Population issues in South Asia:

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1 Flex 10: Population issues in South Asia: name(s): You should also read the population and settlement section in the South Asia Chapter 12 (pages in red textbook, pages in blue textbook). In addition read the following excerpts from an article concerning Islam and Population planning in South Asia. Excerpts from "Family Planning and Islam: A Review" in Hamdard Islamicus Vol. XVII, No. 3 by Khalid Farooq Akbar "In Pakistan, demographic matters have gained prime importance because of an unprecedented large increase in her population. Pakistan is the ninth most populous country in the world. According to an estimate, it's population was 112 million in 1990 and would increase to 163 million in [1] The population of Pakistan is growing at a rate of 3.0% which is among the highest in the world. [2] This gigantic increase in population has emerged as a matter of great public concern because it is undermining our efforts to raise living standards of our people. It is true that due to mechanized agriculture, use of fertilizers and cultivation of high yielding varieties of grains, agricultural output has increased considerably. Industries are also expanding. But the country is not showing sufficient signs of progress because progress made by Pakistan is being nullified by her rapid population growth. Every year, more than 3.37 million new individuals are added. [3] Due to this population explosion, Pakistan is least able to provide large additions of youngsters with food, clothing and education, and of young adults with jobs, housing and other consumer essentials, while trying to break out of the vicious circle of poverty. The gravity of this crisis, as a cause of impending mass misery, as a threat to social system, and as a major obstacle in the path of our efforts to raise levels of living, had been acknowledged in the '50s. Pakistan is among those countries who first of all started government sponsored population control programmes. But in the last 30 years, after spending nearly five billion rupees on population control campaigns, we have failed to restrain the rate of population growth. [4] There is little evidence of any positive results of these programmes except some slogans printed on postal envelopes and some billboards with jingles. The eighties brought a renewed recognition of the urgency of the population and development question in Pakistan. We are entering or have already entered a phase of net food deficit and can avert food shortages only if we embark upon extensive programmes of modernizing our agriculture and, at the same time, try to limit our population growth to manageable levels. By analysing the cause of failure of family planning programmes in Pakistan-- given the fact that hundreds of millions of rupees have been spent by national and international agencies--it has been felt that ambiguity over the way Islam views family planning has been a primary obstacle to the large scale acceptance of family planning programmes. Many Muslims, including religious scholars, have misperceptions about family planning within the context of Islam. This article is an effort to clear these misconceptions that many Muslims have about the lawfulness of birth control in Islam." Conclusion

2 The early followers of Islam were few and weak in the midst of a vast majority of aggressive and oppressive people. The good of the Muslims then required that there should be a call for the multiplication of their numbers, in order that they might be able at the time to fulfil their responsibilities in defending the mission of Islam and protecting the true religion of Allah against the power and multitudinous adversaries threatening it. But now we find that conditions have changed. We find that the density of population in the world threatens a serious reduction in the living standards of mankind to the extent that many men of thought have been prompted to seek family planning in every country so that the resources may not fall short of ensuring a decent living for it's people to provide public service for them. Islam, as the religion of pristine nature, has never been opposed to what is good to man. Indeed it has always been ahead in the effort towards the achievement of this good so long as it is not in conflict with the purposes of Allah's law. Family planning, understood by Islam, is not opposed to marriage or to the begetting of children, nor does it's concept imply disbelief in the doctrine of fate and Divine dispensation--for Allah Almighty has bestowed reason upon man to enable him to distinguish between the useful and the harmful, and to help him follow the path that would assure him happiness in this world as well as in the world to come. Use the demographic data for Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India to complete the questions below: Bangladesh Demographic Indicators: 2000 and Births per 1,000 population Deaths per 1,000 population Life expectancy at birth (years) Infant deaths per 1,000 live births Total fertility rate (per woman) Midyear Population Estimates and Average Annual Period Growth Rates: 1950 to 2050 (Population in thousands, rate in percent) Midyear Population, by Age and Sex: 2000 and 2025 (Population in thousands) AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL 130,407 66,940 63, , , , ,883 8,177 7,706 20,942 10,774 10, ,894 7,169 6,725 20,251 10,418 9, ,387 9,307 9,080 20,121 10,338 9, ,059 8,795 8,264 19,648 10,076 9, ,286 6,229 6,057 17,599 9,002 8, ,823 5,460 5,363 14,570 7,435 7, ,716 4,381 4,335 12,981 6,627 6, ,474 3,746 3,727 17,336 8,723 8, ,512 3,305 3,208 15,970 8,218 7, ,315 2,787 2,528 11,300 5,737 5, ,108 2,207 1,901 9,654 4,885 4, ,202 1,731 1,471 7,395 3,721 3,674

