Critical Thinking ANALOGIES. Skills Worksheet

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1 Skills Worksheet Critical Thinking ANALOGIES In the space provided, write the letter of the pair of terms or phrases that best complete the analogy shown. An analogy is a relationship between two pairs of words or phrases written as a : b :: c : d. The symbol : is read is to, and the symbol :: is read as. 1. demography : populations:: a. ecology : atmosphere c. meteorology : weather b. infant mortality : death rate d. agriculture : farming 2. age structure : population pyramid :: a. exponential growth : population growth b. survivorship : survivorship curve c. fertility rate : replacement level d. population growth : increased food production 3. immigration : population increase :: a. migration : population decrease b. emigration : movement out of an area c. migration : movement into an area d. emigration : population decrease 4. preindustrial stage : small, stable population :: a. transitional stage : population explosion b. industrial stage : large, stable population c. transitional stage : low growth rate d. post industrial stage : population explosion 5. infrastructure : community :: a. wood : fuel for cooking b. resource depletion : standard of living c. foundation : house d. drinking and washing : water supply 6. suburban sprawl : traffic jams:: a. overpopulation : wildlife habitat b. unmanaged water supply : cholera c. deforestation : fuelwood d. nutrition : replacement rate 7. family planning : fertility rate :: a. wood : fuel source b. education : infant mortality rate c. economic incentives : replacement level d. survivorship : life expectancy Holt Environmental Science 3 The Human Population

2 Critical Thinking continued INTERPRETING OBSERVATIONS Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) met in 1994 to discuss ways to slow the growth of the world population before Earth s resources are no longer able to support its population. The goals of the ICPD are to stabilize population growth by helping countries to develop and by helping improve the status of women. By 2015, the ICPD hopes to achieve these goals by providing access to safe and reliable family-planning methods, reducing infant and maternal mortality rates, increasing life expectancy, and achieving universal access to primary education. 8. How does improving the status of women influence the fertility rate? 9. How does decreasing infant mortality rate affect population growth? 10. What are some ways that more access to primary education could be provided in less-developed regions of the world? Holt Environmental Science 4 The Human Population

3 Critical Thinking continued AGREE OR DISAGREE Agree or disagree with the following statements and support your answer. 11. Population-related problems are primarily the concern of developing countries. 12. Life expectancy in less-developed regions will always be lower than in moredeveloped regions. 13. Only developed countries are urbanized. Holt Environmental Science 5 The Human Population

4 Critical Thinking continued REFINING CONCEPTS The statements below challenge you to refine your understanding of concepts covered in the chapter. Think carefully and answer the questions that follow. 14. Compare and contrast Stage 1 and Stage 3 of the demographic transition. 15. Explain how rapid population growth can put a strain on resources and the environment and give examples to support your answer. 16. What kinds of unexpected events or patterns might change the prediction of a human population of 9 billion by 2050? Holt Environmental Science 6 The Human Population

5 TEACHER RESOURCE PAGE Answer Key Concept Review MATCHING 1. f 6. i 2. b 7. d 3. g 8. e 4. c 9. h 5. a 10. j MULTIPLE CHOICE 11. b 18. c 12. b 19. a 13. b 20. a 14. c 21. b 15. c 22. c 16. d 23. d 17. a 24. a Critical Thinking ANALOGIES 1. c 5. c 2. b 6. b 3. d 7. b 4. b INTERPRETING OBSERVATIONS 8. Educated women are more likely to have children that survive, have greater access to family planning techniques, and are more likely to contribute to the family income while spending less time bearing and raising children. 9. As infant mortality drops, there may be more births than deaths and the population will increase rapidly. However, families where the children are more likely to survive begin having fewer children. Eventually, the total fertility rate begins to drop, and over time, the total population drops. 10. Answers may vary. Sample answers may include: building more schools, training teachers or providing teachers from other countries, and giving incentives for sending children to school. AGREE OR DISAGREE 11. Accept any thoughtful answer. Sample answer: Disagree; While many of the day-to-day population problems are felt most keenly by developing countries, the problems ultimately affect all countries, and most countries contribute to these problems as well. Developed countries do not usually have surging populations, but they do consume a much larger share of the world s resources than do developing countries. Developing countries tend to face the more obvious problems associated with population growth, including air and water pollution, overcrowding, high infant mortality, and problems with food distribution. 12. Accept any thoughtful answer. Sample answer: Agree; Although life expectancy is rising in less developed regions due to lower infant mortality rates, life expectancy in more developed regions also continues to increase due to medical advances. 13. Accept any thoughtful answer. Sample answer: Disagree. A high degree of industrialization and development is not a requirement for urbanization. Urbanization can occur anywhere that population is concentrating in cities, often after migration from rural areas. These cities need not be supported by modern infrastructure and can in fact be manifestations of unmanaged growth. REFINING CONCEPTS 14. During Stage 1 of the demographic transition, both birth and death rates are high, and the population grows slowly if at all. Therefore, the population is stable. In Stage 3, population growth is also stable, but that is because the birth rate has now fallen equal to the now-low death rate. Thus, the two stages are similar in that birth and death rates roughly cancel each other out in both stages. Stages 1 and 3 differ in that birth and death rates are both high in Stage 1, while they are both low in Stage If a population grows too rapidly, it will use resources faster than the environ- Holt Environmental Science 86 The Human Population

6 TEACHER RESOURCE PAGE ment can renew them. Wood, for example, is often used as the main fuel source for cooking and for boiling water. In a rapidly growing population, wood will be used for fuel more rapidly than new trees can be grown to replace those that are cut down. 16. Accept any thoughtful answer. Sample answer: As has been the case with AIDS, previously unknown diseases may emerge that will raise death rates and slow growth. Outbreaks of war may also reduce populations. On the other hand, technologies that prolong human life span may develop, and technological shifts may change fertility patterns. Active Reading SECTION: STUDYING HUMAN POPULATIONS 1. b 3. b 2. a 4. d 5. life expectancy; the average number of years a person is likely to live 6. Most want a low infant mortality rate because it means that most infants survive. 7. Infant mortality decreased and life expectancy increased between 1900 and d 9. d SECTION: CHANGING POPULATION TRENDS 1. wood 2. stable 3. living trees 4. parasites, diseases 5. Answers may vary. The population that once took only deadwood begins cutting down live trees. There is less wood available every year. Eventually, the population uses up all of the available wood. 6. Deadwood is fallen tree limbs Fuelwood allows a person to boil water and cook food. 13. People may experience disease, malnutrition, and degradation of the environment. Map Skills 1. the East Coast 2. western and midwestern sections of the country 3. 9, Areas near water are more densely populated. Answers may vary but should mention the importance of water for transportation, communication, and supporting life. 5. Answers may vary but students should locate the general area where they live and provide at least one geographic factor that might logically affect its population density. Quiz SECTION: STUDYING HUMAN POPULATIONS Matching Multiple Choice 1. c 6. c 2. a 7. a 3. b 8. b 4. d 9. b 5. b 10. d SECTION: CHANGING POPULATION TRENDS Matching Multiple Choice 1. c 6. a 2. b 7. d 3. a 8. c 4. c 9. d 5. b 10. c Chapter Test General MATCHING MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. g 11. a 2. f 12. c 3. e 13. d 4. b 14. c 5. a 15. d 6. d 16. b 7. i 17. c 8. h 18. a 9. c 19. d 10. j 20. c Holt Environmental Science 87 The Human Population

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