working with flammable liquids are as follows: Fire Explosion Inhalation, ingestion or absorption through skin of flammable liquids (or their vapours) Flammable liquids can give off large volumes of flammable vapours at room temperature. These vapours, when mixed with air (or an ignition source) can ignite, often violently. Spilled flammable liquids, if not controlled, can flow a long way to an ignition source and then flash back (ignite back to the source of the leak). Spills on clothing can also present a risk. In order to effectively manage these risks, they must first be fully assessed, and a safe system of work developed. The assessment should include all aspects of working with flammable liquids, and include: Hazardous properties of the liquid (ensure appropriate signage of liquids and hazardous areas) How the liquids are to be safely stored, handled and used Effective control measures to put in place to minimise the risk of fire or explosion, that are documented and communicated to all workers Determine what level of training and instruction is required (dependent on level of risk or exposure to flammable liquids) Use of a permit to work system, especially when hot works are involved, or any other process likely to ignite flammable liquids eg maintenance What PPE must be used What action is necessary in case of an emergency situation (including evacuation, disposal of spillages etc) For further information on undertaking risk assessments and workplace instructions see Compliance Note CYC/HS/CN3A&B. Schools may find guidance here: SECTION 4 CONTROL MEASURES The VICES safety principles of Ventilation, Ignition, Containment, Exchange and Separation are control measures that must be considered and applied to all areas where flammable liquids are stored, dispensed and used. 4.1 Ventilation Ensure there is plenty of fresh air where flammable liquids are used and stored eg opening windows, so vapours given off will be dispersed quickly

4 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 4 of 7 Where mechanical or local exhaust ventilation is required, the ventilation systems in premises where flammable liquids are used and stored must ensure that there are at least six air changes per hour Ventilation systems must take into account the possible heavy properties of flammable liquids and their vapours, and extract from both high and low points where required Ventilation systems should exhaust to a safe place in the open air, at least 3 metres above ground level, at least 3 metres from building openings, boundaries and sources of ignition; and away from building eaves and other obstructions. Vent ducts should be arranged so that vapours cannot condense and collect at low points within the ducts. Electric motors used for mechanical or local exhaust ventilation ducting should not be situated in the path of the vapour being extracted (to reduce the risk of ignition). The ductwork itself should be fire-resisting. Ventilation must ensure that the vapour in work areas is reduced to below its flammable level, and also below any recommended exposure limit which would be harmful to health. 4.2 Ignition The comprehensive assessment, removal and effective control of all ignition sources must be undertaken in areas where flammable liquids are stored and used. Common ignition sources include: Naked flames, including welding and cutting equipment (hot works) Smoking Electrical lighting, power circuits and equipment which are not flameproof or intrinsically safe in construction Processes and vehicles that involve friction or the generation of sparks Hot surfaces Static electricity 4.3 Containment Highly flammable liquids held in the workplace must not exceed 50 litres (unless a purpose-constructed store is used). Smaller amounts of highly flammable liquids (up to 50 litres) must only be held in the workplace if they are controlled by being placed in a suitably labelled store container (to prevent spills and loss of vapours). All containers must meet UN specific standards for storage and transport, and be robust with well-fitting lids or tops to resist spillage if knocked over. The material, from which the containers are made, needs to be compatible with the chemical and physical properties of the liquid to ensure that no interaction occurs which might cause leakage. If glass or other fragile containers are used, the packaging should include protection against impact damage, and may also include absorbent material to help contain the contents if a breakage occurs. All containers must be stacked safely, to allow for easy handling, access/egress, and the prompt spotting and removal of any leaking containers. Containers, and storage areas, must clearly identify the flammable hazards of the contents with appropriate symbols