3 ,444 1,303 1,141 5,880 2,928 2, , ,572 2,275 2, , ,116 1,586 1, , , Pakistan Demographic Indicators: 2000 and Births per 1,000 population Deaths per 1,000 population Annual rate of growth (percent) Life expectancy at birth (years) Infant deaths per 1,000 live births Total fertility rate (per woman) Midyear Population, by Age and Sex: 2000 and 2025 (Population in thousands) AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL 141,554 72,488 69, , , , ,534 10,547 9,987 19,459 9,970 9, ,553 10,079 9,474 19,316 9,907 9, ,939 9,254 8,684 19,241 9,873 9, ,141 7,830 7,311 19,227 9,870 9, ,942 6,700 6,242 19,292 9,905 9, ,706 5,559 5,146 19,204 9,860 9, ,439 4,873 4,566 18,605 9,557 9, ,711 3,957 3,754 16,909 8,691 8, ,391 3,233 3,159 14,057 7,230 6, ,998 2,481 2,517 11,821 6,068 5, ,920 1,913 2,006 9,595 4,921 4, ,498 1,721 1,777 8,229 4,166 4, ,987 1,484 1,503 6,396 3,175 3, ,317 1,149 1,168 4,874 2,336 2, , ,296 1,506 1, , , , , ,041 India Demographic Indicators: 2000 and Births per 1,000 population Deaths per 1,000 population Life expectancy at birth (years) Infant deaths per 1,000 live births Total fertility rate (per woman) Midyear Population, by Age and Sex: 2000 and 2025 (Population in thousands) AGE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL 1,002, , ,329 1,361, , ,279 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, October 2002 version

4 1. What are the crude population densities of Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India given the areas are 144,000 sq km, 804,000 sq km, and 3,300,000 sq km respectively. (show your work) Bangladesh = 130,400,000/144,000 = 905 people/sq km Pakistan = 141,000,000/804,000 = 175 people/sq km India 1,003,000,000/3,300,000 = 303 people/sq km 2. Calculate the RNIs for Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India in (Show your work) RNI = (Crude Births Crude Deaths) per 1000 people Bangladesh = (29-9) = 20 per 1000 people or 2% Pakistan = (32-10) = 22 per 1000 people or 2.2% India = (25-9) =16 per 1000 people or 1.6% 3. Use the graph paper to construct population pyramids based on 2000 data for Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Graph each age cohort (y-axis) by numbers or percentages (x-axis). An example for India is shown in figure 1: Bangladesh

5 Pakistan 4. What are the total fertility rates for Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India? Bangladesh = 3.2 Pakistan = 4.6 India = Looking at crude population densities alone, which of the three nations is under the most spatial pressure to use family planning methods to control population? Bangladesh has the densest population at 905 people per sq km. 6. Use the population data and statistics you have calculated to draft a statement supporting which nation appears to be the furthest in the demographic transition and include which stage of the transition the nation likely is in currently. Although India has a wide base or a large young population it does have relatively more people living into the higher age cohorts. This is indicative of a better health care system and development. India has the lowest TFR and RNI which indicate that a number of things could be occurring to slow population growth such as economic development, improving the status of women and men through education, ands/or the implementation of family planning programs. Based on these data and comparative analysis India appears to be furthest along in the demographic transition; most likely in the beginning transition of stage According to your textbook what are the family planning methods employed in each nation draft statements about how family planning metods have these methods been or not been successful in changing population growth rates and in particular influencing TFR's. India: India has had areas that have been very successful at lowering population rates through family planning and have seen the most dramatic increases where women's literacy rates have increased. Sterilization is one method of family planning practiced in India. 27% of India's married women are now sterilized and male sterilization is also common.

6 Pakistan Pakistan appear to have an ambivalent attitude toward family planning and does not have an effective coordinated effort towards lowering birth rates. As a result TFR remains the highest in the region. **side note. The 2000 data on this worksheet shows substantial improvement over the figures in the textbook. Which data source is correct? Bangladesh: Due to the intense pressures of overpopulation the Bangladeshi government has aggressively pursued family planning. It has seen the most significant decreases in TFR over the past 3 decades. The emphasis of family planning has revolved around oral contraception. In addition the economic development strides associated with the Grameen Bank have probably played a role in decreasing TFR as well.

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