English Syntax. Syntax and its Interaction with the Interfaces. Winkler WS 05-06

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1 English Syntax Syntax and its Interaction with the Interfaces Winkler WS

2 The main goal of this seminar is to bring together the core areas of linguistic research with the main aim of showing how the individual components work together when people use language to communicate. The seminar concentrates on three areas. 1. Approaches to the grammar of English 2. Structure of sentences 3. Movements 4. Interfaces of syntax 2

3 We will discuss different approaches to the study of language (traditional, formal, cognitive, minimalist) and relate them to different resulting grammars (types of theoretical adequacies). In doing this, we will concentrate on the structural aspects of meaning with a special emphasis on the formation and interpretation of words (morphology), phrases, sentences (syntax) and their interaction at the interfaces. 3

4 Schedule: Introduction: English Syntax Ex. 1.1, Ch. 1: Grammar Ex. 2.1, Ch. 2: Words Ex. 3.1, Ch. 3: Structure Ex. 4.1, Ch. 4: Null Constituents Ex. 5.1, Revision t.b.a Ch. 5: Head Movement Ex. 6.1, Ch. 6: Wh-Movement Ex. 2,1, Revision 4

5 Logical Form (Radford et al.) Ex. 7.1, Ch. 7: A-movement Ex. 8.1, Ch. 8: Agreement, Case, Movement Revision and Exam prep Final Exam

6 Course Book: Syntax: Radford, Andrew (2004) English Syntax: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Additional Resources: Radford, Andrew; Atkinson Martin; Britain, David; Clahsen, Harald; Spencer, Andrew (1999) Linguistics: An Introduction Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. [Ch. 23: ] Radford, Andrew (2004) Minimalist Syntax: Exploring the Structure of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 6

7 Introduction to English Linguistics Instructors: Susanne Winkler Main Contact: Office Hours: - Thursday 4 pm - right after the seminar, R or by appointment: 7

8 Introduction to English Linguistics Tutor: Ulli Alter Tutorial: Tuesday, 12-13, R. 119 mandatory First Tutorial: Tuesday, 25th of October Prepare exercise: 1.1 in Radford (2004) Come prepared to the tutorial. 8

9 What is linguistics? Definition: Linguistics is the science of natural (i.e. human) language. The study of language is the study of one aspect of human psychology, that is the human mind. 9

10 What do we do when we study a language? Tree basic questions: 1. What constitutes knowledge of language? 2. How is knowledge of language acquired? 3. How is knowledge of language put to use? The seminar addresses the first question in depth. The second question will be taken up in the exercises. 10

11 The Learner Phonetics Phonology Syntax Morphology Semantics Pragmatics Universal Language Comparative Linguistics Language Typology 11

12 The Learner: First Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition The child is playing the language-game. (Wittgenstein) The child automatically engages in communication verbal and nonverbal. 12

13 Discourse Phonetics Phonology Syntax Morphology Semantics Pragmatics Universal Language Comparative Linguistics Language Typology 13

14 First Orientation: What s in a language? Linguistic Knowledge Discourse World Knowledge 14

15 First Orientation: What s in a language? Do you have a watch? No, sorry. But I think it s about six. 15

16 First Orientation: What s in a language? Do you smoke? No thanks. Oh, I wasn t offering. I just wanted to know if you did. Harry Kemelman, Sunday the Rabbi stayed home. 16

17 First Orientation: What s in a language? Linguistic Knowledge Communicative situation Discourse Communicative intentions World Knowledge Social Interaction 17

18 The language learner s view: What s in a language? 1. Sounds (Phonetics/Phonology and Meaning) 2. Words (Morphology and Meaning) 3. Sentences (Syntax and Meaning) 4. Utterances (Discourse and Meaning) 18

19 Slips of the Tongue: What are they and what can they tell us? When you say something by accident - something which you did not mean or plan to say - you have made a slip of the tongue. 19

20 Slips of the Tongue: What can they tell us? Slips of the tongue can provide an insight into language planning and production. 20

21 Slip of the Tongue 01: Phonetics "What does it mean when 25 percent of our children in Harlem have asthma because of hair pollution? We can do better. America can do better. And help is on the way." (John Kerry) 21

22 Phonetics Definition: The study of the inventory and structure of the sounds of language. (O Grady et al.) 22

23 Phonology Definition: The component of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds pattern in a language. (O Grady et al.) 23