5 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 5 of Dispensing and decanting Dispensing and decanting should be carried out in a way which reduces spills and dangerous releases of flammable vapours. The need for these operations should be assessed and, where possible, minimised. To reduce the risk of spillages, do not dispense, decant or mix flammable liquids in the store area Containers should be designed to minimise spillage, release of vapour and the effects of fire. Small safety containers are available which incorporate the following features: Metal or heavy-duty plastic construction Pouring and/or filling apertures sealed with self-closing spring loaded caps Pouring and/or filling apertures fitted with flame arresters Hoses or other aids when dispensing into small openings Carrying handles for containers with a capacity greater than approximately 2.5 litres Open-topped cans and buckets are not suitable for handling or storing flammable liquids as they increase the risk of spillage and the release of vapours. Drums should be provided with secure closures that can withstand the expected handling conditions without leaking. 4.5 Exchange Can the flammable liquid be eliminated from the process altogether? Consider if the flammable liquid can be exchanged for a less flammable one eg a higher flashpoint Ensure that any replacement substances do not pose an other higher risk to safety or health eg toxic, carcinogenic etc 4.6 Separation It is recommended that flammable liquids are stored well away from other processes and general storage areas. This is best achieved by a physical distance, but alternatively a physical barrier such as a fire-resistant wall or partition may be used. If containers of flammable liquid are stored near other combustible, flammable, toxic, corrosive or oxidising materials, or cylinders of compressed gases, an assessment of the relative hazards needs to be carried out and they should be segregated. The intensity of a fire, or its rate of growth, may be increased if incompatible materials are stored together, for example flammable liquids with oxidising agents. Similarly a fire involving flammable liquids may spread and involve non-combustible substances, for example toxic materials, which could then be widely dispersed. To prevent this type of knock-on effect, separation or segregation is necessary. 4.7 Storage in the workplace In a suitable sealed container; held in a suitable cabinet, bin or other store container In a designated area of the workplace Away from ignition sources, working or process areas Capable of containing any spillage Ensure the provision of spill containment kits Marked with hazard warning signs, indicating the flammable properties of the contents

6 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 6 of 7 Prohibition signs for smoking & naked flames Not contain other substance or items The amount of flammable liquids in the workplace must be minimised eg only hold the amount required for that shift s work; and where possible held in a suitable external store. 4.8 Storage in open air In a well-ventilated area Away from sources of ignition Formal storage and in a clearly defined area, on a concrete pad, with a sump to contain spills Bunded all around to hold content of the largest container, plus an additional 10% Away from other buildings, to minimise the effect of fire on surrounding areas Secure fence and gate, at least two metres high Marked with hazard warning signs, indicating the flammable properties of the contents Prohibition signs for smoking & naked flames Protection from sunlight If lighting is provided within the storage area it must be intrinsically flameproof Provision of spill containment kits Suitable fire fighting equipment nearby Full and empty containers to be separated Clear identification of contents Store like-for-like containers together More details: Disposal of flammable liquids must comply with environmental regulations and follow the supplier s guidance. Associated equipment e.g. contaminated rags, must be appropriately disposed of, ensuring that they do not create a fire risk. SECTION 5 TRAINING & INSTRUCTION All persons working with flammable liquids must be fully trained/instructed in the safe use, handling and storage of any flammable liquids in the workplace, including emergency actions. Records of this training must be kept on the employee s personal file. Training/instruction on induction (and periodic updates where necessary) should include the following: Types of flammable liquids stored, their properties and hazards General procedures for safe handling, use, and storage Use of PPE Housekeeping Reporting of faults, incidents and near misses (including minor leaks & spills) Emergency action

7 Issued by: Heather Rice Page: 7 of 7 SECTION 6 EMERGENCY ACTION In the event of a fire, spill or leak, a H&S Workplace Instruction must be drawn up to cover: Raising the alarm Calling the Fire Brigade Tackling the fire or controlling a spill or leak (where it is safe to do so) Isolating services Shutting down any plant safely Evacuating the area safely Preventing access into the area Notifying adjacent premises Disposal All those working in and around the areas where flammable liquids are used or stored must be instructed in these emergency actions, and notified of any change in process. A CYC Incident Report form must be completed following an incident or near miss. If there is a sudden, uncontrolled release of a flammable liquid as follows, this is classed as a Dangerous Occurrence under RIDDOR and must be reported to the Health and Safety Team immediately: 100 kg or more in a building 500kg or more in the open air SECTION 7 SMOKING To minimise the risk of explosion and/or fire when handling, using and storing flammable liquids, smoking is prohibited. The CYC Smoking at Work Policy must be followed at all times. Disciplinary action will be instigated for employees not following this policy. For further details of the safe handling, use and storage of flammable liquids, refer to the following HSE publications: Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquefied Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972 Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR) (Approved Code of Practice: L138) Safe Use & Handling of Flammable Liquids (HSE, HSG140) Storage of Flammable Liquids in Containers (HSE, HSG51) Safe Working with Flammable Substances (HSE, INDG227)

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