24 Phonetics and Phonology: Dretzke, B. (1998) Modern British and American English Pronunciation. UTB. Stevenson, J. (2002) The Complete Idiot s Guide to Philosophy (2nd Edition). Alpha Books. *O Grady, W. et al. Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. Longman Press: Chapters 2 & 3. Roach, P (ed.), et al. (2003) Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary (16th Edition). Klett. Robins, H. (1997) A Short History of Linguistics (4th Edition). Longman Press. *Yule, G. (1996) The Study of Language (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press. Chapters 5 & 6. 24

25 Slip of the Tongue 02: Morphology or Semantics? "...but to strengthen American forces that are now overstretched, overextended, and under pressure, we will double our special forces to conduct terrorist operations..." (John Kerry) 25

26 Introduction to English Linguistics Q1: What did Kerry intend to say? Q2: How do we know? Q3: How can we characterize anti-? Q4: Where does anti- occur? Q5: What does anti- mean? 26

27 The morpheme anti: - anti- is a prefix; - anti- can be prefixed to both nouns (anti-missile, anti-matter) and adjectives (anti-social); - anti- means being not in favor of ; - anti-terrorist attacks: means being not in favor of terrorist attacks. 27

28 Morphology Definition: The system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation. (O Grady et al.) 28

29 Semantics Definition: The study of meaning in human language. (O Grady et al.) 29

30 Slip of the Tongue 03: Semantics or Logic? We are here 282 years after right here in Boston we fought to establish the freedoms of America." (Rev. Al Sharpton) 30

31 Or perhaps Morphology? Note: = 228 Two-hundred-and-twenty-eight vs. Two-hundred-and-eighty-two 31

32 Syntax: Definition: The system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language. (O Grady et al.) 32

33 Information Packaging 04: Complex Syntax - Complex Meaning? Let's respect one another. And let's never misuse for political purposes the most precious document in American history, the Constitution of the United States. (John Kerry) 33

34 Claim: English Word Order is SVO (T/F?) S V O We should respect one another. V (S) V O Let 's respect one another. 34

35 Introduction to English Linguistics Claim: English Complement Order is Direct Object before Prepositional Phrase (T/F?) And let's never misuse [for political purposes] the most precious document in American history, the Constitution of the United States [for political purposes] 35

36 Nonstandard English Slip of the Tongue 05: Competence vs. Performance George W. Bush: Profile: George Walker Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut. He grew up in Midland and Houston, Texas. Bush was educated at Phillips Academy (Andover), (September ) and at Yale University, CT. 36

37 Nonstandard English 37

38 Nonstandard English 38

39 Pragmatics: Definition: The study of the relations between language and context that are basic to an account of language understanding. (Levinson 1983, 21) 39

40 Introduction to English Linguistics Information Packaging 05: Syntax, Intonation and Pragmatics I think I know a great leader when I see one and so does America. (Hillary Clinton, DNC, 2004) 40

41 500 and so does America Time (s) 41

42 Contour description The contour is characterized by three accents: - a fall-rise on So, - a fall on the auxiliary does and - a contrastive sentence final accent on America. 42

43 Intonation: Definition: Intonation refers to the use of suprasegmental phonetic features (pitch movements/melody) to convey sentencelevel pragmatic meanings in a linguistically structured way. (Ladd 1996, 6). 43

44 Intonational Phonology: Definition: The elements and principles that determine the intonation of an utterance. (SW) 44

45 PD Dr. Susanne Winkler Universität Tübingen Intonation, Discourse and Meaning Q1: What does and so does America mean? Q2: What does so refer to? Q3: How can we find out? Use PARAPHRASES! I think I know a great leader when I see one a. and America knows a great leader when she sees one. b. *and so does America know a great leader when she sees one. 45

46 Summary 1. Sounds (Phonetics/Phonology and Meaning) 2. Words (Morphology and Meaning) 3. Sentences (Syntax, Intonation and Meaning) 4. Utterances (Discourse and Meaning) Final Question: what are interfaces? 46

47 Introduction to English Linguistics Model of Grammar in The Minimalist Program [Chomsky 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002] Lexicon Syntax syntactic structure PF component semantic component PF representation SPEECH SYSTEMS semantic representation THOUGHT SYSTEMS 47

48 Introduction to English Linguistics Assignments 1. Buy the Radford (2004)-book 2. Read Radford (2004), Chapter 1 3. Start with Chapter Do exercise 1.1 until tomorrow 48

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